Heinrich I 'der Vogler' von Sachsen

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Heinrich 'der Vogler' von Sachsen, Graf im Südthuringau, König von Östfrankreich

Nicknames: "Henry I "The Fowler" Duke of Saxony and King of the Germans", "Heinrich I of the Germans", "The Fowler", "Henrik I Fågelfängaren", "/Henry/I", "of Saxony", "Henry the Fowler", "" the /Fowler"/", "Duke of Saxony", "German king", "kung i tyskland", "Heinrich von Sachsen"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Memleben, Herrschaft Ostfalen (Present Bugenlandkreis), Herzogtum Sachsen (Present Sachsen-Anhalt), Ostenfrankenreich (Present Deutschland)
Death: Died in Memleben, Herrschaft Ostfalen (Present Bugenlandkreis), Herzogtum Sachsen (Present Sachsen-Anhalt), Ostenfrankenreich (Present Deutschland)
Place of Burial: Quedlinburg Stiftskirche, Quedlinburg, Landkreis Har, Sachsen-Anhalt, Deutscland
Immediate Family:

Son of Otto I the Illustrious, Duke of Saxony and Hedwig of Babenberg
Husband of Count Thietmar the 1st; Hatheburg Königin des Ostfrankenreich and Matilda von Ringelheim
Father of Thankmar von Sachsen (c906-938) Liudolfinger; ... von Sachsen; Otto I "der Große" von Sachsen, Römischer Kaiser; Gerberge de Saxe, Reine de Francie Occidentale; Hedwige of Saxony and 4 others
Brother of Oda von Sachsen; Thankmar von Sachsen (870-912); Mechtild von Sachsen; Liudolf von Sachsen; Irminburga and 2 others
Half brother of (No Name)

Occupation: Duke of Saxony, König des Ostfrankenreichs, King of Eastern Franconia, Emperor of Germany, Duke of Saxony from 912 and King of the Germans from 919 until his death. Henry the Fowler, Heinrich der Finkler or Heinrich der Vogler; Latin: Henricius Auceps.
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Heinrich I 'der Vogler' von Sachsen

Heinrich I "der Vogler"

Henry I "the Fowler"

Links:

Predecessor: Conrad I Successor: Otto I

  • Duke of Saxony Reign 30. November 912 – 2. July 936

Predecessor: Otto the Illustrious Successor: Otto I

-------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_the_Fowler -------------------- Emperor Elect of the Holy Roman Empire 919-936, Herzog von Sachsen.

Leo: Europäische Stammtafeln, Band I, Frank Baron Freytag von Loringhoven, 1975, Isenburg, W. K. Prinz von, Reference: Page 3.

Leo: The Holy Roman Empire, A Dictionary Handbook , Zophy, Reference: biography. -------------------- Born in Memleben, in what is now Saxony-Anhalt, Henry was the son of Otto the Illustrious, Duke of Saxony, and his wife Hedwiga, daughter of Henry of Franconia and Ingeltrude and a great-great-granddaughter of Charlemagne, or Charles I. In 906 he married Hatheburg, daughter of the Saxon count Erwin, but divorced her in 909, after she had given birth to his son Thankmar. Later that year he married St Matilda of Ringelheim, daughter of Dietrich, Count of Westphalia. Matilda bore him three sons, one called Otto, and two daughters, Hedwig and Gerberga, and founded many religious institutions, including the abbey of Quedlinburg where Henry is buried and was later canonized.

Succession[edit]

Henry became Duke of Saxony upon his father's death in 912. An able ruler, he continued to strengthen the position of his duchy within the developing Kingdom of Germany, frequently in conflict with his neighbors to the South, the dukes of Franconia.

On 23 December 918 Conrad I, King of East Francia and Franconian duke, died. Although they had been at odds with each other from 912–15 over the title to lands in Thuringia, before he died Conrad recommended Henry as his successor. Conrad's choice was conveyed by Duke Eberhard of Franconia, Conrad's brother and heir, at the Imperial Diet of Fritzlar in 919. The assembled Franconian and Saxon nobles duly elected Henry to be king. Archbishop Heriger of Mainz offered to anoint Henry according to the usual ceremony, but he refused to be anointed by a high church official — the only King of his time not to undergo that rite — allegedly because he wished to be king not by the church's but by the people's acclaim. Duke Burchard II of Swabia soon swore fealty to the new King, but Duke Arnulf of Bavaria did not submit until Henry defeated him in two campaigns in 921. Last, Henry besieged his residence at Ratisbon (Regensburg) and forced Arnulf into submission.

In 920, the West Frankish king Charles the Simple invaded Germany and marched as far as Pfeddersheim near Worms, but he retired on hearing that Henry was arming against him.[2] On 7 November 921 Henry and Charles met each other and concluded a treaty of friendship between them. However, with the beginning of civil war in France upon the coronation of King Robert I, Henry sought to wrest the Duchy of Lorraine from the Western Kingdom. In 923 Henry crossed the Rhine twice. Later in the year he entered Lorraine with an army, capturing a large part of the country. Until October 924 the eastern part of Lorraine was left in Henry's possession.[citation needed]

Reign[edit]

Henry regarded the German kingdom as a confederation of stem duchies rather than as a feudal monarchy and saw himself as primus inter pares. Instead of seeking to administer the empire through counts, as Charlemagne had done and as his successors had attempted, Henry allowed the dukes of Franconia, Swabia, and Bavaria to maintain complete internal control of their holdings. In 925, Duke Gilbert of Lorraine again rebelled. Henry invaded the duchy and besieged Gilbert at Zülpich (Tolbiac), captured the town, and became master of a large portion of his lands. Thus he brought that realm, which had been lost in 910, back into the German kingdom as the fifth stem duchy. Allowing Gilbert to remain in power as duke, Henry arranged the marriage of his daughter Gerberga to his new vassal in 928.


