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Data Entry Standards for Genealogists & Research

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This is to be a reference tool - this is what I have found - on these subjects and a litttle more -

New Quirk قسي hieroglyphic alphabet

Names written in the hieroglyphic alphabet as such قسي this do not transfer into GEDCOM format - that are replaced with "garbaged" up symbols and are not decipherable thus making the profile complete unusable the names in all fields display name, first, middle, Last name, birth name) probably should contain as the English translation as such قسي Casius (Qasi)

New Quirk "A" or 'A"

The " " and ' ' does not always transfer correctly in GEDCOMs and on MyHeritage side in the "Online tree version" the " or ' are immediately replaced with a / if you correct any profiles that have these in them in the name fields - thus making the name interpretation wrong when GEDCOMed down and put into another computer program

New Quirk Hash marks in names -

I know we all used them to conserve space in the name fields in computer programs and even in the age of paper, typewriter, pen & pencil and it is a hard habit to break the () or [] is transferred as written so far in GEDCOMs


DO NOT use has marks in between varitions of names for given, middle and surnam such as

Jane/Janie or Jane\Janie

McKee/Mc Kee/McKay/McKie

Reason one genealogy programs are now transferring anything beyond the first "/" as being the last name - thus your run into all names not being transferred or truncated as the program feels fit to do so.

PAF5 ( Paf is no longer supported or going to be distributed) now use the data entry system of one line and demands names be entered as such:

Judith/Elaine/McKee

Stephen /Michael/ McKee II

the settigs for PAF are:

  • Given names/surname/
  • /surname/given names
  • Given name/Surname1 Surname2
  • Given names only//

this plays havoc on their own old data entry sytem of:

  • Given Name(s) first, middle
  • Surname
  • Title (prefix)
  • Title (sufix)

The program also no longer supports a seperate suffix or prefix field to me this is a step backwards and not an improvement

Thus using the 'Hash marks' will led to wrongful data entry GEDCOM-ed into from older GEDCOM's that appear on various genealogical sites.

Also the use of "Butch" is causing problems - MY Heritage if used in the name field replaces the " with slash marks thus a field name may eventually be Eugene /Butch/ instead of your original Eugene "Butch"; and when GEDCOM BUTCH becomes the new surname

given or Middle name data entry spots use either () and/or [] in for varitations with either OR or just COMMAS if more than one variation known and shown within the () or [] and - in the surname spot try to always use [] because it will not interfere with the automatic bracketing for maiden names of () used by genealogical programs.

I have found no way to revert back to the PAF4 data entry screen tho I was told it could be done in PAF

Also the online version of MY Heritage turns all names within " " or ' ' into has marks as such: William /"Willie/" this will create newer problems their excuse is that their is a field for other names and nicknames - this will mean going in and hand converting all other files - and figuring out how to deal with other names, aka's and nicknames if the data entry program does not have this fields - In other words they refuse to recognize older fields of old genealogical programs and trans fere and save them "AS PRESENTED" conforming them to their new standards even if WRONGLY PRESENTED - - So carefully examine all material received in a gedcom - this means opening it up as a separate file - making corrections and updates if necessary before entering it into any other genealogical program or any type; especially if online programs allow a gedcom upload because the old saying "What You See Is What You Get" is not going to hold up - you will get in a lot of cases a garbled up mess in the name fields.

Keep your PAF, Legacy files CLEANED-UP for GEDCOM purposes

.

  • 1 Just mergeing profile(s) does not clean it up the PAF for GEDCOM-ing
  • 2 You need to delete any uncessary marriages ie.
   *>>>  1 those that are blank and contain no spouse with no dates, no children attached  you will be surprised at how these hinder proper merging of profiles.
    *>>>  2 compare all the "unknowns" to see if childen are listed  if no   children are listed for the marriage  then detele the marriage record
  
    *>>>  3 compare the "unknown"  marriages with children listed  in all other  marriages; combine into one complete family  whether a known or  unknown spouse exits and   delete the extra marriage/family records   if there is more than one with same list of child/chlidren this has to be  done carefully to make sure that  each set  of  RIN's are exactly the same and are attached to the parent(s) in correct way. Again you will be surprised at how these  "unknown spouses" hinder proper merging of profiles and families.
    *>>>  4 delete any marriage records that has no child or no set of parents  listed
    *>>>  5 delete any marriage records that contains "date only" and no spouse  - if 
            you   want to keep this infomation  place it in the notes  as such 'has been
           listed with a marriage date, place, but no spouse name was given"
  • 3 do not use \ or / in between name variants in future enteries bracket them with either () or [] and PAF 5 has you to input names as such now Judi Judith Elaine /Mc Kee/ NOTE this seems to be causing conflcts when GEDCOM-ing and merging
  • >>>change any profiles using / or \ in between names to () or []
  • >>> or sure of using "or" beween names causes any conflicts
  • >>>If using PAF do not let it automactically set the // or if you do go in under tools>preferences>names and check the style you wish, and then make sure that VERIFY surnames marks are checked and VERIFY that they are marked properly with SURNAME(s) only within the "//"
  • 4 Make Sure titles are in the "Prefix field" is the progam has such a category - if not list them in the Suffix field aft. the disignation of Jr. Sr. or numeral placing a "coma" as such John Emery II, Rev.
  • 5 Make sure Jr., Sr., or numeral ranking is placed in Suffix field if is exists and not after Given, middle or Surname - If no Suffix field exist it should follow the SURNAME as such: John Emery, Jr. and John Emery, II, Rev.
  • 7 DO NOT put the given name of the unknown Surname spouse into the surname field - YES it is done - for check and correct these profiles
  • 8 My personal preference solutions to other problems -
  • >>>> 1 An unknown child with a sex and or date stated enter as such but as [-?-] Mckee
  • >>>> 2 if multiple unknown children and sex is known enter under proper sex and as 2 unknown Mckee , 3 unknown McKee etc. this helps cut down on bulk if filed

.

