Xerxes or Ahasuerus / אחשוורוש I Ahasuerus King of King of Persia, I (c.-519 - c.-465) MP

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Nicknames: "Xerxes", "Ahasuerus", "אחשוורוש", "The Ruler of Heroes"
Birthplace: of, Babylon
Death: Died in Babylon
Occupation: aka Neithiyti, Ahasuerus (Assuerus); 3rd PHARAOH of the 27th Dynasty of EGYPT; Khshayarsha Xerxes I 'the Great', Storkonung Shah av Persien 486-465 f.K
Managed by: Jennifer Kathryn Vaughn
Last Updated:

About Xerxes or Ahasuerus / אחשוורוש I Ahasuerus King of King of Persia, I

ID: I62232

Name: XERXES @ OF PERSIA

Prefix: King

Given Name: XERXES @

Surname: OF PERSIA

Nickname: The Great

Sex: M

_UID: 58ED78E76F167840B00BE5CDD3AD92319198

Change Date: 26 Nov 2005

Note:

Xerxes I (Persian Khshayarsha) (circa 519-465 bc), king of Persia (486-465 bc), the son of Darius I and Atossa (flourished 6th century bc), daughter of Cyrus the Great. Ascending the throne upon the death of his father, he subdued a rebellion in Egypt, and then spent three years preparing a great fleet and army to punish the Greeks for aiding the Ionian cities in 498 bc and for their victory over the Persians at Marathon in 490 bc. The Greek historian Herodotus gives as the combined strength of Xerxes’ land and naval forces the incredible total of 2,641,610 warriors, but it was probably between 200,000 and 300,000. Xerxes is said to have crossed the Hellespont by a bridge of boats more than a kilometer in length and to have cut a canal through the isthmus of Mount Athos. During the spring of 480 bc he marched with his forces through Thrace, Thessaly (Thessalia), and Locris. At Thermopylae 300 Spartans, under their king, Leonidas I, and 1100 other Greeks made a courageous but futile stand, delaying the Persians for ten days. Xerxes then advanced into Attica and burned Athens, which had been abandoned by the Greeks. At the Battle of Salamís later in 480 bc, however, his fleet was defeated by a contingent of Greek warships commanded by the Athenian Themistocles. Xerxes thereupon retired to Asia Minor, leaving his army in Greece under the command of his brother-in-law, Mardonius, who was slain at Plataea the following year. Xerxes was murdered at Persepolis by Artabanus, captain of the palace guard; he was succeeded by his son Artaxerxes I (reigned 465-425 bc). Xerxes is generally identified as the Ahasuerus of the Book of Esther.

© 1993-2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Birth: ABT 519

Death: 465

Father: DARIUS @ OF PERSIA b: 558 BC

Mother: Atossa of Persia

Marriage 1 Esther

Married:

Children

Artaxerxes I of Persia

Forrás / Source:

http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=jdp-fam&id=I62232

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Xerxes I, King of Persia, was born circa 519 BC, Persia; died circa 465 BC, Persia.

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xerxes_I_of_Persia

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Birth: 519 B.C.

Death: 465 B.C.

General Notes

Note: Also Pharaoh of Egypt

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xerxes_I_of_Persia

Xerxes I of Persia (English: /ˈzɜrksiːz/; Old Persian: خشایارشا (Ḫšayāršā), IPA: [xʃajaːrʃaː]; also known as Xerxes the Great, was the fourth Zoroastrian king of kings of the Achamenid Empire.

Immediately after seizing the kingship, Darius I of Persia (son of Hystaspes) married Atossa (daughter of Cyrus the Great). They were both descendants of Achaemenes from different Achaemenid lines. Marrying a daughter of Cyrus strengthened Darius' position as king.[1] Darius was an active emperor, busy with building programs in Persepolis, Susa, Egypt, and elsewhere. Toward the end of his reign he moved to punish Athens, but a new revolt in Egypt (probably led by the Persian satrap) had to be suppressed. Under Persian law, the Achaemenian kings were required to choose a successor before setting out on such serious expeditions. Upon his great decision to leave (487-486 BC)[2], Darius prepared his tomb at Naqsh-e Rostam and appointed Xerxes, his eldest son by Atossa, as his successor. Darius' failing health then prevented him from leading the campaigns,[3] and he died in October 486 BC.[3]

