Matilda of Flanders

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Matilda

French: Mathilde, Dutch: Mathilde, German: Machteld
Also Known As: "Mathilde de Flandres", "Matilda van Vloandern", "Maud of England", "Matilda of Flanders", "Matilde de Flandre", "Maud of Flandre", "Maude", "Maud", "Matilda /Flanders", "Queen Consort of England", "Mathilda of Flanders", "Mathilde de Flandre", "Mathilda", "Mathilda van Vlaander..."
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Ghent, East Flanders, Flanders, Belgium
Death: November 02, 1083 (48-56)
Base-Normandie, Caen, Calvados, Normandy, France
Place of Burial: Caen, Basse-Normandie, France
Immediate Family:

Daughter of Baldwin V, count of Flanders and Adela of France, countess of Flanders
Wife of William "the Conqueror", king of England
Mother of Robert II "Curthose", Duke of Normandy; Adelizia de Normandie, Princess of England; William II "Rufus", King of England; Cecilia, Abbess of Holy Trinity; Richard and 5 others
Sister of Robert I, Count of Flanders; Baldwin VI, count of Flanders and Hainault; Elena de Normandy; Henry of Flanders, [Count] and Aliz von Peteghem
Half sister of Ida de Roncq

Occupation: Queen consort of the King of England, Queen of England, Duchess of Normandy, Queen Consort of the English, Queen Consort of the English (1066-1083), Matilda [Maud] of Flanders, Queen, Countess of England, Countess of Flanders, QUEEN OF ENGLAND, QUEEN
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Matilda of Flanders

Matilde Maud de Flandre (van Vlaanderen), Matilda of Flanders, styled Queen Consort Matilda of England on 11 May 1068.

Matilda of Flanders (c. 1031 – 2 November 1083) was Queen consort of the Kingdom of England and the wife of Guillaume (William) I the Conqueror, King of England and Duke of Normandy

She was the daughter of Count Baldwin V of Flanders, and Adèle (1000-1078/9), daughter of Robert II of France.

Parents: Baudouin V 'le Pieux', Comte de Flandre & Alix Capet
Spouse: Guillaume (William) I the Conqueror, king of England and Duke of Normandy

Children:

  1. Robert Curthose (c. 1054 – 1134), married Sybil of Conversano
  2. Adeliza (or Alice) (c. 1055 – ?), uncertain
  3. Cecilia (or Cecily) (c. 1056 – 1126)
  4. William Rufus (1056 – 1100)
  5. Richard, Duke of Bernay (1057 – c. 1081)
  6. Alison (or Ali) (1056 -c. 1090)
  7. Adela (c. 1062 – 1138), married Etienne de Blois
  8. Agatha(c. 1064 – c. 1080)
  9. Constance (c. 1066 – 1090), married Alan IV Fergent
  10. Matilda (very obscure, her existence is in some doubt)
  11. Henry Beauclerc (1068–1135)

NOTE

There is NO evidence she married a Gerbod as well - see comments

MEDIEVAL LANDS

MATHILDE de Flandre ([1032]-Caen 2 Nov 1083, bur Caen, Abbey of Holy Trinity). The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana names (in order) "Balduinum Haanoniensem, et Robdbertum cognomento postea Iherosolimitanum, et Matilde uxorem Guillelmi regis Anglorum" as the children of "Balduinum Insulanum [et] Adelam"[249]. Her parentage is also stated by Orderic Vitalis[250].

Florence of Worcester records that "comitissa Mahtilda de Normannia" came to England 23 Mar [1068] and was crowned "die Pentecostes [11 May]" by Aldred Archbishop of York[251]. Orderic Vitalis also records that she was crowned queen of England 11 May 1068[252], presumably at Westminster Abbey or Winchester Cathedral although this appears to be unrecorded. Queen Matilda acted as regent in Normandy during her husband's absences in England.

The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "IV Non Nov" of "Matildis Anglorum regina"[253]. Guillaume de Jumièges records the burial of Queen Mathilde on 3 Nov 1081 at Holy Trinity, Caen[254]. Florence of Worcester records the death "IV Non Nov" in [1083] of "regina Mahtilda" in Normandy and her burial at Caen[255].

