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Haplogroups of People from History on GENI

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Only cited studies will be included here.


Jean-Paul Marat H2 (mtDNA)

Bloodstained copy of L'Ami du peuple held by Marat at his assassination
In 2020, a genetic study showed that the figure of the French Revolution Jean-Paul Marat killed in 1793, had the haplogroup H2 (mtDNA).[ Metagenomic analysis of a blood stain from the French revolutionary Jean-Paul Marat (1743-1793) ]

Louis XVII H (mtDNA)

Heart of Louis XVII inside a crystal urn, now buried at St Denis
Louis XVII was the younger son of King of France Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette. His maternal haplogroup is H. [ DNA analysis of the putative heart of Louis XVII, son of Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette ]

Queen Marie Antoinette H (mtDNA)

Locket containing Marie Antoinette's hair in the British Museum
The maternal haplogroup of Marie Antoinette is H.[ Mitochondrial DNA analysis on remains of a putative son of Louis XVI, King of France and Marie-Antoinette Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroup of the Queen Marie-Antoinette (1755-1793) ]

Napoleon E1b1b1c1 (E-M34) (Y-DNA)

Napoleon's Tomb - Paris, FR
Analysis of two beard hairs revealed that Napoleon Bonaparte belonged to Y haplogroup E1b1b1c1 (E-M34). Charles Napoléon, the current collateral male descendant of Napoléon I, belongs to this same Y-haplogroup [ Haplogroup of the Y Chromosome of Napoléon the First ; Napoleon Bonaparte’s Y-DNA Haplogroup Belonged to E1b1b1c1* (E-M34) ]

Nicholas II, Tsar of Russia T (mtDNA)

The last tsar of Russia, Nicholas II of Russia, was assigned to mtDNA haplogroup T, based on mutations 16126C, 16169Y, 16294T, 16296T, 73G, 263G, and 315.1C. His results matched those of a cousin, Prince Nikolai Trubetskoy, but showed a heteroplasmy – a mix of two different sequences – indicating a recent mutation. To further confirm the identity, the tsar's brother, Grand Duke George, was exhumed and found to have the same mitochondrial heteroplasmy. [ Mitochondrial DNA sequence heteroplasmy in the Grand Duke of Russia Georgij Romanov establishes the authenticity of the remains of Tsar Nicholas II ]

Empress Alexandra of Russia & her Children H (mtDNA)

Grave site where the Romanov bodies were discovered

Empress Alexandra of Russia and her children, Olga, Tatiana, Maria, Anastasia, and Alexei were identified as belonging to mtDNA haplogroup H (16111T, 16357C, 263G, 315.1C). This identity was confirmed by match to that of her grand-nephew, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. [ Mystery Solved: The Identification of the Two Missing Romanov Children Using DNA Analysis ]

Ramses III E-M2 aka E1b1a (Y-DNA)

Ramses III's mummy
In December 2012, a genetic study conducted by the same researchers who decoded King Tutankhamun's DNA predicted using an STR-predictor that Ramesses III, second pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty of Egypt and considered to be the last great New Kingdom regent to wield any substantial authority over Egypt, belonged to Y-DNA haplogroup E-M2, alternatively known as haplogroup E1b1a. [ Revisiting the harem conspiracy and death of Ramesses III: anthropological, forensic, radiological, and genetic study ]

Richard III of England J (mtDNA); G-P287 (Y-DNA)

Richard III's bones as originally discovered under a car park
Richard III's mitochondrial haplotype was inferred from living descendants and then the identity of his remains confirmed through a multidisciplinary process including genetic analysis of both his mitochondrial and Y-DNA. In 2004 British historian John Ashdown-Hill traced a British-born woman living in Canada, Joy Ibsen (née Brown), who is a direct maternal line descendant of Anne of York, Duchess of Exeter, a sister of Richard III of England. Joy Ibsen's mtDNA was tested and belongs to mtDNA haplogroup J. Joy Ibsen died in 2008. On 4 February 2013, University of Leicester researchers announced that there was an mtDNA match between that of a skeleton exhumed in Leicester suspected of belonging to Richard III and that of Joy Ibsen's son, Michael Ibsen, and a second direct maternal line descendant named Wendy Duldig.They share mtDNA haplogroup J1c2c.
The Y haplogroup of Richard III, last king of the House of York and last of the House of Plantagenet, was identified as Y-DNA G-P287, in contrast to the Y haplotypes of the putative modern relatives. [ Richard III dig: 'It does look like him' ; Bones Under Parking Lot Belonged to Richard III ; The female-line relatives: Michael Ibsen and Wendy Duldig ; Richard III: The King in the Car Park ] See also: Exhumation and reburial of Richard III of England