Xerxes was not the oldest son of Darius and according to old Iranian traditions should not have succeeded the King. Xerxes was however the oldest son of Darius and Atossa hence descendent of Cyrus. This made Xerxes the chosen King of Persia.[4] Some modern scholars also view the unusual decision of Darius to give the throne to Xerxes to be a result of his consideration of the unique positions that Cyrus the Great and his daughter Atossa have had.[5] Artobazan was born to "Darius the subject", while Xerxes was the eldest son born in the purple after Darius' rise to the throne, and Artobazan's mother was a commoner while Xerxes' mother was the daughter of the founder of the empire.[6]

Xerxes was crowned and succeeded his father in October-December 486 BC[7] when he was about 36 years old.[2] The transition of power to Xerxes was smooth due again in part to great authority of Atossa[1] and his accession of royal power was not challenged by any person at court or in the Achaemenian family, or any subject nation.[8]

Almost immediately, he suppressed the revolts in Egypt and Babylon that had broken out the year before, and appointed his brother Achaemenes as governor or satrap (Old Persian: khshathrapavan) over Egypt. In 484 BC, he outraged the Babylonians by violently confiscating and melting down[9] the golden statue of Bel (Marduk, Merodach), the hands of which the rightful king of Babylon had to clasp each New Year's Day. This sacrilege led the Babylonians to rebel in 484 BC and 482 BC, so that in contemporary Babylonian documents, Xerxes refused his father's title of King of Babylon, being named rather as King of Persia and Media, Great King, King of Kings (Shahanshah) and King of Nations (i.e. of the world).

Although Herodotus' report in the Histories has created certain problems concerning Xerxes' religious beliefs, modern scholars consider him as a Zoroastrian.

In the year 465 BC Xerxes was murdered by Artabanus, the commander of the royal bodyguard and the most powerful official in Persian court (Hazarapat/commander of thousand). He was promoted to this most prestigious of positions in Achamenid court after his refusal to help Mardonius in Plataea and instead withdrawing the second Persian army successfully out of Greece. Although he bore the same name as famed uncle of Xerxes, a Hyrcanian, his rise to prominence was due to his popularity in religious quarters of the court and harem intrigues. He put his seven sons in key positions and had an effective master plan to dethrone Achamenids.[11] In August, 465 B.C he assassinated Xerxes with the help of a eunuch Aspamitres. Greek historians give contradicting accounts on the full story. According to Ctesias (in Persica 20), he then accused the crown prince Darius (Xerxes' eldest son) of the murder; he instigated Artaxerxes (another of Xerxes' son), to avenge the patricide. But according to Aristotle (in Politics 5.1311b), Artabanus killed Darius first and then the king himself. Later on after discovering what he had done and planned for the royal power, Artabanus together with his sons were killed by Artaxerxes I.[12] Participating in the scuffles was also general Megabyzus (baghabukhsha) whose side switching probably saved the day for Achamenids.[13]

Darius left to his son the task of punishing the Athenians, Naxians, and Eretrians for their interference in the Ionian Revolt and their victory over the Persians at Marathon. From 483 BC Xerxes prepared his expedition: A channel was dug through the isthmus of the peninsula of Mount Athos, provisions were stored in the stations on the road through Thrace, two bridges were built across the Hellespont. Soldiers of many nationalities served in the armies of Xerxes, including the Assyrians, Phoenicians, Babylonians, Indians, Egyptians, Jews, and Arabs.

According to the Greek historian Herodotus, Xerxes' first attempt to bridge the Hellespont ended in failure when a storm destroyed the flax and papyrus bridge; Xerxes ordered the Hellespont (the strait itself) whipped three hundred times and had fetters thrown into the water. Xerxes' second attempt to bridge the Hellespont was successful.[15] Xerxes concluded an alliance with Carthage, and thus deprived Greece of the support of the powerful monarchs of Syracuse and Agrigentum. Many smaller Greek states, moreover, took the side of the Persians, especially Thessaly, Thebes and Argos. Xerxes set out in the spring of 480 BC from Sardis with a fleet and army which Herodotus claimed was more than two million strong with at least 10,000 elite warriors named Persian Immortals. Xerxes was victorious during the initial battles.

At the Battle of Thermopylae, a small force of Greek warriors led by King Leonidas of Sparta resisted the much larger Persian forces, but were ultimately defeated. According to Herodotus, the Persians broke the Spartan phalanx after a Greek man called Ephialtes betrayed his country by telling the Persians of another pass around the mountains. After Thermopylae, Athens was captured and the Athenians and Spartans were driven back to their last line of defense at the Isthmus of Corinth and in the Saronic Gulf. The delay caused by the Spartans allowed Athens to be evacuated.