She married:

GUILLAUME de Normandie, illegitimate son of ROBERT II Duke of Normandy & his mistress Arlette --- (Château de Falaise, Normandy [1027/28]-Rouen, Prioré de Saint-Gervais 9 Sep 1087, bur Caen, Abbé de Saint-Etienne). His birth date is estimated from William of Malmesbury, according to whom Guillaume was born of a concubine and was seven years old when his father left for Jerusalem[1], and Orderic Vitalis, who states that he was eight years old at the time[2].

Deville suggests that Guillaume´s birthdate can be fixed more precisely to [mid-1027], taking into account that his father Robert occupied Falaise immediately after the death of his father Duke Richard II (23 Aug 1026), not wishing to accept the authority of his older brother Duke Richard III, but that Robert´s stay was short as the two brothers were reconciled soon after, it being reasonable to suppose that Robert´s relationship with Guillaume´s mother occurred soon after his arrival at Falaise[3].

According to Orderic Vitalis, Alain III Duke of Brittany was appointed his guardian during his father's absence in 1035[4]. He succeeded his father in 1035 as GUILLAUME II Duke of Normandy. He helped Henri I King of France defeat Geoffroy II "Martel" Comte d'Anjou at Mouliherne in [1045/55][5]. It appears that Edward "the Confessor" King of England acknowledged Guillaume as successor to the English throne on several occasions, maybe for the first time during his visit to England in 1051 which is recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle[6].

Comte de Maine in 1063, after he conquered the county. In [1064/65], Duke Guillaume interceded with Guy de Ponthieu Comte d'Abbeville to secure the release of Harold Godwinsson from captivity in Normandy, in return for Harold's acknowledgement of Guillaume as successor to the English crown (according to the portrayal of the event in the Bayeux tapestry). Harold Godwinsson's visit to Normandy, and swearing allegiance to Duke William, is recorded by William of Jumièges[7]. According to Eadmer of Canterbury, the reason for his visit was to negotiate the release of his brother Wulfnoth and nephew Haakon, both of whom had been hostages in Normandy since 1051.

On his deathbed, King Edward "the Confessor" bequeathed the kingdom of England to Harold Godwinsson. Duke Guillaume branded Harold a perjurer and appealed to Pope Alexander II for support. After receiving a papal banner in response to his request, William gathered a sizable army during summer 1066 in preparation for invasion. After some delay due to unfavourable weather conditions, the army set sail for England from Saint-Valéry-sur-Somme 28 Sep 1066[8]. William defeated and killed King Harold at Hastings 14 Oct 1066[9], marched north to Canterbury, then west to Winchester where he captured the royal treasury. He proceeded to London where he was crowned 25 Dec 1066 as WILLIAM I "the Conqueror" King of England at Westminster Abbey, possibly by Ealdred Archbishop of York who may have officiated because of doubts concerning the validity of the appointment of Stigand as Archbishop of Canterbury. The latter had received his pallium in 1058 from Pope Benedict X, later regarded as anti-Pope, an appointment which had not been regularised by Pope Alexander II. He was crowned again at Winchester 1070 with a Papal crown. After taking several years to subdue the whole country, he imposed the Norman feudal structure and rule everywhere with methodical and harsh persistence.

The minute description of the country contained in the Domesday Book, completed in 1086, enabled King William to create an effective tax base He died from wounds received at the siege of Mantes, having been injured internally after being thrown against the pommel of his saddle[10], leaving Normandy to his eldest son Robert and England to his second surviving son William. Guillaume de Jumièges records the death of King William at Rouen on 9 Sep and his burial at Saint-Etienne, Caen[11]. Florence of Worcester records the death "Id Sep V" of King William and his burial "Cadomi in ecclesia S Stephani Protomartyris"[12].

m (Eu, Cathedral of Notre Dame [1050/52]) MATHILDE de Flandre, daughter of BAUDOUIN V "le Pieux/Insulanus" Count of Flanders & his wife Adela de France ([1032]-Caen 2 Nov 1083, bur Caen, Abbey of Holy Trinity).