  • >>>> 3 Eneter Unknown spouses as [-?-] for both Given and surname instead of the Unknown, No Name, etc.etc. also could if female could be listed as [-?-] vandeveter ; and incase maiden name is not given also as [-?-] [-?_] Mckee, Mrs. James McKee; and as
  • >>>>4 If [-?-] has to be used as a spousal place holder while entering children - if another marriage exists then delete it after children are entered - less bulk,
  • 8 If you get a new GEDCOM it is best to start a new seperate PAF file - and go in and check for any errors, blank profiles, and all items listed in #2 it will be possible easier to clean-up a new GEDCOM file and make a new "CLEAN GEDCOM" to import into you files.
  • 9 Above all remember above all not all GEDCOMS are "CLEAN" take the time to open them in a new seperate PAF/Legacy etc. file and check before importing into your own files - even if the person sending it CLAIMS it is clean. better safe than sorry. It takes time but it is WORTH the effort.

All of the above has helped me in merging profiles correctly in my personal computer program offline.

DATA ENTRY FIELDS


Three Data Entry programs

1 Personal Ancestral V4 data fields all lines are one line entry


  • Given Name
  • Surname NOTE NAME AT BIRTH OR ADOPTION (re since most adoption records are locked and original birth name is unavailable)
  • title (prefix)
  • Title (suffix)
  • sex female, Male unkown
  • Birth date
  • Birth Place
  • Christening / baptism Date
  • christening / baptismPlace
  • Death Date
  • Death Place
  • Burial Date
  • Burial Place
  • marriage Date
  • Marriage Place
  • check box for divorced
  • Divorce Date
  • divorce Place

  • under other is:
  • Married Name
  • also Known as
  • nickname
  • cause of death
  • Phiscial Description
  • LDS Information

  • Under options
  • adoption
  • Adult christening
  • annulment (also for marriage)
  • census
  • Emmigration
  • Imnmigration
  • Military service
  • Misscarrage
  • naturalization
  • Residence
  • will

2 family tree data fields all lines are one line entry

  • name (given, middle, surname) In full One line NOTESURNAME AT BIRTH OR ADOPTION (re since most adoption records are locked and original birth name is unavailable)
  • Title
  • sex female, Male unkown
  • Birth date
  • Birth Place
  • Death Date
  • Death Place
  • Burial Date
  • Burial Place
  • marriage Date
  • Marriage Place
* Edit menu
  • Burial Date
  • Burial Place
* Christening / baptism Date  
  • christening / baptismPlace
  • Married name format
  • LDS Information

3 0 TNG - an on line program

  • First/Given Name(s)
  • Last/Surname NOTE NAME AT BIRTH OR ADOPTION (re since most adoption records are locked and original birth name is unavailable)
  • Gender
  • Nickname
  • Title Prefix Suffix
  • Name Order
  • Birth: Date Place
  • Christening: Date Place
  • Death: Date Place
  • Burial: Date Place
  • Baptism (LDS):
  • Endowment (LDS): Date Place
  • Other events Options
  • Marriage window
  • Spouse name
  • marriage: Date Place

depends upon what and how you enter the data on line.

Legacy 7.5

  • Husb[and] / Wife
  • Name Given no given place for a middle name – thus entered with given name
  • Surname NOTE NAME AT BIRTH OR ADOPTION (re since most adoption records are locked and original birth name is unavailable)
  • Title Pre. [Prefix]
  • Title Suf. [Suffix]
  • Born (b): …… in All one line for place
  • Died (d): …… in All one line for place
  • Buried /Crem[ated] (bur/crem): …… in All one line for place
  • Cause of Death DthCau (DCs):

Marriage Window

  • Marr[iage] Date:… in All one line for place
  • Status: ----- Tags for: Annulled, common law, divorced, married, other, separated, unmarried
  • Status Date

:

===========================

I have attached the "old fashioned' paper form - which is/was the data entry standard for genealogy - husband's full name

  • Birth
  • chr'nd
  • marr
  • Death
  • burial
  • .....
  • his father......mother's maiden name=wife's full maiden name=
  • Birth
  • chr'nd
  • marr
  • Death
  • burial
  • .....
  • her father......mother's maiden name
=================================

Data Entry Standards


Names

  • . Six elements make up a name: given name, middle name, surname, title prefix, title suffix plus alternate names. Not all names have all elements. You will want to enter each element in the designated data field.
  • . A birth name establishes the identity of an individual in a genealogy database. Enter the name given at birth (or baptism) in the language used at the time of the event (e.g., French, German, Latin, etc.) in the given name field.
  • . Enter the surname in the language used at the time of the event in the surname field. Enter the Anglicized name in the alternate name field and explain details in the research notes field. Document the name in the source field.
  • . Enter an individual’s birth name in the given name field, even if the person was known by another name all their life, and even if that person is identified on a death record by the more familiar name.
  • . Enter maiden names for all females, even if previously married. If a wife’s maiden name is unknown, leave it blank until known. * . Enter all names in mixed-case letters with the indicated character spacing as shown on the birth record. The technique of “all caps” is no longer recommended; it could alter the name.
  • . If a given name is unknown, leave the given name field blank. Do not enter “unknown” in the field. * . Capitalize the first letter of all names and capitalize all initials. Insert a period after the initial unless the birth or baptismal record does not use a period after the initial. Follow the initial and period (or the stand-alone initial) with a single space, not a double space. A computer notices differences in spacing.
  • . Never use special characters in a name field, e.g., braces, brackets, question marks or equal signs.
  • . Do not use “formerly” or “now” in given name fields or surname fields. Instead, enter alternate names, including alternate spellings or surname changes, in the alternate name field (AKA field).
  • . Enter an explanation, if there is a story behind the alternate name, in the research notes field. Document the source of the alternate name in the source field.
  • . Do not include military or professional titles in the given name field; these are earned titles, not part of a birth name.
  • . Enter titles in the title suffix field or title prefix field. Explain titles in the research notes field and document titles in the source field.
  • . Enter religious names in the alternate name field and enter the individual’s birth name in the given name field. Explain this information in the research notes field.
  • . Enter birth right titles, e.g., Prince Charles, in the given name field. Document the name in the source field.

