Charles Robert Darwin

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Charles Robert Darwin

Russian: Чарлз Роберт Darwin
Birthdate: (73)
Birthplace: St.Clouds, Shrewsbury, Shropshire, UK
Death: April 19, 1882 (73)
Downe House, Downe, Kent, UK
Place of Burial: London, Greater London, England, United Kingdom
Immediate Family:

Son of Dr. Robert Darwin, FRS and Susannah Sukey Darwin
Husband of Emma Darwin
Father of William Erasmus Darwin; Anne Elizabeth Darwin; Mary Eleanor Darwin; Henrietta Emma Darwin; Sir George Howard Darwin, KCB FRS FRSE and 5 others
Brother of Marianne Darwin; Caroline Sarah Wedgewood; Susan Elizabeth Darwin; Erasmus Alvey Darwin and Emily Catherine Darwin

Managed by: Terry Jackson (Switzer)
Last Updated:

About Charles Robert Darwin

Charles Robert Darwin, FRS FRGS FLS FZS was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution. He established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors and, in a joint publication with Alfred Russel Wallace, introduced his scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection, in which the struggle for existence has a similar effect to the artificial selection involved in selective breeding.

Darwin published his theory of evolution with compelling evidence in his 1859 book On the Origin of Species, overcoming scientific rejection of earlier concepts of transmutation of species. By the 1870s, the scientific community and much of the general public had accepted evolution as a fact. However, many favoured competing explanations and it was not until the emergence of the modern evolutionary synthesis from the 1930s to the 1950s that a broad consensus developed in which natural selection was the basic mechanism of evolution. Darwin's scientific discovery is the unifying theory of the life sciences, explaining the diversity of life.

Darwin's early interest in nature led him to neglect his medical education at the University of Edinburgh; instead, he helped to investigate marine invertebrates. Studies at the University of Cambridge (Christ's College) encouraged his passion for natural science. His five-year voyage on HMS Beagle established him as an eminent geologist whose observations and theories supported Charles Lyell's uniformitarian ideas, and publication of his journal of the voyage made him famous as a popular author.

Puzzled by the geographical distribution of wildlife and fossils he collected on the voyage, Darwin began detailed investigations, and in 1838 conceived his theory of natural selection. Although he discussed his ideas with several naturalists, he needed time for extensive research and his geological work had priority. He was writing up his theory in 1858 when Alfred Russel Wallace sent him an essay that described the same idea, prompting immediate joint publication of both of their theories. Darwin's work established evolutionary descent with modification as the dominant scientific explanation of diversification in nature. In 1871 he examined human evolution and sexual selection in The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, followed by The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (1872). His research on plants was published in a series of books, and in his final book, The Formation of Vegetable Mould, through the Actions of Worms (1881), he examined earthworms and their effect on soil.

Darwin has been described as one of the most influential figures in human history, and he was honoured by burial in Westminster Abbey.

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О Чарлз Роберт Darwin (русский)

Чарлз Ро́берт Да́рвин (англ. Charles Robert Darwin (tʃɑrlz 'dɑː.wɪn); 12 февраля 1809 — 19 апреля 1882) — английский натуралист и путешественник, одним из первых пришедший к выводу, и обосновавший идею о том, что все виды живых организмов эволюционируют во времени и происходят от общих предков. В своей теории, развёрнутое изложение которой было опубликовано в 1859 году в книге «Происхождение видов», основным механизмом эволюции видов Дарвин назвал естественный отбор. Позднее развивал теорию полового отбора. Ему также принадлежит одно из первых обобщающих исследований о происхождении человека.

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Charles Robert Darwin's Timeline

1809
February 12, 1809
Shrewsbury, Shropshire, UK
1839
December 27, 1839
Age 30
London, Greater London, UK
1841
March 2, 1841
Age 32
London, Greater London, UK
1842
September 23, 1842
Age 33
England
1843
September 25, 1843
Age 34
Downe, Greater London, UK
1845
July 9, 1845
Age 36
Downe, Kent, UK
1847
July 8, 1847
Age 38
Downe, Kent
1848
August 16, 1848
Age 39
Downe, Kent, UK
1850
January 15, 1850
Age 40
Downe, Kent, UK