What happened next is a matter of some controversy. According to Herodotus, upon encountering the deserted city, in an uncharacteristic fit of rage particularly for Persian kings, Xerxes had Athens burned. He almost immediately regretted this action and ordered it rebuilt the very next day[citation needed]. However, Persian scholars dispute this view as pan-Hellenic propaganda [citation needed], arguing that Sparta, not Athens, was Xerxes' main foe in his Greek campaigns, and that Xerxes would have had nothing to gain by destroying a major center of trade and commerce like Athens once he had already captured it.

At that time, anti-Persian sentiment was high among many mainland Greeks, and the rumor that Xerxes had destroyed the city was a popular one, though it is equally likely the fire was started by accident as the Athenians were frantically fleeing the scene in pandemonium[citation needed], or that it was an act of "scorched earth" warfare to deprive Xerxes' army of the spoils of the city. Unfortunately, regardless of the circumstances the damage was done and Xerxes considered the capture of Athens as the only major mistake in his military career.

At Artemisium, large storms had destroyed ships from the Greek side and so the battle stopped prematurely as the Greeks received news of the defeat at Thermopylae and retreated. Xerxes was induced by the message of Themistocles (against the advice of Artemisia of Halicarnassus) to attack the Greek fleet under unfavourable conditions, rather than sending a part of his ships to the Peloponnesus and awaiting the dissolution of the Greek armies. The Battle of Salamis (September 29, 480 BC) was won by the Greek fleet. Although the loss was a setback, it was not a disaster as some Greek historians have claimed, and Xerxes set up a winter camp in Thessaly.

Due to unrest in Babylon, Xerxes was forced to send his army home to prevent a revolt, leaving behind an army in Greece under Mardonius, who was defeated the following year at Plataea.[17] The Greeks also attacked and burned the remaining Persian fleet anchored at Mycale. This cut off the Persians from the supplies they needed to sustain their massive army, and they had no choice but to retreat. Their withdrawal roused the Greek city-states of Asia.

After the military blunders in Greece, Xerxes returned to Persia and completed the many construction projects left unfinished by his father at Susa and Persepolis. He built the Gate of all Nations and the Hall of a Hundred Columns at Persepolis, which are the largest and most imposing structures of the palace. He completed the Apadana, the Palace of Darius and the Treasury all started by Darius as well as building his own palace which was twice the size of his father's. His taste in architecture was similar to that of Darius, though on an even more gigantic scale[18]. He also maintained the Royal Road built by his father and completed the Susa Gate and built a palace at Susa.[19]

Xerxes is the protagonist of the opera "Serse" by the German-English Baroque composer George Frideric Handel. It was first performed in King's Theatre in London on 15 April 1738.

Later generations' fascination with ancient Sparta, and particularly the Battle of Thermopylae, has led to Xerxes' portrayal in a number of works of popular culture. For instance, he was played by David Farrar in the 1962 film The 300 Spartans, where he is portrayed as a cruel, power-crazed despot and an inept commander. He also features prominently in the graphic novel 300 by Frank Miller, as well as the movie adaptation (portrayed by Brazilian actor Rodrigo Santoro).

Other works dealing with the Persian Empire or the Biblical story of Esther have also referenced Xerxes, such as the video game Assassin's Creed II and the film One Night with the King, in which Ahasueras (Xerxes) was portrayed by British actor Luke Goss. He is the leader of the Persian Empire in the video game Civilization II (along with Scheherazade) and III, although Civilization IV replaces him with Cyrus the Great.

-------------------- Källa: This lineage contains several unsubstianted links---submitted by Leo van de Pas)http://worldroots.com/~brigitte/famous/k/khshayarshaline.htm

Great King of Persia 486-465 BC. From here the descendency until Anna of Byzantium 886-914 (daughter of Leo VI *The Wise*, Emp. of Byzantium 886-912) is not 100% sure but according to Christian Settipani it is most likely. Source: Leo van de Pas.

http://www.genealogics.org/index.php

Xerxes I, eg Khashâyârshâ (خشایارشا), död 465 f.Kr., var en persisk storkonung tillhörande den akemenidiska dynastin som regerade 485-465 f.Kr.. Han var son till Dareios I och Kyros I:s dotter Atossa, samt far till Artaxerxes I. Han var farfar till Xerxes II.