Dates

  • . The most readable and reliable format for presenting dates is day, month, year; this style is least likely to create confusion when entering, matching, or merging data.

  • . Abbreviate months as: Jan, Feb, Mar, Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov, Dec without a period. Enter days with double digits and present four digits for the year.

  • . If a baptismal date is entered into the birth date field because an actual birth record is not available, then precede the date with a code of “bap” or “chr.” Explain this in the research notes field. Document the date in the source field.

  • . Some softwares have a designated field for recording a baptismal or christening date. It is not necessary to code baptismal or christening dates when entered into a designated baptismal field or christening field.

  • . Dates can be estimated, if documented as such, by preceding the date with one of the following codes which are all entered without a period: about = “abt” after =“aft” before =“bef” between =“bet” calculated =“cal”

  • . The terms, “Infant,” “Child,” or “Deceased.” are acceptable entries in a death date field, if a death date is unknown. Use the code:
# 1 “Infant” for a stillborn. 
  1. 2 “Infant” for a young individual from birth to age 3.

  1. 3 “Child” for someone aged 3-8.

  1. 4 “Deceased” for anyone older than age 8,

if you have no clue about the death date. Explain the circumstances and your reasoning in the research notes field. Document in the source

PLACES .

  • Four basic rules govern the entry of place names:
  • . Always enter the place name as known on the day the event took place in the place name field. Never use “formerly” or “now” in a place name field.
  • . Always enter place names in place name fields beginning with the smallest jurisdiction and ending with the largest.
  • . Enter the place where an event occurred with a least three levels of jurisdiction and follow states and provinces with their corresponding country name.
  • . Always spell out the full name of the jurisdiction you are describing, (e.g., city, township, county) except for long country names, e.g., The United States of America, which is abbreviated USA.

.* Some softwares provide a current place name field. If so, enter the current place name in the current place name field. If the history of a place is important, explain it in the research notes field. Document the place name – both the place name at the time of the event and the place name as known today – in the respective source fields.

  • . Spell out the names of states for the benefit of international readers; do not use former or current postal code abbreviations
  • . baptismal place field Add the name of the church or place of baptism in the baptismal place field as .the smallest smallest entity of a location, and then continue with other jurisdictions in the appropriate order
  • . burial place field or Enter the name of the cemetery or mausoleum in the burial place field as the Document the information in the source field.
  • . If the exact location is unknown, insert commas as placeholders for each unknown jurisdiction of a location. The commas are necessary for a computer to sort place information accurately when generating reports.
  • . If the location of an event is a family farm, enter the township, or alternatively, use a code such as “near” or “South of” followed by the name of the nearest village or town.

These were adapted - as to span the generations - and the global universe so that there was on clear concise set of data entered that all could understand and comprehend not matter of what nationality they be - of what era they were from.

====================================================
'''Standards For Sound Genealogical Research''' 
Recommended by the National Genealogical Society 

Remembering always that they are engaged in a quest for truth, family history researchers consistently—

  • •record the source for each item of information they collect.
  • •test every hypothesis or theory against credible evidence, and reject those that are not supported by the evidence.
  • •seek original records, or reproduced images of them when there is reasonable assurance they have not been altered, as the basis for their research conclusions.
  • •use compilations, communications and published works, whether paper or electronic, primarily for their value as guides to locating the original records.
  • •state something as a fact only when it is supported by convincing evidence, and identify the evidence when communicating the fact to others.
  • •limit with words like "probable" or "possible" any statement that is based on less than convincing evidence, and state the reasons for concluding that it is probable or possible.
  • •avoid misleading other researchers by either intentionally or carelessly distributing or publishing inaccurate information.
  • •state carefully and honestly the results of their own research, and acknowledge all use of other researchers’ work.
  • •recognize the collegial nature of genealogical research by making their work available to others through publication, or by placing copies in appropriate libraries or repositories, and by welcoming critical comment.
  • •consider with open minds new evidence or the comments of others on their work and the conclusions they have reached.

©1997 by National Genealogical Society. Permission is granted to copy or publish this material provided it is reproduced in its entirety, including this notice.

Standards For Using Records Repositories And Libraries

Recommended by the National Genealogical Society

Recognizing that how they use unique original records and fragile publications will affect other users, both current and future, family history researchers habitually—

  • •are courteous to research facility personnel and other researchers, and respect the staff’s other daily tasks, not expecting the records custodian to listen to their family histories nor provide constant or immediate attention.
  • •dress appropriately, converse with others in a low voice, and supervise children appropriately.
  • •do their homework in advance, know what is available and what they need, and avoid ever asking for "everything" on their ancestors.
  • •use only designated work space areas, respect off-limits areas, and request permission before using photocopy or microform equipment, asking for assistance if needed.
  • •treat original records at all times with great respect and work with only a few records at a time, recognizing that they are irreplaceable and that each user must help preserve them for future use.
  • •treat books with care, never forcing their spines, and handle photographs properly, preferably wearing archival gloves.
  • •never mark, mutilate, rearrange, relocate, or remove from the repository any original, printed, microform, or electronic document or artifact.
  • •use only procedures prescribed by the repository for noting corrections to any errors or omissions found in published works, never marking the work itself.
  • •keep note-taking paper or other objects from covering records or books, and avoid placing any pressure upon them, particularly with a pencil or pen.
  • •use only the method specifically designated for identifying records for duplication, avoiding use of paper clips, adhesive notes, or other means not approved by the facility, unless instructed otherwise, replace volumes and files in their proper locations, before departure, thank the records custodians for their courtesy in making the materials available.
  • •follow the rules of the records repository without protest, even if they have changed since a previous visit or differ from those of another facility.