Sweyn II of Denmark H (mtDNA)

Reconstruction of Sweyn Estridsson's head based on the skull
In order to verify whether the body of a woman entombed near Sweyn II of Denmark in Roskilde Cathedral is that of his mother Estrid, mtDNA from pulp of teeth from each of the two bodies was extracted and analysed. The king was assigned to mtDNA haplogroup H and the woman was assigned to mtDNA haplogroup H5a. Based on the observation of two HVR1 sequence differences, it was concluded that it is highly unlikely that the woman was the king's mother. [ The last Viking King: A royal maternity case solved by ancient DNA analysis ]

Tutankhamun K (mtDNA); R1b(Y-DNA)

Howard Carter examining the innermost coffin of Tutankhamun, 1925
There is controversy regarding Tutankhamun's Y-DNA profile. It was not discussed in a 2010 academic study that included DNA profiling of some of the male mummies of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt, and was published in the Journal of the American Medical Association.
The team that analysed the Eighteenth Dynasty mummies disputed a claim later made by the personal genomics company iGENEA regarding Tutankhamun's Y-DNA profile. Staff from iGENEA examined images from news coverage of the above study, that purportedly showed data from Tutankhamun's Y-DNA profile. Based on the unverified images, iGENEA claimed that Tutankhamun belonged to Y-DNA haplogroup R1b1a2,[32][33] a claim that was rejected as "unscientific" by members of the team that had actually analysed the Eighteenth Dynasty mummies. The original researchers also stated they had not been consulted by iGENEA before it published the haplogroup information. However, in a 2020 publication, those same researchers confirmed that the y-haplogroup of Tutankhamun was, indeed, R1b. [ Maternal and Paternal Lineages in King Tutankhamun's Family ]

Gleb Svyatoslavich H5a2a (mtDNA); I-Y3120 (Y-DNA)

The genetic study "Population genomics of the Viking world" was published September 16, 2020 in Nature, and showed that Gleb Svyatoslavich (sample VK542), an 11th century Rurikid Prince of Tmutarakan and Novgorod in Kievan Rus', was found to belong to Y-DNA haplogroup I2a1a2b1a1a (I-Y3120) and mtDNA haplogroup H5a2a. In YFull's YTree a more detailed position is given for his Y-DNA under I-Y3120's subclades Y4460 > Y3106 > Y91535.

Béla III King of Hungary H1b (mtDNA) R1a (Y-DNA)

Facial reconstruction of King Béla III of Hungary at an exhibition of the Institute of Hungarian Research (Emese Gábor, 2023)

A few decades after the collapse of the Avar Khaganate (c. 822 AD), Hungarian invaders conquered the Carpathian Basin (c. 862–895 AD). The first Hungarian ruling dynasty, the Árpáds played an important role in European history during the Middle Ages. King Béla III (1172–1196) was one of the most significant rulers of the dynasty. He also consolidated Hungarian dominance over the Northern Balkans. The provostry church of the Virgin Mary (commonly known as the Royal Basilica of Székesfehérvár) played a prominent role as a coronation church and burial place of medieval Hungarian kings. The basilica’s building and graves had been destroyed over the centuries. The only royal graves that remained intact were those of King Béla III and his first spouse, Anna of Antioch. These graves were discovered in 1848. We defined the autosomal STR (short tandem repeat) fingerprints of the royal couple and eight additional individuals (two females and six males) found in the Royal Basilica.DNA profiling of Hungarian King Béla III and other skeletal remains originating from the Royal Basilica of Székesfehérvár ; Determination of the phylogenetic origins of the Árpád Dynasty based on Y chromosome sequencing of Béla the Third

Anna of Antioch H1j8 or H1bz (mtDNA)

Tombs of Béla III of Hungary and Agnes of Antioch - reburied in Matthias Church, photo by Thaler Tama
DNA profiling of Hungarian King Béla III and other skeletal remains originating from the Royal Basilica of Székesfehérvár

Philip Calvert, 5th Proprietary Governor of Maryland R1b1a2a1a (Y-DNA) T2b4 (mtDNA)
reconstructed Chapel google street view 2019
In 1990, the bodies of Phillip Calvert, Anne Wolsely Calvert, and the infant were found in lead coffins in a brick vault located in the ruins of a brick chapel in the "Chapel Field" in St. Mary's City, Maryland, the former colonial capital. DNA analysis in 2016 showed the male adult and the infant have a father-son relationship, verifying the infant as a child of Phillip Calvert.
DNA testing links 300-year-old remains of a baby to a Colonial Md. governor Ancient DNA Analysis of St. Mary’s City Lead Coffin Burials

