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Nobel Prize in Physics

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  • Murray Gell-Mann
    Murray Gell-Mann (/ˈmʌri ˈɡɛl ˈmæn/; born September 15, 1929) is an American physicist who received the 1969 Nobel Prize in physics for his work on th...
  • Serge Haroche
    Serge Haroche (born 11 September 1944)[1] is a French physicist who was awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize for Physics jointly with David J. Wineland for "ground-breaking experimental methods that enable m...
  • Jean Perrin (1870 - 1942)
    Wikipedia: Jean Baptiste Perrin ForMemRS (30 September 1870 – 17 April 1942) was a French physicist who, in his studies of the Brownian motion of minute particles suspended in liquids, verified ...
  • Richard Feynman, Nobel Prize in Physics 1965 (1918 - 1988)
    American physicist who was born in New York City on May 11, 1918. He grew up in Far Rockaway, Queens and when he was about 10, he started to buy old radios to use in his "personal laboratory," a collec...
  • Willis Eugene Lamb, Jr., Nobel Prize in Physics, 1955 (1913 - 2008)
    Willis Eugene Lamb, Jr. (July 12, 1913 – May 15, 2008) was an American physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1955 together with Polykarp Kusch "for his discoveries concerning the fine ...

The Nobel Prize in Physics has been awarded 108 times to 199 Nobel Laureates between 1901 and 2014. John Bardeen is the only Nobel Laureate who has been awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics twice, in 1956 and 1972. This means that a total of 198 individuals have received the Nobel Prize in Physics.

  • 2014: jointly to: Isamu Akasaki 赤崎 勇 (b. 1929) Japanese electric engineering scientist, to Hiroshi Amano 天野 浩 (b. 1960) Japanese physicist and to Shuji Nakamura 中村 修二 (b. 1954) Japanese American material scientist, "for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources".
  • 2013: jointly to: François Englert (b. 1932) Belgian physicist, and to: Peter W. Higgs (b. 1929) British physicist, "for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider"
  • 2012: jointly to: Serge Haroche (b. 1944) French physicist, and to David J. Wineland (b. 1944) American physicist, "for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems".
  • 2011: one half to: Saul Perlmutter (b. 1959) American astrophysicist, and the other half jointly to: Brian P. Schmidt (b. 1967) American-born Australian astrophysicist, and to: Adam G. Riess (b. 1969) American astrophysicist, "for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae".
  • 2010 Andre Geim, Konstantin Novoselov
  • 2009 Charles Kuen Kao, Willard S. Boyle, George E. Smith
  • 2008 Yoichiro Nambu, Makoto Kobayashi, Toshihide Maskawa
  • 2007 Albert Fert, Peter Grünberg
  • 2006 John C. Mather, George F. Smoot
  • 2005 Roy J. Glauber, John L. Hall, Theodor W. Hänsch
  • 2004 David J. Gross, H. David Politzer, Frank Wilczek
  • 2003 Alexei A. Abrikosov, Vitaly L. Ginzburg, Anthony J. Leggett
  • 2002 Raymond Davis Jr., Masatoshi Koshiba, Riccardo Giacconi
  • 2001 Eric A. Cornell, Wolfgang Ketterle, Carl E. Wieman
  • 2000 Zhores I. Alferov, Herbert Kroemer, Jack S. Kilby
  • 1999 Gerardus 't Hooft, Martinus J.G. Veltman
  • 1998 Robert B. Laughlin, Horst L. Störmer, Daniel C. Tsui
  • 1997 Steven Chu, Claude Cohen-Tannoudji, William D. Phillips
  • 1996 David M. Lee, Douglas D. Osheroff, Robert C. Richardson
  • 1995 Martin L. Perl, Frederick Reines
  • 1994 Bertram N. Brockhouse, Clifford G. Shull
  • 1993 Russell A. Hulse, Joseph H. Taylor Jr.
  • 1992 Georges Charpak
  • 1991 Pierre-Gilles de Gennes
  • 1990 Jerome I. Friedman, Henry W. Kendall, Richard E. Taylor
  • 1989 Norman F. Ramsey, Hans G. Dehmelt, Wolfgang Paul
  • 1988 Leon M. Lederman, Melvin Schwartz, Jack Steinberger
  • 1987 J. Georg Bednorz, K. Alexander Müller
  • 1986 Ernst Ruska, Gerd Binnig, Heinrich Rohrer
  • 1985 Klaus von Klitzing
  • 1984 Carlo Rubbia, Simon van der Meer
  • 1983: jointly to: Subramanyan Chandrasekhar, and William Alfred Fowler
  • 1982 Kenneth G. Wilson
  • 1981: jointly, half prize to: Nicolaas Bloembergen (b. 1920) Dutch-American physicist, and to: Arthur Leonard Schawlow (1921 – 1999) American physicist, "for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy"; and the other half to: Kai M. Siegbahn (1918 – 2007) Swedish physicist, "for his contribution to the development of high-resolution electron spectroscopy"
  • 1980 James Watson Cronin, Val Logsdon Fitch
  • 1979 Sheldon Lee Glashow, Abdus Salam, Steven Weinberg
  • 1978: One half awarded to: Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa (1894 - 1984), Russian Physicist, "for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics", the other half jointly to: Arno Allan Penzias (b. 1933) American astrophysicist, & Robert Woodrow Wilson (b. 1936) American astrophysicist "for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation".