©1997 by National Genealogical Society; includes material ©1995 by Joy Reisinger, CGRSSM. Both copyright owners grant permission to copy or publish these standards, provided they are reproduced in their entirety, including this notice.

Standards For Use Of Technology In Genealogical Research

Recommended by the National Genealogical Society

Mindful that computers are tools, genealogists take full responsibility for their work, and therefore they—

  • •learn the capabilities and limits of their equipment and software, and use them only when they are the most appropriate tools for a purpose.
  • •refuse to let computer software automatically embellish their work.
  • •treat compiled information from on-line sources or digital data bases like that from other published sources, useful primarily as a guide to locating original records, but not as evidence for a conclusion or assertion.
  • •accept digital images or enhancements of an original record as a satisfactory substitute for the original only when there is reasonable assurance that the image accurately reproduces the unaltered original.
  • •cite sources for data obtained on-line or from digital media with the same care that is appropriate for sources on paper and other traditional media, and enter data into a digital database only when its source can remain associated with it.
  • •always cite the sources for information or data posted on-line or sent to others, naming the author of a digital file as its immediate source, while crediting original sources cited within the file.
  • •preserve the integrity of their own data bases by evaluating the reliability of downloaded data before incorporating it into their own files.
  • •provide, whenever they alter data received in digital form, a description of the change that will accompany the altered data whenever it is shared with others.
  • •actively oppose the proliferation of error, rumor and fraud by personally verifying or correcting information, or noting it as unverified, before passing it on to others.
  • •treat people on-line as courteously and civilly as they would treat them face-to-face, not separated by networks and anonymity.
  • •accept that technology has not changed the principles of genealogical research, only some of the procedures.

©1997 by National Genealogical Society. Permission is granted to copy or publish this material provided it is reproduced in its entirety, including this notice.


Standards for Sharing Information with Others

Recommended by the National Genealogical Society

  • Conscious of the fact that sharing information or data with others, whether through speech, documents, or electronic media, is essential to family history research and that sharing needs continuing support and encouragement, responsible family historians consistently
  • respect the restrictions on sharing information that arise from the rights of another as an author, originator, or compiler; as a living private person; or as a party to a mutual agreement;
* observe meticulously the legal rights of copyright owners, copying or distributing any part of their works only with their permission, or to the limited extent specifically allowed under the law's "fair use" exceptions;
* identify the sources for all ideas, information and data from others, and the form in which they were received, recognizing that the unattributed use of another's intellectual work is plagiarism;
  • respect the authorship rights of senders of letters, electronic mail and data files, forwarding or disseminating them further only with the sender's permission;
* inform persons who provide information about their families as to the ways it may be used, observing any conditions they impose and respecting any reservations they may express regarding the use of particular items;
  • require some evidence of consent before assuming that living people are agreeable to further sharing of information about themselves;
  • convey personal identifying information about living people—like age, home address, occupation, or activities—only in ways that those concerned have expressly agreed to;
  • recognize that legal rights of privacy may limit the extent to which information from publicly available sources may be further used, disseminated, or published;
  • communicate no information to others that is known to be false, or without making reasonable efforts to determine its truth, particularly information that may be derogatory;
  • are sensitive to the hurt that revelations of criminal, immoral, bizarre, or irresponsible behavior may bring to family members.
 

© 2000 by National Genealogical Society. Permission is granted to copy or publish this material provided it is reproduced in its entirety, including this notice.

Guidelines for Publishing Web Pages on the Internet

Recommended by the National Genealogical Society

  • Appreciating that publishing information through Internet websites and web pages shares many similarities with print publishing, considerate family historians
  • apply a title identifying both the entire website and the particular group of related pages, similar to a book-and-chapter designation, placing it both at the top of each web browser window using the <TITLE> HTML tag, and in the body of the document, on the opening home or title page and on any index pages;
  • explain the purposes and objectives of their websites, placing the explanation near the top of the title page or including a link from that page to a special page about the reason for the site;
  • display a footer at the bottom of each web page which contains the website title, page title, author's name, author's contact information, date of last revision, and a copyright statement;
  • provide complete contact information, including at a minimum a name and e-mail address, and preferably some means for long-term contact, like a postal address;
  • assist visitors by providing on each page navigational links that lead visitors to other important pages on the website, or return them to the home page;
  • adhere to the NGS "Standards for Sharing Information with Others" regarding copyright, attribution, privacy, and the sharing of sensitive information;
  • include unambiguous source citations for the research data provided on the site, and if not complete descriptions, offering full citations upon request;
  • label photographic and scanned images within the graphic itself with fuller explanation, if required, in text adjacent to the graphic;
  • identify transcribed, extracted, or abstracted data as such, and provide appropriate source citations;
  • include identifying dates and locations when providing information about specific surnames or individuals;
  • respect the rights of others who do not wish information about themselves to be published, referenced, or linked on a website;
  • provide website access to all potential visitors by avoiding enhanced technical capabilities that may not be available to all users, remembering that not all computers are created equal;
  • avoid using features that distract from the productive use of the website, such as ones that reduce legibility, strain the eyes, dazzle the vision, or otherwise detract from the visitor's ability to easily read, study, comprehend, or print the online publication;
  • maintain their online publications at frequent intervals, changing the content to keep the information current, the links valid, and the website in good working order;
  • preserve and archive for future researchers their online publications and communications that have lasting value, using both electronic and paper duplication.

© 2000, 2001 by National Genealogical Society. Permission is granted to copy or publish this material provided it is reproduced in its entirety, including this notice.