Xerxes lyckades genom sin moders intriger vid sin faders död, 485 f.Kr., bestiga tronen med förbigående av Dareios I:s äldre söner med en annan gemål, vilka var födda före faderns regeringstillträde. Efter att ha kuvat det avfälliga Egypten tog Xerxes upp sin faders krigsplaner mot Grekland. Kriget skulle denna gång utkämpas både till lands och sjöss, och efter tre års förberedelser bröt Xerxes upp år 480 f.Kr. med en stor armé.

Efter den dyrköpta segern i slaget vid Thermopyle 480 f. Kr. följde så nederlagen i slaget vid Salamis 480 f.Kr. vilket han med egna ögon bevittnade, slaget vid Plataiai 479 f.Kr. och slaget vid Mykale 479 f.Kr. vilka krossade Xerxes förhoppningar. Han mördades 465 f. Kr. av sin gunstling Artabanos. Xerxes I efterträddes av sonen Artaxerxes I.

Sannolikt är det samme Xerxes som i Bibeln (Esters bok) omtalas under namnet Ahasveros.

Xerxes the Great was a Persian Emperor (Shahanshah) (reigned 485 BC–465 BC) of the Achaemenid dynasty. Xérxēs (Ξέρξης) is the Greek form of the Old Persian throne name Xšayāršā, meaning "Ruler of heroes"[2] (in Modern Persian: خشایارشا, Khšāyāršā). The English pronunciation is /'zɝk siːz/.

Xerxes was son of Darius I and Atossa, the daughter of Cyrus the Great. After his accession in October 485 BC he suppressed the revolts in Egypt and Babylon that had broken out in 486 BC and appointed his brother Achaemenes as governor or satrap over Egypt (Old Persian: khshathrapavan), bringing Egypt under very strict rule. His predecessors, especially Darius, had not been successful in their attempts to conciliate the ancient civilizations. This probably was the reason why Xerxes in 484 BC took away from Babylon the golden statue of Bel (Marduk, Merodach), the hands of which the legitimate king of Babylon had to seize on the first day of each year, and killed the priest who tried to hinder him. Therefore Xerxes does not bear the title of King in the Babylonian documents dated from his reign, but King of Persia and Media or simply King of countries (i.e. of the world). This proceeding led to two rebellions, probably in 484 BC and 479 BC.

Invasion of the Greek mainland

Main article: Greco-Persian Wars

Darius left to his son the task of punishing the Athenians, Naxians, and Eretrians for their interference in the Ionian revolt and their defeat of the Persians at Marathon. From 483 BC Xerxes prepared his expedition with great care: A channel was dug through the isthmus of the peninsula of Mount Athos, provisions were stored in the stations on the road through Thrace, two bridges were thrown across the Hellespont. According to Herodotus, Xerxes' first attempt to bridge the Hellespont ended in failure when a storm destroyed the flax and papyrus bridge; Xerxes ordered the Hellespont (the strait itself) whipped three hundred times and had fetters thrown into the water. Xerxes' second attempt to bridge the Hellespont was successful.[3] Xerxes concluded an alliance with Carthage, and thus deprived Greece of the support of the powerful monarchs of Syracuse and Agrigentum. Many smaller Greek states, moreover, took the side of the Persians, especially Thessaly, Thebes, and Argos. Xerxes, with a large fleet and army (Herodotus the Greek historian claimed that there were over 2 million soldiers), set out in the spring of 480 BC from Sardis. Xerxes was victorious during the initial battles.

At the Battle of Thermopylae, a small force of warriors, led by King Leonidas, resisted the much larger Persian forces, but were ultimately defeated. After Thermopylae, Athens was conquered, and the Athenians and Spartans were driven back to their last line of defense at the Isthmus of Corinth and in the Saronic Gulf. At Artemisium, the battle was indecisive as large storms had destroyed ships from the Greek side. The battle was also stopped prematurely as the Greeks learned news of the defeat at Thermopylae and retreated. But Xerxes was induced by the message of Themistocles (against the advice of Artemisia of Halicarnassus) to attack the Greek fleet under unfavourable conditions, rather than sending a part of his ships to the Peloponnesus and awaiting the dissolution of the Greek armies. The Battle of Salamis (September 29, 480 BC) was won by the Athenians. Although the loss was a setback it was not a disaster and Xerxes set up a winter camp in Thessaly. Due to unrest in Babylon Xerxes was forced to send his army home to prevent a revolt leaving behind an army in Greece under Mardonius who was defeated the following year at Plataea in 479 BC.[4] The defeat of the Persians at Mycale roused the Greek cities of Asia.