  • 1977: jointly to: Philip Warren Anderson, Sir Nevill Francis Mott, John Hasbrouck van Vleck (1899 - 1980) American physicist and mathematician, "for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems".
  • 1976 Burton Richter, Samuel Chao Chung Ting
  • 1975 Aage Niels Bohr, Ben Roy Mottelson, Leo James Rainwater
  • 1974 Sir Martin Ryle, Antony Hewish
  • 1973 Leo Esaki, Ivar Giaever, Brian David Josephson
  • 1972: jointly to: John Bardeen (1908 - 1991) American physicist & electrical engineer, Leon Neil Cooper, and to: John Robert Schrieffer. "for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory".
  • 1971 Dennis Gabor
  • 1970 Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén, Louis Eugène Félix Néel
  • 1969 Murray Gell-Mann
  • 1968 Luis Walter Alvarez
  • 1967: Hans Albrecht Bethe (1906 – 2005) German-American versatile theoretical physicist with important contributions to quantum electrodynamics, nuclear physics, solid-state physics and astrophysics: "for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars".
  • 1966 Alfred Kastler
  • 1965 Sin-Itiro Tomonaga, Julian Schwinger, Richard P. Feynman
  • 1964 Charles Hard Townes, Nicolay Gennadiyevich Basov, Aleksandr Mikhailovich Prokhorov
  • 1963: Half the prize to: Eugene Paul Wigner (1902 – 1995) Hungarian American theoretical physicist and mathematician, "for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles"; the other half jointly to Maria Goeppert Mayer (1906 – 1972) German-born American theoretical physicist, and to J. Hans D. Jensen (1907 – 1973) German nuclear physicist, "for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure".
  • 1962: Lev Davidovich Landau (1908 – 1968) Russian Physicist and mathematician, "for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium".
  • 1961 Robert Hofst
  • 1960 Donald Arthur Glaser
  • 1959 Emilio Gino Segrè, Owen Chamberlain
  • 1958 Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov, Il´ja Mikhailovich Frank, Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm
  • 1957 Chen Ning Yang, Tsung-Dao (T.D.) Lee
  • 1956: jointly to: William Bradford Shockley, John Bardeen (1908 - 1991) American physicist & electrical engineer, and to: Walter Houser Brattain, "for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect".
  • 1955: Willis Eugene Lamb (1913 - 2008) American physicist, "for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum" and Polykarp Kusch (1911 - 1993) American physicist, "for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron".
  • 1954: divided equally between: Max Born (1882 - 1970) German-born British physicist , "for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction", and Walther Bothe (1891 - 1957). German physicist, "for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith".
  • 1953 Frits (Frederik) Zernike
  • 1952: jointly to: Felix Bloch (1905 – 1983) Swiss-born American nuclear physicist, and to: Edward Mills Purcell (1912 – 1997) American nuclear physicist, "for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith".
  • 1951: jointly to: Sir John Douglas Cockcroft OM KCB CBE FRS (1897 – 1967 ) British nuclear physicist & [ Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton] (1903 – 1955) Irish nuclear physicist, "for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles".
  • 1950 Cecil Frank Powell
  • 1949 Hideki Yukawa
  • 1948: Patrick Maynard Stuart Blackett (1897 – 1974) British particle physicist, "for his development of the Wilson cloud chamber method, and his discoveries therewith in the fields of nuclear physics and cosmic radiation".
  • 1947 Sir Edward Victor Appleton
  • 1946: Percy Williams Bridgman (1882 – 1961) American physicist, "for the invention of an apparatus to produce extremely high pressures, and for the discoveries he made therewith in the field of high pressure physics".
  • 1945: Wolfgang Pauli (1900 – 1958) Austrian born Swiss physicist of Jewish descent, "for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli Principle".
  • 1944: Isidor Isaac Rabi (1898 – 1988) Galicia born American physicist of Jewish descent, "for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei".
  • 1943: Otto Stern (1888 – 1969) American-German physicist of Jewish descent, "for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton".
  • 1942: Not awarded.
  • 1941: Not awarded.
  • 1940: Not awarded.
  • 1939: Ernest Orlando Lawrence (1901 – 1958) American physicist, "for the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artificial radioactive elements".
  • 1938: Enrico Fermi (1901 – 1954) Italian-born, American physicist frequently referred to as "one of the two fathers of the atomic bomb", "for his demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons".