Bisop Peder Winstrup H3b7 (mtDNA) ; R1b-Z209>R1b1a1b1a1a2a1a1a1~-BY54766 (Y-DNA)
The coffin of Peder Winstrup, bishop in Lund Cathedral by Jin Zan
In June 2015 Winstrup's grave was moved from the crypt of the Lund cathedral to its northern tower. The body was taken away temporarily for research. It was in a well-preserved condition. The body of a fetus was discovered in the Winstrup's coffin, tucked in under the feet of the bishop. The fetus, wrapped in a piece of linen cloth, is believed to have been five to six months old. It is presumably a grandson of Winstrup. ;


Cao Ding 曹鼎 (granduncle of Cao Cao), grand uncle of 曹操, Emperor Wu of Wei Cao Cao: O (Y-DNA)

Chinese warlord Cao Cao, who was posthumously titled Emperor Wu of the state of Cao Wei, belonged to Y-DNA Haplotype O2-M268 according to DNA tests of some documented present-day descendants with lineage records.[38] Ancient DNA analysis of the tooth of Cao Cao's granduncle, Cao Ding, showed that Cao Cao belonged to Y-DNA haplogroup O-M175. [ Ancient DNA of Emperor CAO Cao’s granduncle matches those of his present descendants: a commentary on present Y chromosomes reveal the ancestry of Emperor CAO Cao of 1800 years ago ; Ancient DNA supports Emperor Cao’s paternal genetic lineage belonging to haplogroup O2 A followup publication identified the haplogroup more precisely as a subgroup of O-M175, designated O1b1-F1462(xPK4). But, in the early 2010s, researchers from Fudan University compared the Y chromosomes collected from a tooth from Cao Cao's granduncle, Cao Ding (曹鼎) and they found that the Y chromosomes of Cao Ding match those of self-proclaimed living descendants of Cao Cao who hold lineage records dating back to more than 100 generations ago. Zhu Ziyan, a history professor from Shanghai University was sceptical about whether those who claim to be Cao Cao's descendants are really so because genealogical records dating from the Song dynasty (960–1279) are already so rare in the present day, much less those dating from the Three Kingdoms era (220–280). Besides, according to historical records, Cao Ding was a younger brother of the eunuch Cao Teng, who adopted Cao Cao's biological father, Cao Song. Therefore, Cao Cao had no blood relations with Cao Ding; i.e., Cao Ding was not Cao Cao's real granduncle. Zhu Ziyan mentioned that Fudan University's research only proves that those self-proclaimed descendants of Cao Cao are related to Cao Ding; it does not directly relate them to Cao Cao. [ Cao Cao ]

Charles Darwin R1b (Y-DNA)

1871 caricature, identifying him in popular culture as the leading author of evolutionary theory
Charles Darwin belonged to Y haplogroup R1b based on a sample from his great-great-grandson Chris Darwin. [ Darwin family DNA shows African origin ]

Adolf Hitler E1b1b (Y-DNA)

Hitler poses for the camera, 1930
In 2010, journalist Jean-Paul Mulders and historian Marc Vermeeren publicised analysis of samples taken from 39 patrilineal relatives of Adolf Hitler which revealed that Hitler belonged to Y-DNA Haplogroup E (Y-DNA) (E1b1b) the subclade being undisclosed. Mulders contradicted interpretations of his research by some media outlets, which claimed that Hitler definitively had Jewish ancestry. Mulders commented: "I never wrote that Hitler was a Jew, or that he had a Jewish grandfather. I only wrote that Hitler's haplogroup is E1b1b. All the rest are speculations of journalists who didn't even take the trouble to read my article, although I had it translated into English especially for this purpose.[ Study Suggests Adolf Hitler Had Jewish and African Ancestors ]

Somerled R1a1 (Y-DNA)

Map of the divided Kingdom of the Isles, about 1200 -Somerled's descendants in yellow.
In 2003 Oxford University researchers traced the Y-chromosome signature of Somerled of Argyll, one of Scotland's greatest warriors, who is credited with driving out the Vikings. He was also paternal grandfather of the founder of Clan Donald. Through clan genealogies, the genetic relation was mapped out. Somerled belongs to haplogroup R1a1. In 2005 a study by Professor of Human Genetics Bryan Sykes of Oxford University led to the conclusion that Somerled has possibly 500,000 living descendants.[ Sykes deduced that despite Somerled's reputation for having driven out the Vikings from Scotland, Somerled's own Y-DNA closely matched that of the Vikings he fought. [ DNA shows Celtic hero Somerled's Viking roots ; The Norse Code ] See also DNA Research Section in Somerled, “King of the Isles” Descent Line