Of the later years of Xerxes, little is known. He sent out Sataspes to attempt the circumnavigation of Africa. He left inscriptions at Persepolis, where he added a new palace to that of Darius, at Van, now in present day Turkey, and on Mount Elvend near Ecbatana. In these texts he merely copies the words of his father. In 465 he was murdered by his vizier, Artabanus, who raised Artaxerxes I to the throne.

In the Bible

Xerxes is also believed by some scholars to be Ahasuerus, the King in the biblical Book of Esther,[5][6] though some Jewish scholars are skeptical about this.[7]

The Judeo-Roman historian Josephus took the historical existence of Vashti and Esther as fact,[8] though the works of Herodotus suggest that Xerxes had a Queen consort named Amestris, daughter to Otanes.

Children

By queen Amestris

Amytis, wife of Megabyzus

Artaxerxes I

Darius, the first born, murdered by Artaxerxes and Artabanus.

Hystaspes, murdered by Artaxerxes.

Rodogyne

By unknown wives

Artarius, satrap of Babylon.

Ratashah[9]

Jag (Ingvar Ejdfors) såg i Singapore mars 2007 filmen "300", som handlar om slaget vid Termopyle, en bra men våldsam film som beskriver de 300 spartanska krigarnas kamp mot Xerxes överlägsna armé. De lyckades hålla stånd så länge att den grekiska armén hann undan. En spartansk krigares förräderi genom att avslöja för perserna en passage bakom den spartanska truppen ledde till att samtliga spartanska soldater dödades.

Filmen går även i Sverige -------------------- •ID: I62232 •Name: XERXES @ OF PERSIA •Prefix: King •Given Name: XERXES @ •Surname: OF PERSIA •Nickname: The Great •Sex: M •_UID: 58ED78E76F167840B00BE5CDD3AD92319198 •Change Date: 26 Nov 2005 •Note: Xerxes I (Persian Khshayarsha) (circa 519-465 bc), king of Persia (486-465 bc), the son of Darius I and Atossa (flourished 6th century bc), daughter of Cyrus the Great. Ascending the throne upon the death of his father, he subdued a rebellion in Egypt, and then spent three years preparing a great fleet and army to punish the Greeks for aiding the Ionian cities in 498 bc and for their victory over the Persians at Marathon in 490 bc. The Greek historian Herodotus gives as the combined strength of Xerxes’ land and naval forces the incredible total of 2,641,610 warriors, but it was probably between 200,000 and 300,000. Xerxes is said to have crossed the Hellespont by a bridge of boats more than a kilometer in length and to have cut a canal through the isthmus of Mount Athos. During the spring of 480 bc he marched with his forces through Thrace, Thessaly (Thessalia), and Locris. At Thermopylae 300 Spartans, under their king, Leonidas I, and 1100 other Greeks made a courageous but futile stand, delaying the Persians for ten days. Xerxes then advanced into Attica and burned Athens, which had been abandoned by the Greeks. At the Battle of Salamís later in 480 bc, however, his fleet was defeated by a contingent of Greek warships commanded by the Athenian Themistocles. Xerxes thereupon retired to Asia Minor, leaving his army in Greece under the command of his brother-in-law, Mardonius, who was slain at Plataea the following year. Xerxes was murdered at Persepolis by Artabanus, captain of the palace guard; he was succeeded by his son Artaxerxes I (reigned 465-425 bc). Xerxes is generally identified as the Ahasuerus of the Book of Esther.

© 1993-2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

•Birth: ABT 519 •Death: 465

Father: DARIUS @ OF PERSIA b: 558 BC Mother: Atossa of Persia

Marriage 1 Esther •Married: Children 1. Artaxerxes I of Persia

http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=jdp%2Dfam&id=I62232 -------------------- See his ancestry elsewhere on this tree.