The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana names (in order) "Balduinum Haanoniensem, et Robdbertum cognomento postea Iherosolimitanum, et Matilde uxorem Guillelmi regis Anglorum" as the children of "Balduinum Insulanum [et] Adelam"[13]. Her parentage is also stated by Orderic Vitalis[14]. She founded the abbey of la Trinité at Caen, as confirmed by an undated manuscript which records the death "pridie nonas julias" of "abbatissam Mathildem" in the 54th year in which she held the position and names "Mathildem Anglorum reginam, nostri cœnobii fondatricem, Adilidem, Mathildem, Constantiam, filias eius" heading the list of the names of nuns at the abbey[15].

Florence of Worcester records that "comitissa Mahtilda de Normannia" came to England 23 Mar [1068] and was crowned "die Pentecostes [11 May]" by Aldred Archbishop of York[16]. Orderic Vitalis also records that she was crowned Queen of England 11 May 1068[17], presumably at Westminster Abbey or Winchester Cathedral although this appears to be unrecorded. Queen Matilda acted as regent in Normandy during her husband's absences in England. The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "IV Non Nov" of "Matildis Anglorum regina"[18].

Guillaume de Jumièges records the burial of Queen Mathilde on 3 Nov 1081 at Holy Trinity, Caen[19]. Florence of Worcester records the death "IV Non Nov" in [1083] of "regina Mahtilda" in Normandy and her burial at Caen[20].

William & Matilda had ten recorded children:

1. ROBERT de Normandie (Normandy [1052/54]-Cardiff Castle [3] Feb 1134, bur Gloucester Cathedral[21]). William of Malmesbury names Robert as eldest son of King William I[22]. "Roberti filii sui Normannorum comitis, Richardi filii sui…" subscribed the charter dated Apr 1067 under which "Willelmus…dux Normannorum…Anglorum rex" confirmed rights to the abbey of Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire[23].

Orderic Vitalis records that, after unsuccessfully aspiring to govern Normandy and Maine during the lifetime of his father, Robert rebelled in 1079 and went into exile in Flanders[24]. William of Malmesbury and Orderic Vitalis both state that he was assisted in his rebellion by Philippe I King of France and that he wounded his father in battle at Gerberoy[25]. He succeeded his father in 1087 as ROBERT “Curthose” Duke of Normandy, his nickname due, according to William of Malmesbury and Orderic Vitalis, to his short stature which he presumably inherited from his mother who was also reputed to have been very short[26]. He joined the contingent of Robert II Count of Flanders on the First Crusade in Sep 1096, together with Etienne Comte de Blois, after pledging the duchy of Normandy to his brother King William for 10,000 marks of silver in order to fund the expedition[27]. Following the capture of Jerusalem, Robert left Palestine to return to Europe in Sep 1099[28]. On returning to Normandy in Autumn 1100, he recovered his duchy without opposition[29]. He landed at Portsmouth in 1102 aiming to displace his brother King Henry I as king of England, but was persuaded to return to Normandy on payment of 3,000 marks[30]. His brother King Henry invaded Normandy and defeated Robert at the battle of Tinchebrai[31], declaring himself duke of Normandy 28 Sep 1106. King Henry took Robert in captivity back to England, where Robert remained in prison for the rest of his life. Robert of Torigny records the death in 1134 of "Robertus dux Normannorum filius Willermi regis…primogenitus" and his burial at Gloucester[32]. The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the death at Cardiff in [1134] of "Rotbertus frater regis Heinrici quondam comes Normanniæ" and his burial in Gloucester[33].

2. RICHARD de Normandie (Normandy [1054 or 1056]-1075 or 1081, bur Winchester Cathedral). William of Malmesbury records that he was the second son of King William I[34]. "The next-born after Robert" according to Orderic Vitalis[35] who, from the context of this passage appears to be taking into account daughters as well as sons in his list of the king's children although, critically for deciding the birth order of the older children, he omits Cecilia in this section. "Roberti filii sui Normannorum comitis, Richardi filii sui…" subscribed the charter dated Apr 1067 under which "Willelmus…dux Normannorum…Anglorum rex" confirmed rights to the abbey of Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire[36]. Duc de Bernay, in Normandy. According to William of Malmesbury, he "contracted a disorder from a stream of foul air while hunting deer in the New Forest"[37]. Florence of Worcester records that "Willelmi iunioris germanus Ricardus" was killed in the New Forest long before, when recording the death of his brother King William II[38]. Orderic Vitalis recounts that "when a youth who had not yet received the belt of knighthood, had gone hunting in the New Forest and whilst he was galloping in pursuit of a wild beast he had been badly crushed between a strong hazel branch and the pommel of his saddle, and mortally injured" dying soon after[39]. Guillaume de Jumièges records a similar, but less specific, story, saying that Richard was hunting, knocked himself against a tree, fell ill and died from his injury[40].

