Atahualpa Cápac Yupanqui, XI Inca

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About Atahualpa Cápac Yupanqui, XI Inca

In 1946 the Government of Peru officially confirmed that Princess Zoila Augusta Emperatriz Chávarri del Castillo, known the world over as the 4-octave soprano and film star Yma Sumac, was a direct descendant of Atahulalpa the last emperor of the Inca.

At one of her performances, as she and her staff passed the theater in which she was to perform, they humorously commented that her name in the marquee lights reflected backwards in the windows across the street as "Amy Cumas". After this story was repeated, some started to propagate this as fake news, leaving some to actually question whether she was really the princess Yma Sumac, or if she was a common woman whose real name was Amy Cumas. But the rhumors were put to rest when it was revealed that Yma Sumac was actually her stage name, which in turn was just a twist on her own mother's name, Imma Shumaq. She was indeed whom she claimed to be.


Atahualpa (quechua: Ata-wallpa 'gallo') fue el decimotercero gobernante inca, y aunque tuvo sucesores nombrados por los españoles es considerado como el último emperador incaico. Nació en 1500 sin embargo, el lugar de su nacimiento es aún incierto.

Cuando Huáscar se coronó en Cuzco como emperador le causó mucha preocupación la simpatía de su hermano con el ejército, motivo por el cual le ordenó que se presentara en Cuzco. Atahualpa, convencido por sus generales de que si iba sería muerto, decidió organizar un ejército norteño y se declaró Inca en la ciudad de Quito. De esta manera se dio inicio a la famosa guerra civil inca.

Logró vencer a Huáscar en 1532 en Quipaypan, cerca de Cuzco, tras lo cual Atahualpa se proclamó Inca o emperador, después de haber ganado la guerra se dirigió de inmediato a Cajamarca para conocer y capturar a la fuerza a los españoles( unos 150), Atahuallpa con una comitiva de 70000 a 200000 personas. Después de un inesperado ataque español fue hecho prisionero por Francisco Pizarro. En prisión mantuvo algunos privilegios: se le permitió seguir administrando el imperio, aprendió a leer y escribir, también mantuvo una relación amistosa con Francisco Pizarro. A los pocos meses fue acusado de traición por los españoles, lo acusaron de ocultar un tesoro, conspiración contra la corona española y de matar a Huáscar. Para su rescate fue obligado a pagar dos habitaciones llenas de plata y otra de oro, si no llegase ha completarla de oro lo completarian de plata, además de mujeres, entre ellas, su prima Cuxirimay Ocllo quien fue traída desde el Cuzco y entregada como concubina a Francisco Pizarro. Aunque cumplió con su oferta, fue ejecutado por todos sus delitos. Escogió ser ahorcado después de bautizarse como cristiano; la otra opción era morir quemado si no se bautizaba.

Atahualpa gobernó el Imperio entre 1532 - 1533. Al contrario de lo pensado comunmente, Atahualpa no forma parte de la capaccuna (dinastía inca) al no haber llegado a ceñir la mascaipacha o tocado imperial. Por lo tanto sería impropio llamarle Sapa Inca, como algunas veces se le titula.

Hijo de Huayna Cápac y la bella princesa Paccha primogénita del Rey de Quito a quien Atahualpa despojo de su reino e hija.

En su niñez y juventud fue dichoso, de amplio entendimiento, sagaz, aguerrido y belicoso, propiedades que exhibió en la guerra fraticida que declaró a su hermano Huáscar por el domino total del imperio incaico, no obstante haber sido nominado por su padre como único heredero del reino de Quito, en razón del gran cariño que le profesaba y por haber sido éste propiedad de su madre la bella Paccha.

Tras la muerte de su padre, se rebeló contra Huáscar y sus tropas, dirigidas por Calcuchímac, Quisquis y Rumiñahui, derrotaron al ejército cusqueño en la batalla de Cotabamba (Apurímac). Esta guerra fraticida dividió al imperio inca y la ganó Atahualpa, ensañándose con su derrotado hermano, familiares y fieles de éste, convirtiéndose en el azote de la Capital del Tahuantinsuyo,

Atahualpa marchó a Cajamarca para ser coronado Inca y en el trayecto era aclamado por los pueblos del norte. Sin embargo, este hecho inaudito aprovechó muy bien Pizarro, que con sólo 170 efectivos bien preparados y armados dispersó al numeroso ejército del Quiteño, concretando la derrota, captura y prisión de Atahualpa, el 16 de Noviembre de 1532.

En estas circunstancias, Atahualpa negocia su libertad, entregando a solicitud de los españoles dos cuartos llenos de oro y plata respectivamente, a pesar de ello fue condenado a muerte (quemado vivo) pero por haberse convertido al cristianismo la sentencia fue conmutada por la pena del garrote.