Xerses I's father was Darius I Persia and his mother was Atossa Persia. His paternal grandparents were Vishtaspa Parthia and Rhodogune; his maternal grandparents were Cyrus II Persia and Neithiyti Egypt. -------------------- Xerxes was born circa 520 B. C. and died about 465 B. C. Source: The History of Iran, Xerxes, Khashayar Shah http://www.iranchamber.com/history/xerxes/xerxes.php Xerxes I of Persia ((Persian: خشايارشا ‎, Khashayar Shah) (/ˈzɜrksiːz/; Old Persian: Xšayaršā IPA: [xʃajaːrʃaː] meaning "ruling over heroes",[1] Greek: Ξέρξης, Hebrew: אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ, Modern Aẖashverosh Tiberian ʼĂḥašwērôš), also known as Xerxes the Great (519 BC-465 BC), was the fourth king of the Achaemenid Empire. Life Youth and rise to power Immediately after seizing the kingship, Darius I of Persia (son of Hystaspes) married Atossa (daughter of Cyrus the Great). They were both descendants of Achaemenes from different Achaemenid lines. Marrying a daughter of Cyrus strengthened Darius's position as king.[2] Darius was an active emperor, busy with building programs in Persepolis, Susa, Egypt, and elsewhere. Toward the end of his reign he moved to punish Athens, but a new revolt in Egypt (probably led by the Persian satrap) had to be suppressed. Under Persian law, the Achaemenian kings were required to choose a successor before setting out on such serious expeditions. Upon his great decision to leave (487-486 BC),[3] Darius prepared his tomb at Naqsh-e Rostam and appointed Xerxes, his eldest son by Atossa, as his successor. Darius's failing health then prevented him from leading the campaigns,[4] and he died in October 486 BC.[4] Artabazanes claimed the crown as the eldest of all the children, because it was an established custom all over the world for the eldest to have the pre-eminence; while Xerxes, on the other hand, urged that he was sprung from Atossa, the daughter of Cyrus, and that it was Cyrus who had won the Persians their freedom.</ref> Some modern scholars also view the unusual decision of Darius to give the throne to Xerxes to be a result of his consideration of the unique positions that Cyrus the Great and his daughter Atossa have had.[5] Artobazan was born to "Darius the subject", while Xerxes was the eldest son born in the purple after Darius's rise to the throne, and Artobazan's mother was a commoner while Xerxes's mother was the daughter of the founder of the empire.[6] Xerxes was crowned and succeeded his father in October–December 486 BC[7] when he was about 36 years old.[3] The transition of power to Xerxes was smooth due again in part to the great authority of Atossa[2] and his accession of royal power was not challenged by any person at court or in the Achaemenian family, or any subject nation.[8] Almost immediately, he suppressed the revolts in Egypt and Babylon that had broken out the year before, and appointed his brother Achaemenes as governor or satrap (Old Persian: khshathrapavan) over Egypt. In 484 BC, he outraged the Babylonians by violently confiscating and melting down[9] the golden statue of Bel (Marduk, Merodach), the hands of which the rightful king of Babylon had to clasp each New Year's Day. This sacrilege led the Babylonians to rebel in 484 BC and 482 BC, so that in contemporary Babylonian documents, Xerxes refused his father's title of King of Babylon, being named rather as King of Persia and Media, Great King, King of Kings (Shahanshah) and King of Nations (i.e. of the world). Even though Herodotus's report in the Histories has created certain problems concerning Xerxes's religious beliefs, modern scholars consider him a Zoroastrian.[10] Campaigns Invasion of the Greek mainland Darius died while in the process of preparing a second army to invade the Greek mainland, leaving to his son the task of punishing the Athenians, Naxians, and Eretrians for their interference in the Ionian Revolt, the burning of Sardis and their victory over the Persians at Marathon. From 483 BC Xerxes prepared his expedition: A channel was dug through the isthmus of the peninsula of Mount Athos, provisions were stored in the stations on the road through Thrace, two pontoon bridges later known as Xerxes's Pontoon Bridges were built across the Hellespont. Soldiers of many nationalities served in the armies of Xerxes, including the Assyrians, Phoenicians, Babylonians, Egyptians and Jews.