Guidelines for Genealogical Self-Improvement and Growth

Recommended by the National Genealogical Society

  • Faced with ever-growing expectations for genealogical accuracy and reliability, family historians concerned with improving their abilities will, on a regular basis
  • study comprehensive texts and narrower-focus articles and recordings covering genealogical methods in general and the historical background and sources available for areas of particular research interest, or to which their research findings have led them;
  • interact with other genealogists and historians in person or electronically, mentoring or learning as appropriate to their relative experience levels, and through the shared experience contributing to the genealogical growth of all concerned;
  • subscribe to and read regularly at least two genealogical journals that list a number of contributing or consulting editors, or editorial board or committee members, and that require their authors to respond to a critical review of each article before it is published;
  • participate in workshops, discussion groups, institutes, conferences, and other structured learning opportunities whenever possible;
  • recognize their limitations, undertaking research in new areas or using new technology only after they master any additional knowledge and skill needed and understand how to apply it to the new subject matter or technology;
  • analyze critically at least quarterly the reported research findings of another family historian, for whatever lessons may be gleaned through the process;
  • join and participate actively in genealogical societies covering countries, localities, and topics where they have research interests, as well as the localities where they reside, increasing the resources available both to themselves and to future researchers;
  • review recently published basic texts to renew their understanding of genealogical fundamentals as currently expressed and applied;
  • examine and revise their own earlier research in the light of what they have learned through self-improvement activities, as a means for applying their new-found knowledge and for improving the quality of their work-product.

© 2002 by National Genealogical Society. Permission is granted to copy or publish this material provided it is reproduced in its entirety, including this notice

=================================

The National Genealogical Society Book Loan Collection

In November 2001, the National Genealogical Society (NGS) moved most of their ninety-eight-year-old lending library holdings from the NGS headquarters at Glebe House in Arlington, Virginia, to the Special Collections Department of St. Louis County Library (SLCL) in St. Louis, Missouri. The collection consists of approximately 20,000+ books. Previously loaned only to NGS members, this collection is now available to the general public through Interlibrary Loan (ILL) via their local library.

@http://www.slcl.org/branches/hq/sc/ngs/ngscol-main.htm

========================================

=GEDCOM=

(GEnealogical Data COMmunication) is an electronic  protocol used to transfer stored data from one genealogical software to another. 

GEDCOM was developed by the Family History Department of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) .

A successful transfer relies on consistent data stored in designated fields common to both databases. If the exporting software has more designated fields than the importing software, then some data may be lost.

If lucky the extra fields will be transformed into notes - maybe

These are the Gedcom records transfered in general:

The anatomy and physiology of a gedcom file

 '''FAM_RECORD: ='''  
  • n @<XREF:FAM>@ FAM {1:1}
  • +1 <<FAMILY_EVENT_STRUCTURE>> {0:M}
  • +2 HUSB {0:1}
  • +3 AGE <AGE_AT_EVENT> {1:1}
  • +2 WIFE {0:1}
  • +3 AGE <AGE_AT_EVENT> {1:1}
  • +1 HUSB @<XREF:INDI>@ {0:1}
  • +1 WIFE @<XREF:INDI>@ {0:1}
  • +1 CHIL @<XREF:INDI>@ {0:M}
  • +1 NCHI <COUNT_OF_CHILDREN> {0:1}
  • +1 SUBM @<XREF:SUBM>@ {0:M}
  • +1 <<LDS_SPOUSE_SEALING>> {0:M}
  • +1 <<SOURCE_CITATION>> {0:M}
  • +2 <<NOTE_STRUCTURE>> {0:M}
  • +2 <<MULTIMEDIA_LINK>> {0:M}
  • +1 <<MULTIMEDIA_LINK>> {0:M}
  • +1 <<NOTE_STRUCTURE>> {0:M}
  • +1 REFN <USER_REFERENCE_NUMBER> {0:M}
  • +2 TYPE <USER_REFERENCE_TYPE> {0:1}
  • +1 RIN <AUTOMATED_RECORD_ID> {0:1}
  • +1 <<CHANGE_DATE>> {0:1}

INDIVIDUAL_RECORD: =

  • n @<XREF:INDI>@ INDI {1:1}
  • +1 RESN <RESTRICTION_NOTICE> {0:1}
  • +1 <<PERSONAL_NAME_STRUCTURE>> {0:M}
  • +1 SEX <SEX_VALUE> {0:1}
  • +1 <<INDIVIDUAL_EVENT_STRUCTURE>> {0:M}
  • +1 <<INDIVIDUAL_ATTRIBUTE_STRUCTURE>> {0:M}
  • +1 <<LDS_INDIVIDUAL_ORDINANCE>> {0:M}
  • +1 <<CHILD_TO_FAMILY_LINK>> {0:M}
  • +1 <<SPOUSE_TO_FAMILY_LINK>> {0:M}
  • +1 SUBM @<XREF:SUBM>@ {0:M}
  • +1 <<ASSOCIATION_STRUCTURE>> {0:M}
  • +1 ALIA @<XREF:INDI>@ {0:M}
  • +1 ANCI @<XREF:SUBM>@ {0:M}
  • +1 DESI @<XREF:SUBM>@ {0:M}
  • +1 <<SOURCE_CITATION>> {0:M}
  • +1 <<MULTIMEDIA_LINK>> {0:M}
  • +1 <<NOTE_STRUCTURE>> {0:M}
  • +1 RFN <PERMANENT_RECORD_FILE_NUMBER> {0:1}
  • +1 AFN <ANCESTRAL_FILE_NUMBER> {0:1}
  • +1 REFN <USER_REFERENCE_NUMBER> {0:M}
  • +2 TYPE <USER_REFERENCE_TYPE> {0:1}
  • +1 RIN <AUTOMATED_RECORD_ID> {0:1}
  • +1 <<CHANGE_DATE>> {0:1}