Legend of the German crown offered to Henry, Hermann Vogel (1854–1921)

Henry was an able military leader. In 921 Hungarians (Magyars) invaded Germany and Italy. Although a sizable force was routed near Bleiburg in the Bavarian March of Carinthia by Eberhard and the Count of Meran[3] and another group was routed by Liutfried, count of Elsass (French reading: Alsace), the Magyars repeatedly raided Germany. Nevertheless Henry, having captured a Hungarian prince, managed to arrange a ten-year-truce in 926, though he was forced to pay tributes. By doing so he and the German dukes gained time to fortify towns and train a new elite cavalry force.[citation needed]

During the truce with the Magyars, Henry subdued the Polabian Slavs, settling on the eastern border of his realm. In the winter of 928, he marched against the Slavic Hevelli tribes and seized their capital, Brandenburg. He then invaded the Glomacze lands on the middle Elbe river, conquering the capital Gana (Jahna) after a siege, and had a fortress (the later Albrechtsburg) built at Meissen. In 929, with the help of Arnulf of Bavaria, Henry entered Bohemia and forced Duke Wenceslaus I to resume the yearly payment of tribute to the king. Meanwhile, the Slavic Redarii had driven away their chief, captured the town of Walsleben, and massacred the inhabitants. Counts Bernard and Thietmar marched against the fortress of Lenzen beyond the Elbe, and, after fierce fighting, completely routed the enemy on 4 September 929. The Lusatians and the Ukrani on the lower Oder were subdued and made tributary in 932 and 934, respectively.[4] However, Henry left no consistent march administration, which was implemented by his successor Otto I.

In 932 Henry finally refused to pay the regular tribute to the Magyars. When they began raiding again, he led a unified army of all German duchies to victory at the Battle of Riade in 933 near the river Unstrut, thus stopping the Magyar advance into Germany. He also pacified territories to the north, where the Danes had been harrying the Frisians by sea. The monk and chronicler Widukind of Corvey in his Res gestae Saxonicae reports that the Danes were subjects of Henry the Fowler. Henry incorporated into his kingdom territories held by the Wends, who together with the Danes had attacked Germany, and also conquered Schleswig in 934.[citation needed]

Death[edit]

Henry died on 2 July 936 in his palatium in Memleben, one of his favourite places. By then all German peoples were united in a single kingdom. He was buried at Quedlinburg Abbey, established by his wife Matilda in his honor.

His son Otto succeeded him as king, and in 962 would be crowned Emperor. His second son, Henry, became Duke of Bavaria. A third son, Brun (or Bruno), became archbishop of Cologne. His son from his first marriage, Thankmar, rebelled against his half-brother Otto and was killed in battle in 936. After the death of her husband Duke Giselbert of Lotharingia, Henry's daughter Gerberga of Saxony married King Louis IV of France. His youngest daughter, Hedwige of Saxony, married Duke Hugh the Great of France and was the mother of Hugh Capet, the first Capetian king of France.[citation needed]

Legacy[edit]


Himmler at Henry's grave, 1938

Henry returned to public attention as a character in Richard Wagner's opera, Lohengrin (1850), trying to gain the support of the Brabantian nobles against the Magyars. After the attempts to achieve German national unity failed with the Revolutions of 1848, Wagner strongly relied on the picture of Henry as the actual ruler of all German tribes as advocated by pan-Germanist activists like Friedrich Ludwig Jahn.

There are indications that Heinrich Himmler saw himself as the reincarnation of the first king of Germany.[5] The Nazism ideology referred to Henry as a founding father of the German nation, fighting both the Latin Western Franks and the Slavic tribes of the East, thereby a precursor of the German Drang nach Osten.

Family and children[edit] -------------------- See extensive Wikipedia info for furthur info.

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Heinrich I 'der Vogler' von Sachsen's Timeline

876
876
Memleben, Herrschaft Ostfalen (Present Bugenlandkreis), Herzogtum Sachsen (Present Sachsen-Anhalt), Ostenfrankenreich (Present Deutschland)
876
Sachsen, Germany
890
890
Age 14
906
906
Age 30
Köln, (Present North Rhine-Westphalia), Herzogtum Lotharingia, Ostenfrankenreich (Present Germany)
906
Age 30
909
909
Age 33
Germany
909
Age 33
Wallhausen, Mulachgau (Present Bad Kreuznach), Herzogtum Franken (Present Rhineland-Palatinate), Ostenfrankenreich (Present Germany)
912
November 23, 912
Age 36
Wallhausen, (Present Landkreis Mansfeld-Südharz), Thüringische Mark (within present Sachsen-Anhalt), Ostenfrankenreich (Present Germany)
November 30, 912
- May 6, 919
Age 36
Sachsen, Germany
913
913
Age 37
Nordhausen, Thüringen, Deutschland