[11] According to the Greek historian Herodotus, Xerxes's first attempt to bridge the Hellespont ended in failure when a storm destroyed the flax and papyrus cables of the bridges; Xerxes ordered the Hellespont (the strait itself) whipped three hundred times and had fetters thrown into the water. Xerxes's second attempt to bridge the Hellespont was successful.[12] Xerxes concluded an alliance with Carthage, and thus deprived Greece of the support of the powerful monarchs of Syracuse and Agrigentum. Many smaller Greek states, moreover, took the side of the Persians, especially Thessaly, Thebes and Argos. Xerxes was victorious during the initial battles. Xerxes set out in the spring of 480 BC from Sardis with a fleet and army which Herodotus estimated was roughly one million strong along with 10,000 elite warriors named the Persian Immortals. More recent estimates place the Persian force at around 60,000 combatants[13], although this is disputed: another modern estimate of the Persian invasion force is roughly 500,000, with the Persian Empire controlling forty percent of the world's population, more than 100 million people, at that time.[citation needed] Thermopylae and Athens At the Battle of Thermopylae, a small force of Greek warriors led by King Leonidas of Sparta resisted the much larger Persian forces, but were ultimately defeated. According to Herodotus, the Persians broke the Spartan phalanx after a Greek man called Ephialtes betrayed his country by telling the Persians of another pass around the mountains. After Thermopylae, Athens was captured and the Athenians and Spartans were driven back to their last line of defense at the Isthmus of Corinth and in the Saronic Gulf. What happened next is a matter of some controversy. According to Herodotus, upon encountering the deserted city, in an uncharacteristic fit of rage particularly for Persian kings, Xerxes had Athens burned. He almost immediately regretted this action and ordered it rebuilt the very next day. However, Persian scholars dispute this view as pan-Hellenic propaganda, arguing that Sparta, not Athens, was Xerxes's main foe in his Greek campaigns, and that Xerxes would have had nothing to gain by destroying a major center of trade and commerce like Athens once he had already captured it. Inscription of Xerxes the Great near the Van Citadel At that time, anti-Persian sentiment was high among many mainland Greeks, and the rumor that Xerxes had destroyed the city was a popular one, though it is equally likely the fire was started by accident as the Athenians were frantically fleeing the scene in pandemonium, or that it was an act of "scorched earth" warfare to deprive Xerxes's army of the spoils of the city. At Artemisium, large storms had destroyed ships from the Greek side and so the battle stopped prematurely as the Greeks received news of the defeat at Thermopylae and retreated. Xerxes was induced by the message of Themistocles (against the advice of Artemisia of Halicarnassus) to attack the Greek fleet under unfavourable conditions, rather than sending a part of his ships to the Peloponnesus and awaiting the dissolution of the Greek armies. The Battle of Salamis (September, 480 BC) was won by the Greek fleet, after which Xerxes set up a winter camp in Thessaly.[citation needed] Due to unrest in Babylon, Xerxes was forced to send his army home to prevent a revolt, leaving behind an army in Greece under Mardonius, who was defeated the following year at Plataea.[14] The Greeks also attacked and burned the remaining Persian fleet anchored at Mycale. This cut off the Persians from the supplies they needed to sustain their massive army, and they had no choice but to retreat. Their withdrawal roused the Greek city-states of Asia. Construction projects The rock-cut tomb at Naqsh-e Rustam north of Persepolis, copying that of Darius, is usually assumed to be that of Xerxes After the military blunders in Greece, Xerxes returned to Persia and completed the many construction projects left unfinished by his father at Susa and Persepolis. He built the Gate of all Nations and the Hall of a Hundred Columns at Persepolis, which are the largest and most imposing structures of the palace. He completed the Apadana, the Palace of Darius and the Treasury all started by Darius as well as building his own palace which was twice the size of his father's. His taste in architecture was similar to that of Darius, though on an even more gigantic scale.[15] He also maintained the Royal Road built by his father and completed the Susa Gate and built a palace at Susa.