3. ADELAIDE [Adelisa] de Normandie ([1055]-7 Dec, 1066 or after). Orderic Vitalis records the betrothal of Adelaide and Harold Godwinson, listing her after Agatha and before Constance in his description of the careers of the daughters of King William[41]. The sources are contradictory concerning the name of the daughter betrothed to Harold Godwinson, as well as the timing of her death. The only near certainty is that it would presumably have been the oldest available daughter who was betrothed to Harold. Matthew of Paris does not name her but lists her fourth among the daughters of King William, while distinguishing her from the fifth daughter betrothed to "Aldefonso Galiciæ regi"[42]. Guillaume de Jumièges records that Duke Guillaume betrothed his daughter Adelise to Harold, in a later passage (in which he does not repeat her name) stating that she was the third daughter and that she died a virgin although she was of an age to marry[43]. Chibnall specifies[44] that this reference is contained in the interpolations written by Orderic Vitalis, the latter chronicler therefore contradicting his statement in his own work that Agatha was the name of the daughter who was betrothed to King Harold. Orderic Vitalis says that Adelaide "a most fair maiden vowed herself to God when she reached marriageable age and made a pious end under the protection of Roger of Beaumont"[45]. The daughter betrothed to Harold was alive in early 1066, according to Eadmer of Canterbury[46] who says that Duke Guillaume requested King Harold, soon after his accession, to keep his promise to marry his daughter. This is contradicted by William of Malmesbury[47], who says that her death before that of Edward "the Confessor" was taken by King Harold II as marking absolution from his oath to Duke Guillaume. She died as a nun at Préaux[48]. A manuscript of la Trinité de Caen names "Mathildem Anglorum reginam, nostri cœnobii fondatricem, Adilidem, Mathildem, Constantiam, filias eius" heading the list of the names of nuns at the abbey[49], which, if the order of names is significant, indicates that Adelaide was older than her two named sisters. The necrology of Chartres cathedral records the death "VII Id Dec" of "Adeliza filia regis Anglorum", stating that her father made a donation for her soul[50]. The necrology of Saint-Nicaise de Meulan records the death of "Adelina filia regis Anglorum", undated but listed among deaths at the end of the calendar year[51].

Betrothed ([1064/65]) to HAROLD Godwinson Earl of Wessex, son of GODWIN Earl of Wessex & his wife Gytha of Denmark ([1022/25]-killed in battle Hastings 14 Oct 1066, bur [Waltham Abbey]), who succeeded in 1066 as HAROLD II King of England.

4. MATHILDE de Normandie (-26 Apr or 6 Jul [1113]). The necrology of Saint-Nicaise de Meulan records the death "VI Kal Mai" of "Mathildis filia Willelmi regis Anglorum"[52]. She is not named as a daughter of King William by either William of Malmesbury or Orderic Vitalis. There is no basis for assessing her order of birth among the other known daughters of the king. An undated manuscript records the death "pridie nonas julias" of "abbatissam Mathildem" in the 54th year in which she held the position[53]. The same source names "Mathildem Anglorum reginam, nostri cœnobii fondatricem, Adilidem, Mathildem, Constantiam, filias eius" heading the list of the names of nuns at the abbey[54]. If this is correct, and even assuming that she was appointed abbess as a child, Mathilde must have been one of the oldest of her father´s children, but younger than her sister Adelaide. Delisle dates her death to [1113][55], on the basis of Orderic Vitalis recording that her successor as abbess of la Trinité de Caen, her sister Cecilia, died 13 Jul 1127 after 14 years as abbess[56].