  • 1937 Clinton Joseph Davisson, George Paget Thomson
  • 1936 Victor Franz Hess, Carl David Anderson
  • 1935: [ James Chadwick] (1891 – 1974) English physicist, "for the discovery of the neutron".
  • 1934 Not awarded.
  • 1933: jointly to: Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac (1902 – 1984) English theoretical physicist, "for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory".
  • 1932: Werner Heisenberg (1901 – 1976) German physicist, "for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen".
  • 1931: Not awarded.
  • 1930: Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman (1888 - 1970) Tamil-Indian physicist, "for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the Raman effect ". He was the first Asian and first non-White to receive any Nobel Prize in the sciences.
  • 1929: Prince Louis-Victor Pierre Raymond de Broglie (1892 – 1987) French physicist, "for his discovery of the wave nature of electrons".
  • 1928 Owen Willans Richardson
  • 1927: jointly to: Arthur Holly Compton (1892 – 1962) American atomic physicist, "for his discovery of the effect named after him"; and to: [ Charles Thomson Rees Wilson] (1869 – 1959) British atomic physicist, "for his method of making the paths of electrically charged particles visible by condensation of vapour".
  • 1926: Jean Baptiste Perrin (1870 – 1942) French molecular physicist, "for his work on the discontinuous structure of matter, and especially for his discovery of sedimentation equilibrium".
  • 1925: Jointly to: Gustav Ludwig Hertz (1887 – 1975) German experimental physicist, "for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom".
  • 1924: Manne Siegbahn (1886 – 1978) Swedish physicist, Georg Siegbahn, "for his discoveries and research in the field of X-ray spectroscopy".
  • 1923: Robert Andrews Millikan (1868 – 1953) American experimental physicist, "for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect".
  • 1922: Niels Henrik David Bohr (1885 – 1962) Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum mechanics. Received the Nobel Prize "for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them."
  • 1921: Albert Einstein (1879 – 1955) German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of general relativity, effecting a revolution in physics. Often regarded as the father of modern physics and one of the most prolific intellects in human history.Received the Nobel Prize "for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect". The latter was pivotal in establishing the quantum theory within physics.
  • 1920: Charles Edouard Guillaume (1861 – 1938) Swiss physycist, "in recognition of the service he had rendered to precision measurements in physics by his discovery of anomalies in nickel steel alloys."
  • 1919 Johannes Stark
  • 1918: Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck (1858 – 1947) German physicist, founder of the quantum theory, and thus one of the most important physicists of the twentieth century, "in recognition of the services he rendered to the advancement of Physics by his discovery of energy quanta".
  • 1917: Charles Glover Barkla (1877 – 1944) British physicist, "for his discovery of the characteristic Röntgen radiation of the elements".
  • 1916: Not awarded.
  • 1915: jointly to: Sir William Lawrence Bragg (1890 – 1971) Australian-born British physicist and X-ray crystallographer, "for their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays".
  • 1914: Max von Laue (1879 – 1960) was a German physicist, "for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals".
  • 1913: Heike Kamerlingh Onnes (1853 – 1926) Dutch physicist, "for his investigations on the properties of matter at low temperatures which led, inter alia, to the production of liquid helium".
  • 1912: Nils Gustaf Dalén (1869 – 1937) Swedish industrialist and inventor, for his "invention of automatic regulators for use in conjunction with gas accumulators for illuminating lighthouses and buoys".
  • 1911: Wilhelm Wien (1864 – 1928) German physicist, "for his discoveries regarding the laws governing the radiation of heat."
  • 1910: Johannes Diderik van der Waals (1837 – 1923) Dutch theoretical physicist and thermodynamicist, "for his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids".
  • 1909: Jointly to: Guglielmo Marconi (1874 – 1937) Italian inventor, and to Karl Ferdinand Braun (1850 – 1918) German inventor & physicist, "in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy".
  • 1908: Gabriel Lippmann (1845 – 1921) Franco-Luxembourgish physicist and inventor, "for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference".
  • 1907: Albert Abraham Michelson (1852 – 1931) American physicist, "for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and metrological investigations carried out with their aid".
  • 1906: Joseph John Thomson (1856 – 1940) English physicist, "in recognition of the great merits of his theoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases".
  • '1905:' Philipp Eduard Anton von Lenard - German physicist, won Nobel prize for his remarkable work on cathode rays and the discovery of their many properties.
  • 1904: Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt) (1842 – 1919) English physicist who discovered the element argon, "for his investigations of the densities of the most important gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these studies".
  • 1903: Jointly to: Marie Curie, née Sklodowska, Polish–French physicist–chemist. Pioneering researcher of radioactivity. First person honored with two Nobel Prizes — in physics (1903) and later in chemistry (1911), "in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel".
  • 1902: jointly to: Pieter Zeeman (1865 - 1943) Dutch physicists, "in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena".
  • 1901 Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (1845 – 1923) German physicis, "in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him".