[16] Death In 465 BC, Xerxes was murdered by Artabanus, the commander of the royal bodyguard and the most powerful official in the Persian court (Hazarapat/commander of thousand). Although Artabanus bore the same name as the famed uncle of Xerxes, a Hyrcanian, his rise to prominence was due to his popularity in religious quarters of the court and harem intrigues. He put his seven sons in key positions and had a plan to dethrone the Achamenids.[17] In August 465 BC, Artabanus assassinated Xerxes with the help of a eunuch, Aspamitres. Greek historians give contradicting accounts of events. According to Ctesias (in Persica 20), Artabanus then accused the Crown Prince Darius, Xerxes's eldest son, of the murder and persuaded another of Xerxes's sons, Artaxerxes, to avenge the patricide by killing Darius. But according to Aristotle (in Politics 5.1311b), Artabanus killed Darius first and then killed Xerxes. After Artaxerxes discovered the murder he killed Artabanus and his sons.[18] Participating in these intrigues was the general Megabyzus, whose decision to switch sides probably saved the Achamenids from losing their control of the Persian throne.[19] Children By queen Amestris: Amytis, wife of Megabyzus Artaxerxes I Darius, the first born, murdered by Artaxerxes I or Artabanus. Hystaspes, murdered by Artaxerxes I. Achaemenes, murdered by Egyptians. Rhodogune By unknown wives: Artarius, satrap of Babylon. Tithraustes Arsames or Arsamenes or Arxanes or Sarsamas satrap of Egypt. Parysatis[20] Ratashah[21] References 1.http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/xerxes-1-name 2. a b Schmitt, R., Atossa in Encyclopaedia Iranica. 3. a b Dandamaev, M. A., A political history of the Achaemenid empire, p. 180. 4. a b A. Sh. Shahbazi, Darius I the Great, in Encyclopaedia Iranica. 5. R. Shabani Chapter I, p. 15 6. Olmstead: the history of Persian empire 7. The cambridge history of Iran vol. 2. p. 509. 8. The Cambridge ancient history vol. V p. 72. 9. R. Ghirshman, Iran, p.191 10. M. Boyce, Achaemenid Religion in Encyclopædia Iranica. See also Boardman, J.; et al. (1988). The Cambridge Ancient History Vol. IV (2 ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-22804-2. p. 101. 11. Farrokh 2007: 77 12. Bailkey, Nels, ed. Readings in Ancient History, p. 175. D.C. Heath and Co., USA, 1992. 13. Barkworth, 1993. The Organization of Xerxes' Army. Iranica Antiqua Vol. 27, pp. 149-167 14. Battle of Salamis and aftermath 15. Ghirshman, Iran, p.172 16. Herodotus VII.11 17. Iran-e-Bastan/Pirnia book 1 p 873 18. Dandamayev 19. History of Persian Empire-Olmstead p 289/90 20. Ctesias 21. M. Brosius, Women in ancient Persia. 22. Boucher, Geoff "Frank Miller returns to the '300' battlefield with 'Xerxes': 'I make no apologies whatsoever'", "The Los Angeles Times", June 01, 2010, accessed May 14, 2010. Bibliography Ancient sources The Sixth Book, Entitled Erato in History of Herodotus. The Seventh Book, Entitled Polymnia in History of Herodotus. Modern sources Dandamaev, M. A. (1989). A political history of the Achaemenid empire. Brill Publishers. pp. 373. ISBN 90-04-09172-6. The Histories. Spark Educational Publishing. 2004. ISBN 1-59308-102-2. Shabani, Reza (1386 AP) (in Persian). Khshayarsha (Xerxes). What do I know about Iran? No. 75. Cultural Research Burreau. pp. 120. ISBN 964-379-109-2. Shahbazi, A. Sh.. "Darius I the Great". Encyclopaedia Iranica. vol. 7. Routledge & Kegan Paul. Schmitt, Rüdiger. "Achaemenid dynasty". Encyclopaedia Iranica. vol. 3. Routledge & Kegan Paul. Schmitt, Rüdiger. "Atossa". Encyclopaedia Iranica. vol. 3. Routledge & Kegan Paul. McCullough, W. S. "Ahasuerus". Encyclopaedia Iranica. vol. 1. Routledge & Kegan Paul. Boyce, Mary. "Achaemenid Religion". Encyclopaedia Iranica. vol. 1. Routledge & Kegan Paul. Dandamayev, M. A (1999). "Artabanus". Encyclopædia Iranica. Routledge & Kegan Paul. Retrieved 2009-02-25. Frye, Richard N. (1963). The Heritage of Persia. Weidenfeld and Nicolson. pp. 301. ISBN 0-297-16727-8. Schmeja, H. (1975). "Dareios, Xerxes, Artaxerxes. Drei persische Königsnamen in griechischer Deutung (Zu Herodot 6,98,3)". Die Sprache 21: 184–88. Gershevitch, Ilya; Bayne Fisher, William; A. Boyle, J. (1985). The Cambridge history of Iran. 2. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-20091-1. Boardman, John; al., et (1988). The Cambridge ancient history. V. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-22804-2. Barkworth, Peter R. (1993). "The Organization of Xerxes' Army". Iranica Antiqua 27: 149-167. Source: Wikipedia.org