George Washington R-BY32422 (Y-DNA)''

Genetic analysis has shed light on a long-standing mystery surrounding the fates of President George Washington’s younger brother Samuel and his kin. Two of Samuel’s descendants and their mother were recently identified from skeletal remains found in unmarked burials dating back to the 1880s. The investigation also provided the first patrilineal DNA map for the first US president, who had no children of his own.”


Robert the Bruce

Dunfermline Abbey, site of Robert's body

Expert says toe bone undergoing DNA testing may not actually belong to Robert the Bruce

By Stephen Gallacher in The Sunday Post July 28, 2019

Last week it was revealed geneticists were DNA testing a toe bone belonging to Robert the Bruce, taken from his remains at Dunfermline Abbey. They hope to confirm the lineage of Robert the Bruce, and even discover how he died. However one of Scotland’s foremost archaeologists, Dr Murray Cook, says the toe might not belong to the Bruce at all. “A very elaborate tomb was discovered at Dunfermline Abbey in the early 1800s, and it was assumed to relate to Robert the Bruce because he was the most famous king buried there,” explained Dr Cook.“However, there are a number of medieval kings buried at that location, including David I, who converted the site to an abbey and gave it an upgrade and additional funding.“The location of Robert the Bruce’s grave is where we might assume the founder, David I, was buried.” Eight kings are buried at Dunfermline Abbey and, without markers indicating who is interred, we can never be sure of the identity of each of the remains, according to Dr Cook.

“All we know for sure is we’ve got a body, and we’ve got an elaborate tomb which was destroyed in the Reformation,” he said.“It could be Robert the Bruce, it could be David I, it could be Malcolm III. “We’re just assuming the tomb belonged to Robert the Bruce – but we don’t actually know. Everybody knows that we don’t know for sure – it just never gets pointed out. “There’s a good chance the individual in the tomb is him. But there’s never been a good case put forward that it is definitely Robert the Bruce.”

This bone material is part of a bone from the foot and part of the lower end of a thigh bone. The cast of a skull, along with these fragments of bone material said to have been taken from the skeleton of Robert the Bruce in 1818, were presented to Dumfries Museum in 1996. They had belonged to Wallace Black, a Dumfries man. Family tradition has it that he was given the cast and the bone material by a friend who was present when the skeleton was discovered.

Genetic marker discovered for descendants of Bruce clan

By Univerity of Strathclyde, Glasgow -1 February 2022

A distinct genetic marker, carried by descendants of Robert the Bruce’s close relatives, has been identified by researchers at the University of Strathclyde.The genealogy researchers have found the marker in male line descendants of the Bruces of Clackmannan, who were related to Robert the Bruce, King of Scots from 1306 to 1329. It is in the Y chromosome DNA of two different lines of descent from Robert Bruce, 2nd Baron of Clackmannan, who lived in the second half of the 14th century. One of the descendants who has taken a test is Rollo Bruce, a retired textile research editor from Oxfordshire.

Although there are varying theories about the exact relationship between the Bruces of Clackmannan and King Robert the Bruce, there is a consensus that it was very close. In the Register of the Great Seal for 1365, a charter of King David II confirms a grant of lands in Clackmannan to Robert Bruce, who is described in Latin as “dilecto et fideli nostro consanguineo” (our beloved and faithful kinsman). This Robert is first mentioned in 1360 as the young heir of his father, Thomas Bruce.

The genetic marker has been given the name FTB15831.Graham Holton is Principal Tutor on Strathclyde’s Genealogical Studies Postgraduate Programme, based in the University’s Centre for Lifelong Learning. He said: “Y chromosome DNA tests taken by male line descendants of two of Robert of Clackmannan’s sons, Robert and Edward, show that they both carry the marker FTB15831. This means it may also have been carried by their close relative, King Robert. “This discovery means that anyone living today who tests positive for the marker is descended from the same family as the famous King.

“Although the test takers from both lines carry FTB15831, one of them also has an additional genetic marker, indicating his descent from Robert Bruce, 3rd Baron of Clackmannan, who died around 1405. Further research may reveal more markers for specific branches of the Bruce family.''

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