El 26 de Julio de 1533 cinco meses después de la muerte de Huáscar lo ejecutaron luego de haber sido bautizado con el nombre de Juan Santos Atahualpa, así terminó su vida y la del Poderoso Imperio Incaico.

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Atahualpa, Atahuallpa, Atabalipa, or Atawallpa (March 20, 1497 Cusco, Perú – Cajamarca, July 26, 1533), was the last Sapa Inca or sovereign emperor of the Tahuantinsuyu, or the Inca Empire. Born in what is now Cusco, Perú, Atahualpa was the offspring of Inca Huayna Capac and Pacha Duchicela, a Quiteña princess and first-born of Cacha Duchicela.[1] The union was a politically expedient one, as the southern Ecuadorian Andes had been conquered by Inca Huayna Capac's father, Inca Tupac-Yupanqui some years earlier. There were still elements of revolt among the people. As an adult, Atahualpa became emperor upon defeating his older half-brother Huáscar in a civil war sparked by the death of their father, Inca Huayna Capac, from an infectious disease which may have been smallpox.[2]

During the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire, the Spaniard Francisco Pizarro captured Atahualpa and used him to control the Inca empire. Eventually, the Spanish executed Atahualpa by garrote, ending the Inca Empire (although several successors claimed the title of Sapa Inca ("unique Inca") and led a resistance against the invading Spaniards). After Atahualpa died, the Incan Empire began to fall apart.

Civil war Huáscar, who was not a warrior by nature, sent to Cusco the great southern army under the command of General Atoc to persuade Atahualpa to lay down his arms. Huáscar and Atahualpa's armies first encountered each other on the Plain of Chillopampa.[3] Atahualpa was captured after the battle but fled from captivity with the help of a young girl and rejoined his generals Chalicuchima, Rumiñahui, and Quizquiz. He gathered an army and defeated Huáscar's army at the battle of Chimborazo. General Atoc was taken prisoner and fell victim to the cruelties of Chalicuchima who, according to one source, had a gold incrusted chicha cup made out of Atoc's skull, and used skin from the bottom of his feet for drums. Atahualpa pressed onward and began to conquer the rest of the empire, including the town of Tumebamba, whose citizens he punished in gruesome ways for supporting Huáscar at the beginning of the civil war.

The final battle took place at Quipaipan, where Huáscar was captured and his army disbanded. Atahualpa had stopped in the city of Cajamarca in the Andes with his army of about 80,000 troops on his way south to Cusco to claim his throne when he encountered the Spanish led by Pizarro.

Spanish conquest In January 1531, a Spanish expedition landed on what is now the northern coast of Ecuador; led by Francisco Pizarro. Its 180 men and 37 horses were on a quest to conquer the Inca Empire.[4] The Spaniards advanced to the south and occupied Tumbes, where they found out about the civil war between Huascar and Atahualpa.[5] After receiving reinforcements, Pizarro founded the city of San Miguel de Piura in September 1532 and then marched towards the heart of the Inca Empire with a force of 106 foot-soldiers and 62 horsemen.[6] At that time, Atahualpa and his army were in Cajamarca; on hearing about the party of strangers advancing through the empire, he sent an Inca noble to investigate them.[7] This envoy stayed for two days in the Spanish camp, studied the weapons and horses, and delivered an invitation to the Spanish to visit Cajamarca to meet Atahualpa.[8] Atahualpa did not consider the small Spanish force a threat so he let them march to meet him, expecting to capture them personally; thus, Pizarro and his men advanced unopposed through some very difficult terrain, arriving to Cajamarca on November 15, 1532.

The town of Cajamarca was mostly empty except for a few hundred acllas; the Spaniards occupied long buildings on the main plaza. Atahualpa and his army had camped on a hill close to Cajamarca; he occupied a building close to the Konoj hot springs while his soldiers had erected numerous tents around him.[10] Pizarro sent an embassy to the Inca, led by Hernando de Soto with 15 horsemen and an interpreter; shortly thereafter he sent 20 more horsemen led by his brother Hernando Pizarro as reinforcements in case of an Inca attack.[11] During the interview, the Spaniards invited Atahualpa to visit Cajamarca to meet Francisco Pizarro; the Inca promised to go the following day.[12] In the town, Pizarro prepared an ambush to trap the Inca: the Spanish cavalry and infantry occupied three long buildings around the plaza, while some musketeers and four pieces of artillery were located in a stone structure in the middle of the square.[13] The plan was to persuade Atahualpa to submit to the authority of the Spaniards and, if this failed, there were two options: a surprise attack if success seemed possible or to keep a friendly stand if the Inca forces appeared too powerful.[14]