5. CECILIA de Normandie (-Caen 3/13 Jul [1126/27], bur Caen, Abbey of Holy Trinity). She is named first in his list of King William's daughters by William of Malmesbury and by Matthew of Paris[57]. Orderic Vitalis, in his list of the king's children which appears to place both the sons and daughters together in birth order[58], unfortunately omits Cecilia, rendering it particularly difficult to decide if she was older or younger than her brother Richard. Guillaume de Jumièges names Cecile as eldest daughter, stating that she was a nun at the convent of Holy Trinity at Caen[59]. A manuscript at Caen names "Mathildem Anglorum reginam, nostri cœnobii fondatricem, Adilidem, Mathildem, Constantiam, filias eius" heading the list of the names of nuns at the abbey[60], which, if the order of names is significant, indicates that Cecilia was younger than her sisters Adelaide and Mathilde. Her parents offered her as an oblate to the nunnery of the Holy Trinity, Caen (founded by her mother) 18 Jun 1066[61], probably in part to obtain divine blessing for her father´s project to invade England. She became a nun there in 1075[62], her tutor being Arnoul de Choques who later became Chancellor to her brother Robert "Curthose" Duke of Normandy, and subsequently Patriarch of Jerusalem[63]. She succeeded her sister Mathilde as abbess of la Trinité de Caen in [1113][64]. The Chronicon S. Stephani Cadomensis records the death in 1126 of "Cecilia Abbatissa, Willelmi Regis filia"[65].

6. GUILLAUME de Normandie ([1056/60]-killed in the New Forest 2 Aug 1100, bur Winchester Cathedral[66]). William of Malmesbury records that he was the third son of King William I[67]. He left his father's deathbed in Normandy in Sep 1087 to rush to England to claim the throne, succeeding as WILLIAM II “Rufus” King of England, crowned at Westminster Abbey 26 Sep 1087. Florence of Worcester records that King William was crowned "VI Kal Oct" of King William at Westminster Abbey[68]. His reign was characterised by bitter rivalry with his brother Robert in Normandy, even harsher imposition of Norman rule in England than by his father, and growing resentment of his ways among the nobility. Florence of Worcester records the death "IV Non Aug" of King William in the New Forest, killed by an arrow shot by "quodam Franco Waltero cognomento Tirello" [châtelain de Poix et de Pontoise], and his burial "Wintoniam in Veteri Monasterio in ecclesia S Petri"[69]. Orderic Vitalis records that he was killed while hunting, maybe murdered, by an arrow shot by Walter Tirel[70]. According to Orderic Vitalis, he "never had a lawful wife but gave himself up insatiably to obscene fornications and repeated adulteries"[71]. The necrology of Saint-Nicaise de Meulan records the death "II Non Aug" of "Guillelmus rex Anglorum filius Guillelmi regis"[72].

7. CONSTANCE de Normandie (Normandy [1057/1061]-13 Aug 1090, bur Church of St Melans near Rhedon). Listed by Orderic Vitalis after Adelaide and before Adela in his description of the careers of the daughters of King William[73]. Named first in his list of the daughters of King William I by Matthew of Paris[74]. Guillaume de Jumièges names Constance as second daughter, naming her husband "Alain Fergant comte de la petite Bretagne et fils d'Hoel, qui avait succédé à Conan" and specifying that she died childless[75]. The Chronicon Ruyensis Cœnobii records the marriage in 1086 of "Alanus" and "Constantiam filiam Regis Anglorum Guillelmi"[76]. The Chronicon Kemperlegiensis records the marriage in 1087 of "Alanus Hoëli Consulis filius" and "Constantiam Guillelmi Regis Anglorum filiam"[77]. The Chronicon Britannico Alter records the marriage in 1088 of "Alanus" and "Constantiam filam Regis Guillelmi Anglorum"[78]. Orderic Vitalis records that she was married in Bayeux[79]. William of Malmesbury lists her as second daughter after Cecilia, adding that "she excited the inhabitants [of Brittany] by the severity of her justice to administer a poisonous potion to her"[80]. Orderic Vitalis, on the other hand, says that she "did everything in her power to further the welfare of her subjects" and "was deeply grieved when she died"[81]. The Chronicon Britannico Alter records the death in 1090 of "Constantia Alani coniux…sine liberis"[82].

m (Bayeux [1086/88]) as his first wife, ALAIN IV “Fergant” Duke of Brittany, son of HOËL V Comte de Cornouaille, de Léon et de Nantes & his wife Havise heiress of Brittany (-13 Oct 1119).