MULTIMEDIA_RECORD: =

  • n @<XREF:OBJE>@ OBJE {1:1}
  • +1 FORM <MULTIMEDIA_FORMAT> {1:1}
  • +1 TITL <DESCRIPTIVE_TITLE> {0:1}
  • +1 <<NOTE_STRUCTURE>> {0:M}
  • +1 <<SOURCE_CITATION>> {0:M}
  • +1 BLOB {1:1}
  • +2 CONT <ENCODED_MULTIMEDIA_LINE> {1:M}
  • +1 OBJE @<XREF:OBJE>@ /* chain to continued object */ {0:1}
  • +1 REFN <USER_REFERENCE_NUMBER> {0:M}
  • +2 TYPE <USER_REFERENCE_TYPE> {0:1}
  • +1 RIN <AUTOMATED_RECORD_ID> {0:1}
  • +1 <<CHANGE_DATE>> {0:1}

NOTE_RECORD: =

  • n @<XREF:NOTE>@ NOTE <SUBMITTER_TEXT> {1:1}
  • +1 [ CONC | CONT] <SUBMITTER_TEXT> {0:M}
  • +1 <<SOURCE_CITATION>> {0:M}
  • +1 REFN <USER_REFERENCE_NUMBER> {0:M}
  • +2 TYPE <USER_REFERENCE_TYPE> {0:1}
  • +1 RIN <AUTOMATED_RECORD_ID> {0:1}
  • +1 <<CHANGE_DATE>> {0:1}

REPOSITORY_RECORD: =

  • n @<XREF:REPO>@ REPO {1:1}
  • +1 NAME <NAME_OF_REPOSITORY> {0:1}
  • +1 <<ADDRESS_STRUCTURE>> {0:1}
  • +1 <<NOTE_STRUCTURE>> {0:M}
  • +1 REFN <USER_REFERENCE_NUMBER> {0:M}
  • +2 TYPE <USER_REFERENCE_TYPE> {0:1}
  • +1 RIN <AUTOMATED_RECORD_ID> {0:1}
  • +1 <<CHANGE_DATE>> {0:1}

SOURCE_RECORD: =

* n  @<XREF:SOUR>@ SOUR  {1:1}
  • +1 DATA {0:1}
  • +2 EVEN <EVENTS_RECORDED> {0:M}
  • +3 DATE <DATE_PERIOD> {0:1}
  • +3 PLAC <SOURCE_JURISDICTION_PLACE> {0:1}
  • +2 AGNC <RESPONSIBLE_AGENCY> {0:1}
  • +2 <<NOTE_STRUCTURE>> {0:M}
  • +1 AUTH <SOURCE_ORIGINATOR> {0:1}
  • +2 [CONT|CONC] <SOURCE_ORIGINATOR> {0:M}
  • +1 TITL <SOURCE_DESCRIPTIVE_TITLE> {0:1}
  • +2 [CONT|CONC] <SOURCE_DESCRIPTIVE_TITLE> {0:M}
  • +1 ABBR <SOURCE_FILED_BY_ENTRY> {0:1}
  • +1 PUBL <SOURCE_PUBLICATION_FACTS> {0:1}
  • +2 [CONT|CONC] <SOURCE_PUBLICATION_FACTS> {0:M}
  • +1 TEXT <TEXT_FROM_SOURCE> {0:1}
  • +2 [CONT|CONC] <TEXT_FROM_SOURCE> {0:M}
  • +1 <<SOURCE_REPOSITORY_CITATION>> {0:1}
  • +1 <<MULTIMEDIA_LINK>> {0:M}
  • +1 <<NOTE_STRUCTURE>> {0:M}
  • +1 REFN <USER_REFERENCE_NUMBER> {0:M}
  • +2 TYPE <USER_REFERENCE_TYPE> {0:1}
  • +1 RIN <AUTOMATED_RECORD_ID> {0:1}
  • +1 <<CHANGE_DATE>> {0:1}

SUBMISSION_RECORD: =

  • n @<XREF:SUBN>@ SUBN {1:1]
  • +1 SUBM @<XREF:SUBM>@ {0:1}
  • +1 FAMF <NAME_OF_FAMILY_FILE> {0:1}
  • +1 TEMP <TEMPLE_CODE> {0:1}
  • +1 ANCE <GENERATIONS_OF_ANCESTORS> {0:1}
  • +1 DESC <GENERATIONS_OF_DESCENDANTS> {0:1}
  • +1 ORDI <ORDINANCE_PROCESS_FLAG> {0:1}
  • +1 RIN <AUTOMATED_RECORD_ID> {0:1}

ADDRESS_STRUCTURE: =

  • n ADDR <ADDRESS_LINE> {0:1}
  • +1 CONT <ADDRESS_LINE> {0:M}
  • +1 ADR1 <ADDRESS_LINE1> {0:1}
  • +1 ADR2 <ADDRESS_LINE2> {0:1}
  • +1 CITY <ADDRESS_CITY> {0:1}
  • +1 STAE <ADDRESS_STATE> {0:1}
  • +1 POST <ADDRESS_POSTAL_CODE> {0:1}
  • +1 CTRY <ADDRESS_COUNTRY> {0:1}
  • n PHON <PHONE_NUMBER> {0:3}