The following day, Atahualpa left his camp at midday preceded by a large number of men in ceremonial attire; as the procession advanced slowly, Pizarro sent his brother Hernando to invite the Inca to enter Cajamarca before nightfall.[15] Atahualpa entered the town late in the afternoon in a litter carried by eighty lords; with him were four other lords in litters and hammocks and 5-6,000 men carrying small battle axes, slings and pouches of stones underneath their clothes.[16] The Inca found no Spaniards in the plaza, as they were all inside the buildings—the only one to come out was the Dominican friar Vincente de Valverde with an interpreter.[17] Although there are different accounts as to what Valverde said, most agree that he invited the Inca to come inside to talk and dine with Pizarro. Atahualpa instead demanded the return of every single thing the Spaniards had taken since they landed.[18] According to eyewitness accounts, Valverde then spoke about the Catholic religion but did not deliver the requerimiento, a speech requiring the listener to submit to the authority of the Spanish Crown and accept Catholicism.[19] At Atahualpa's request, Valverde gave him his breviary but after a brief examination, the Inca threw it to the ground; Valverde hurried back toward Pizarro, calling on the Spaniards to attack.[20] At that moment, Pizarro gave the signal; the Spanish infantry and cavalry came out of their hiding places and charged the unsuspecting Inca retinue, killing a great number while the rest fled in panic.[21] Pizarro led the charge on Atahualpa but managed to capture him only after killing all those carrying him and turning over his litter.[22]

Prison and execution On November 17 the Spaniards sacked the Inca army camp in which they found great quantities of gold, silver and emeralds. Noticing their lust for precious metals, Atahualpa offered to fill a large room about 22 feet (6.7 m) long and 17 feet (5.2 m) wide up to a height of 8 feet (2.4 m) once with gold and twice with silver within two months.[23] It is commonly believed that the Inca offered this ransom to regain his freedom; however, it seems likelier that he did so to avoid being killed, as none of the early chroniclers mention any commitment by the Spaniards to free Atahualpa once the metals were delivered.[24]

Outnumbered and fearing an imminent attack from the Inca general Rumiñahui, after several months the Spanish saw Atahualpa as too much of a liability and decided to execute him. Pizarro staged a mock trial and found Atahualpa guilty of revolting against the Spanish, practicing idolatry and murdering Huáscar, his brother. Atahualpa was sentenced to execution by burning. He was horrified, since the Inca believed that the soul would not be able to go on to the afterlife if the body were burned. Friar Vicente de Valverde, who had earlier offered the Bible to Atahualpa, intervened, telling Atahualpa that if he agreed to convert to Catholicism, he would convince Pizarro to commute the sentence. Atahualpa agreed to be baptized into the Catholic faith. He was given the name Juan Santos Atahualpa. In accordance with his request, he was strangled with a garrote instead of being burned on July 26, 1533. Following his execution, his clothes and some of his skin were burned, and his remains were given a Christian burial.[25] Atahualpa was succeeded by his brother, the puppet Inca Túpac Huallpa, and later by another brother Manco Inca.

After Pizarro's death, Inés Yupanqui, the favorite sister of Atahualpa, who had been given to Pizarro in marriage by her brother, married a Spanish cavalier named Ampuero and left for Spain. They took her daughter with them, and she was later legitimized by imperial decree. Francisca Pizarro Yupanqui married her uncle Hernándo Pizarro in Spain, on October 10, 1537— they had a son, Francisco Pizarro y Pizarro. This son, in turn, married twice and had offspring, the Marqueses de La Conquista. The Pizarro line survived Hernando's death, although it is currently extinct in the male line. Pizarro's third son, by relative of Atahualpa renamed Angelina, who was never legitimized, died shortly after reaching Spain.[26] Another relative, Catalina Capa-Yupanqui, who died in 1580, married a Portuguese nobleman named António Ramos, son of António Colaço and wife Violante Fernandes Veloso. Their daughter was Francisca de Lima, who married Álvaro de Abreu de Lima, another Portuguese nobleman, and had issue in Portugal.

See also

http://archaeology.org/issues/100-features/lost-tombs/1093-atahualp...

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Atahualpa Cápac Yupanqui, XI Inca's Timeline

1500
1500
Tomebamba, Cuenca, Ecuador
1520
1520
Pacajes, La Paz Department, Bolivia
1527
1527
Cuzco Tawantinsuyu, Peru
1532
1532
poblado indígena, Peru
1533
July 26, 1533
Age 33
Peru
????
Cajamarca, Peru