8. AGATHE de Normandie (-before 1074, bur Bayeux Cathedral). Listed by Orderic Vitalis after Richard and before Adelaide in his description of the careers of the children of King William[83]. According to William of Malmesbury, an unnamed daughter of King William was "affianced by messengers" to King Alfonso[84]. Orderic Vitalis names her Agatha, identifying her as the daughter who had been betrothed to Harold Godwinson (see above), and says that she was betrothed to "Amfursio regi Galliciæ"[85]. Matthew of Paris places her as the fifth daughter (unnamed) betrothed to "Aldefonso Galiciæ regi", but different from the daughter betrothed to Harold[86]. Orderic says that she died en route to Spain, her body being brought back to Bayeux for burial[87]. The betrothal to Alfonso must have been a short-lived arrangement as he married his first wife in 1069[88].

Betrothed (by proxy Caen, Abbey of Holy Trinity [before 1069]) to ALFONSO VI King of Galicia and Leon, son of FERNANDO I King of Castile & his wife Infanta doña Sancha de Léon (Compostela [1037]-Toledo 30 Jun 1109, bur Sahagún, León, San Mancio chapel in the royal monastery of Santos Facundo y Primitivo). He succeeded in 1072 as ALFONSO VI King of Castile.

[Betrothed ([after 1069]) to SIMON du Vexin, son of RAOUL III “le Grand” Comte de Valois & his first wife Aélis de Bar-sur-Aube (-[30 Sep/1 Oct] 1080 Rome, bur 1082 Rome St Peter). The Vita Simonis records a ficitional speech of William I King of England in which he offers his (unnamed) daughter's hand to Simon, specifying that she had previously been betrothed to "regis Hispaniarum Anfursi et Roberti principis Apuliæ"[89]. The supposed betrothal to Robert of Apulia (which would have to refer to Robert "Guiscard" Duke of Apulia) is unrecorded in the numerous other sources dealing with his life and is probably pure fantasy. This does not instil confidence with respect to the historical accuracy of the whole passage, but if it is correct the daughter in question would presumably have been Agatha who was probably the daughter of King William betrothed to "Amfursio regi Galliciæ" (see above). Count Simon resigned his county in 1077, became a monk and went on pilgrimage to Rome where he died[90].]

9. ADELA de Normandie (Normandy [1066/67]-Marigney-sur-Loire 8 Mar 1138, bur Abbey of Holy Trinity, Caen). She is listed by Orderic Vitalis last among the daughters of King William in his description of their careers[91]. Named third in his list of the daughters of King William I by Matthew of Paris[92], but this appears unlikely in view of Adela's child-bearing until her husband's death in 1102. Her birth date is estimated bearing in mind that marriage frequently took place in early adolescence at the time, and also because Adela clearly continued to bear children right up to her husband's death. Orderic Vitalis records that she encouraged her husband to join the First Crusade and did not hide her shame when he deserted from Antioch in 1098[93]. Regent of Blois 1102-1107, after the death of her husband. She became a nun at the Cluniac priory of Marigney-sur-Loire in [1122]. The necrology of Chartres cathedral records the death "VIII Id Mar" of "Adela comitissa"[94], and in another manuscript the death "VIII Id Mar" of "Adela nobilis Blesensium comitissa regis Anglorum Willelmi filia"[95]. m (Betrothed Breteuil[96] 1080, Chartres70 1081) ETIENNE [Henri] de Blois, son of THIBAUT III Comte de Blois & his [first/second wife Gersende de Maine/Gundrada ---] (-killed in battle Ramleh 19 May 1102). He succeeded his father in 1089 as ETIENNE Comte de Blois, de Chartres, de Châteaudun, de Sancerre et de Meaux.

a) ETIENNE de Blois (Blois [1096/97]-Dover 25 Oct 1154, bur Faversham Abbey, Kent). After the death of his uncle Henry I King of England, he crossed at once to England before his rival, King Henry's daughter Maud, and had himself crowned as STEPHEN King of England at Westminster Abbey 22 Dec 1135.