CHANGE_DATE: =

  • n CHAN {1:1}
  • +1 DATE <CHANGE_DATE> {1:1}
  • +2 TIME <TIME_VALUE> {0:1}
  • +1 <<NOTE_STRUCTURE>> {0:M}

CHILD_TO_FAMILY_LINK: =

  • n FAMC @<XREF:FAM>@ {1:1}
  • +1 PEDI <PEDIGREE_LINKAGE_TYPE> {0:1}
  • +1 <<NOTE_STRUCTURE>> {0:M}

EVENT_DETAIL: =

  • n TYPE <EVENT_DESCRIPTOR> {0:1}
  • n DATE <DATE_VALUE> {0:1}
  • n <<PLACE_STRUCTURE>> {0:1}
  • n <<ADDRESS_STRUCTURE>> {0:1}
  • n AGE <AGE_AT_EVENT> {0:1}
  • n AGNC <RESPONSIBLE_AGENCY> {0:1}
  • n CAUS <CAUSE_OF_EVENT> {0:1}
  • n <<SOURCE_CITATION>> {0:M}
  • +1 <<NOTE_STRUCTURE>> {0:M}
  • +1 <<MULTIMEDIA_LINK>> {0:M}
  • n <<MULTIMEDIA_LINK>> {0:M}
  • n <<NOTE_STRUCTURE>> {0:M}

FAMILY_EVENT_STRUCTURE: =

  • [
  • n [ ANUL | CENS | DIV | DIVF ] [Y|<NULL>] {1:1}
  • +1 <<EVENT_DETAIL>> {0:1}
  • |
  • n [ ENGA | MARR | MARB | MARC ] [Y|<NULL>] {1:1}
  • +1 <<EVENT_DETAIL>> {0:1}
  • |
  • n [ MARL | MARS ] [Y|<NULL>] {1:1}
  • +1 <<EVENT_DETAIL>> {0:1}
  • |
  • n EVEN {1:1}
  • +1 <<EVENT_DETAIL>> {0:1}
  • ]

INDIVIDUAL_ATTRIBUTE_STRUCTURE: =

*  [
  • n CAST <CASTE_NAME> {1:1}
  • +1 <<EVENT_DETAIL>> {0:1}
  • |
  • n DSCR <PHYSICAL_DESCRIPTION> {1:1}
  • +1 <<EVENT_DETAIL>> {0:1}
  • |
  • n EDUC <SCHOLASTIC_ACHIEVEMENT> {1:1}
  • +1 <<EVENT_DETAIL>> {0:1}
  • |
  • n IDNO <NATIONAL_ID_NUMBER> {1:1}*
  • +1 <<EVENT_DETAIL>> {0:1}
  • |
  • n NATI <NATIONAL_OR_TRIBAL_ORIGIN> {1:1}
  • +1 <<EVENT_DETAIL>> {0:1}
  • |
  • n NCHI <COUNT_OF_CHILDREN> {1:1}
  • +1 <<EVENT_DETAIL>> {0:1}
  • |
  • n NMR <COUNT_OF_MARRIAGES> {1:1}
  • +1 <<EVENT_DETAIL>> {0:1}
  • |
  • n OCCU <OCCUPATION> {1:1}
  • +1 <<EVENT_DETAIL>> {0:1}
  • |
  • n PROP <POSSESSIONS> {1:1}
  • +1 <<EVENT_DETAIL>> {0:1}
  • |
  • n RELI <RELIGIOUS_AFFILIATION> {1:1}
  • +1 <<EVENT_DETAIL>> {0:1}
  • |
  • n RESI {1:1}
  • +1 <<EVENT_DETAIL>> {0:1}
  • |
  • n SSN <SOCIAL_SECURITY_NUMBER> {0:1}
  • +1 <<EVENT_DETAIL>> {0:1}
  • |
  • n TITL <NOBILITY_TYPE_TITLE> {1:1}
  • +1 <<EVENT_DETAIL>> {0:1}
  • ]

INDIVIDUAL_EVENT_STRUCTURE: =

  • [
  • n[ BIRT | CHR ] [Y|<NULL>] {1:1}
  • +1 <<EVENT_DETAIL>> {0:1}
  • +1 FAMC @<XREF:FAM>@ {0:1}
  • |
  • n [ DEAT | BURI | CREM ] [Y|<NULL>] {1:1}
  • +1 <<EVENT_DETAIL>> {0:1}
  • |
  • n ADOP [Y|<NULL>] {1:1}
  • +1 <<EVENT_DETAIL>> {0:1}
  • +1 FAMC @<XREF:FAM>@ {0:1}
  • +2 ADOP <ADOPTED_BY_WHICH_PARENT> {0:1}
  • |
  • n [ BAPM | BARM | BASM | BLES ] [Y|<NULL>] {1:1}
  • +1 <<EVENT_DETAIL>> {0:1}
  • |
  • n [ CHRA | CONF | FCOM | ORDN ] [Y|<NULL>] {1:1}
  • +1 <<EVENT_DETAIL>> {0:1}
  • |
  • n [ NATU | EMIG | IMMI ] [Y|<NULL>] {1:1}
  • +1 <<EVENT_DETAIL>> {0:1}
  • |
  • n [ CENS | PROB | WILL] [Y|<NULL>] {1:1}
  • +1 <<EVENT_DETAIL>> {0:1}
  • |
  • n [ GRAD | RETI ] [Y|<NULL>] {1:1}
  • +1 <<EVENT_DETAIL>> {0:1}
  • |
  • n EVEN {1:1}
  • +1 <<EVENT_DETAIL>> {0:1}
  • ]

LDS_INDIVIDUAL_ORDINANCE: =

  • [
  • n [ BAPL | CONL ] {1:1}
  • +1 STAT <LDS_BAPTISM_DATE_STATUS> {0:1}
  • +1 DATE <DATE_LDS_ORD> {0:1}
  • +1 TEMP <TEMPLE_CODE> {0:1}
  • +1 PLAC <PLACE_LIVING_ORDINANCE> {0:1}
  • +1 <<SOURCE_CITATION>> {0:M}
  • +1 <<NOTE_STRUCTURE>> {0:M}
  • |
  • n ENDL {1:1}
  • +1 STAT <LDS_ENDOWMENT_DATE_STATUS> {0:1}
  • +1 DATE <DATE_LDS_ORD> {0:1}
  • +1 TEMP <TEMPLE_CODE> {0:1}
  • +1 PLAC <PLACE_LIVING_ORDINANCE> {0:1}
  • +1 <<SOURCE_CITATION>> {0:M}
  • +1 <<NOTE_STRUCTURE>> {0:M}
  • |
  • n SLGC {1:1}
  • +1 STAT <LDS_CHILD_SEALING_DATE_STATUS> {0:1}
  • +1 DATE <DATE_LDS_ORD> {0:1}
  • +1 TEMP <TEMPLE_CODE> {0:1}
  • +1 PLAC <PLACE_LIVING_ORDINANCE> {0:1}
  • +1 FAMC @<XREF:FAM>@ {1:1}
  • +1 <<SOURCE_CITATION>> {0:M}
  • +1 <<NOTE_STRUCTURE>> {0:M}
  • ]

LDS_SPOUSE_SEALING: =

  • n SLGS {1:1}
  • +1 STAT <LDS_SPOUSE_SEALING_DATE_STATUS> {0:1}
  • +1 DATE <DATE_LDS_ORD> {0:1}
  • +1 TEMP <TEMPLE_CODE> {0:1}
  • +1 PLAC <PLACE_LIVING_ORDINANCE> {0:1}
  • +1 <<SOURCE_CITATION>> {0:M}
  • +1 <<NOTE_STRUCTURE>> {0:M}

MULTIMEDIA_LINK: =

  • [ /* embedded form*/
  • n OBJE @<XREF:OBJE>@ {1:1}
  • | /* linked form*/
  • n OBJE {1:1}
  • +1 FORM <MULTIMEDIA_FORMAT> {1:1}
  • +1 TITL <DESCRIPTIVE_TITLE> {0:1}
  • +1 FILE <MULTIMEDIA_FILE_REFERENCE> {1:1}
  • +1 <<NOTE_STRUCTURE>> {0:M}
  • ]

NOTE_STRUCTURE: =

  • [
  • n NOTE @<XREF:NOTE>@ {1:1}
  • +1 SOUR @<XREF:SOUR>@ {0:M}
  • |
  • n NOTE [<SUBMITTER_TEXT> | <NULL>] {1:1}
  • +1 [ CONC | CONT ] <SUBMITTER_TEXT> {0:M}
  • +1 SOUR @<XREF:SOUR>@ {0:M}
  • ]

PERSONAL_NAME_STRUCTURE: =

  • n NAME <NAME_PERSONAL> {1:1}
  • +1 NPFX <NAME_PIECE_PREFIX> {0:1}
  • +1 GIVN <NAME_PIECE_GIVEN> {0:1}
  • +1 NICK <NAME_PIECE_NICKNAME> {0:1}
  • +1 SPFX <NAME_PIECE_SURNAME_PREFIX> {0:1}
  • +1 SURN <NAME_PIECE_SURNAME> {0:1}
  • +1 NSFX <NAME_PIECE_SUFFIX> {0:1}
  • +1 <<SOURCE_CITATION>> {0:M}
  • +2 <<NOTE_STRUCTURE>> {0:M}
  • +2 <<MULTIMEDIA_LINK>> {0:M}
  • +1 <<NOTE_STRUCTURE>> {0:M}

PLACE_STRUCTURE: =

  • n PLAC <PLACE_VALUE> {1:1}
  • +1 FORM <PLACE_HIERARCHY> {0:1}
  • +1 <<SOURCE_CITATION>> {0:M}
  • +1 <<NOTE_STRUCTURE>> {0:M}

SOURCE_CITATION: =

  • [
  • n SOUR @<XREF:SOUR>@ /* pointer to source record */ {1:1}
  • +1 PAGE <WHERE_WITHIN_SOURCE> {0:1}
  • +1 EVEN <EVENT_TYPE_CITED_FROM> {0:1}
  • +2 ROLE <ROLE_IN_EVENT> {0:1}
  • +1 DATA {0:1}
  • +2 DATE <ENTRY_RECORDING_DATE> {0:1}
  • +2 TEXT <TEXT_FROM_SOURCE> {0:M}
  • +3 [ CONC | CONT ] <TEXT_FROM_SOURCE> {0:M}
  • +1 QUAY <CERTAINTY_ASSESSMENT> {0:1}
  • +1 <<MULTIMEDIA_LINK>> {0:M}
  • +1 <<NOTE_STRUCTURE>> {0:M}
  • /* Systems not using source records */
  • n SOUR <SOURCE_DESCRIPTION> {1:1}
  • +1 [ CONC | CONT ] <SOURCE_DESCRIPTION> {0:M}
  • +1 TEXT <TEXT_FROM_SOURCE> {0:M}
  • +2 [CONC | CONT ] <TEXT_FROM_SOURCE> {0:M}
  • +1 <<NOTE_STRUCTURE>> {0:M}

SOURCE_REPOSITORY_CITATION: =

  • n REPO @<XREF:REPO>@ {1:1}
  • +1 <<NOTE_STRUCTURE>> {0:M}
  • +1 CALN <SOURCE_CALL_NUMBER> {0:M}
  • +2 MEDI <SOURCE_MEDIA_TYPE> {0:1}

SPOUSE_TO_FAMILY_LINK: =

  • n FAMS @<XREF:FAM>@ {1:1}
  • +1 <<NOTE_STRUCTURE>> {0:M

more techy detailed stuff is here ery interesting reading - http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~pmcbride/gedcom/55gctoc.htm

Helps / Conversions

Roman Numeral Conversion - to or from

Genealogy Primer

Access Genealogy

The National Genealogical Society Book Loan Collection - Interlibrary Loan St. Louis County Library (SLCL) in St. Louis, Missouri

BYU Family History Library - books etc. that readable there and possibly available for down load

Birthdate Calculator - Calculate birth date from death date and age on tombstones and death certificates.