- other children: COMTES de BLOIS.

10. HENRY of England (Selby, Yorkshire Sep 1068-Saint-Denis le Ferment, Forêt d’Angers near Rouen 1/2 Dec 1135, bur Reading Abbey, Berkshire). Orderic Vitalis records that Henry was born "within a year" of his mother's coronation on 11 May 1068[97]. He succeeded his brother 3 Aug 1100 as HENRY I “Beauclerc” King of England.

----------------------------

According to legend, Matilda (or "Maud") told the representative of William, Duke of Normandy (later king of England as William the Conqueror), who had come asking for her hand, that she was far too high-born (being descended from King Alfred the Great of England) to consider marrying a bastard. When that was repeated to him, William rode from Normandy to Bruges, found Matilda on her way to church, dragged her off her horse by her long braids, threw her down in the street in front of her flabbergasted attendants, and then rode off. Another version of the story states that William rode to Matilda's father's house in Lille, threw her to the ground in her room (again, by the braids), and hit her (or violently shook her) before leaving. Naturally Baldwin took offense at this but, before they drew swords, Matilda settled the matter. [1] by deciding to marry him, and even a papal ban (on the grounds of consanguinity) did not dissuade her. They were married in 1053.

There were rumours that Matilda had been in love with the English ambassador to Flanders, a Saxon named Brihtric, who declined her advances. Whatever the truth of the matter, years later when she was acting as Regent for William in England, she used her authority to confiscate Brihtric's lands and throw him into prison, where he died.

When William was preparing to invade England, Matilda outfitted a ship, the Mora, out of her own money and gave it to him. For many years it was thought that she had some involvement in the creation of the Bayeux Tapestry (commonly called La Tapisserie de la Reine Mathilde in French), but historians no longer believe that; it seems to have been commissioned by William's half-brother Odo, Bishop of Bayeux, and made by English artists in Kent.

Matilda bore William eleven children, and he was believed to have been faithful to her, at least up until the time their son Robert rebelled against his father and Matilda sided with Robert against William. After she died, in 1083 at the age of 51, William became tyrannical, and people blamed it on his having lost her. Contrary to the belief that she was buried at St. Stephen's, also called l'Abbaye-aux-Hommes in Caen, Normandy, where William was eventually buried, she is entombed at l'Abbaye aux Dames, which is the Sainte-Trinité church, also in Caen. Of particular interest is the 11th century slab, a sleek black stone decorated with her epitaph, marking her grave at the rear of the church. It is of special note since the grave marker for William was replaced as recently as the beginning of the 19th century. In 1961, their graves were opened and their bones measured, proving their physical statures. [2]

Children

Some doubt exists over how many daughters there were. This list includes some entries which are obscure.

  1. Robert Curthose (c. 1054 – 1134), Duke of Normandy, married Sybil of Conversano, daughter of Geoffrey of Conversano
  2. Adeliza (or Alice) (c. 1055 – ?), reportedly betrothed to Harold II of England (Her existence is in some doubt.)
  3. Cecilia (or Cecily) (c. 1056 – 1126), Abbess of Holy Trinity, Caen
  4. William Rufus (1056 – 1100), King of the English
  5. Richard, Duke of Bernay (1057 – c. 1081), killed by a stag in New Forest
  6. Alison (or Ali) (1056 -c. 1090), was once announced the most beautiful lady, died unmarried.
  7. Adela (c. 1062 – 1138), married Stephen, Count of Blois
  8. Agatha(c. 1064 – c. 1080), betrothed to (1) Harold of Wessex, (2) Alfonso VI of Castile
  9. Constance (c. 1066 – 1090), married Alan IV Fergent, Duke of Brittany; poisoned, possibly by her own servants
  10. Matilda (very obscure, her existence is in some doubt)
  11. Henry Beauclerc (1068–1135), King of England, married (1) Edith of Scotland, daughter of Malcolm III, King of Scotland, (2) Adeliza of Louvain

Gundred (c. 1063 – 1085), wife of William de Warenne (c. 1055 – 1088), was formerly thought of as being yet another of Matilda's daughters, with speculation that she was William I's full daughter, a stepdaughter, or even a foundling or adopted daughter. However, this connection to William I has now been firmly debunked--see Gundred's discussion page for further information.

Matilda was a seventh generation direct descendent of Alfred the Great. Her marriage to William strengthened his claim to the throne. All sovereigns of England, Great Britain and the United Kingdom are directly descended continuously from her, including Queen Elizabeth II.

Height

In 1819 and 1959 Matilda's incomplete skeleton was examined in France, and her bones were measured to determine her height. The 1819 estimate was under five feet, while the 1959 estimate was 5' (152 cm) tall. A reputed height of 4'2" (127 cm) appeared at some point after 1959 in the non-scientific literature, misrepresenting the 1959 measurement.

Over time Matilda's tomb was desecrated and her original coffin destroyed. Her remains were placed in a sealed box and reburied under the original black slab. In 1959 Matilda's incomplete skeleton was examined and her femur and tibia were measured to determine her height using anthropometric methods. Her height was 5 feet (1.52m), a normal height for the time.However, as a result of this examination she was misreported as being 4 feet 2 inches (1.27m) leading to the myth that she was extremely small.

References

  1. ^ Hilliam, Paul (2005). William the Conqueror: First Norman King of England. New York City, New York: Rosen Publishing Group, 20. ISBN 1-4042-0166-1.
  2. ^ The Year of the Conqueror by Alan Lloyd, page 75

In popular culture

Her love for her husband is referenced in the Award-winning play, Angels in America.

On screen, Matilda has been portrayed by Jane Wenham in the two-part BBC TV play Conquest (1966), part of the series Theatre 625, and by Anna Calder-Marshall in the TV drama Blood Royal: William the Conqueror (1990).

Accustomed to speaking her mind and getting her way, it is said that the Queen Matilda (or "Maud") told the representative of William, Duke of Normandy (later king of England as William the Conqueror), who had come asking for her hand, that she was far too high-born (being descended from King Alfred the Great of England) to consider marrying a bastard. When that was repeated to him, William, all of 5'10", rode from Normandy to Bruges, found Matilda on her way to church, dragged her off her horse (some said by her long braids), threw her down in the street in front of her flabbergasted attendants, and then rode off. Another version states that William rode to Matilda's father's house in Lille, threw her to the ground in her room (again, by the braids), and hit her (or violently shook her) before leaving. Naturally Baldwin took offense to this but before they drew swords, Matilda settled the matter. Regardless of the story, she decided to marry him, and even a papal ban (on the grounds of consanguinity) did not dissuade her. They were married in 1053.

There were rumours that Matilda had been in love with the English ambassador to Flanders, a Saxon named Brihtric, who declined her advances. Whatever the truth of the matter, years later when she was acting as Regent for William in England, she used her authority to confiscate Brihtric's lands and throw him into prison, where he died.

When William was preparing to invade England, Matilda outfitted a ship, the Mora, out of her own money and gave it to him. For many years it was thought that she had something to do with creating the Bayeux Tapestry, but historians no longer believe that; it seems to have been commissioned by William's half-brother Odo, Bishop of Bayeux, and made by Saxons in Kent.

Matilda bore William eleven children, and he was believed to have been faithful to her, at least up until the time their son Robert rebelled against his father and Matilda sided with Robert against William. After she died, in 1083 at the age of 51, William became tyrannical, and people blamed it on his having lost her. Contrary to the belief that she was buried at St. Stephen's, also called l'Abbaye-aux-Hommes in Caen, Normandy, where William was eventually buried, she is intombed at l'Abbaye aux Dames, which is the Sainte-Trinité church, also in Caen. Of particular interest is the 11th century slab, a sleek black stone decorated with her epitaph, marking her grave at the rear of the church. It is of special note since the grave marker for William was replaced as recently as the beginning of the 19th century. Years later, their graves were opened and their bones measured, proving their physical statures.

Matilda of Flanders:

MATILDA, Queen of England, from 1066-1083, wife of William I, King of England, (aka, William The Conqueror) was the daughter of Baudouin V, Count of Flanders (France), and the sixth in descent from Elfrida, daughter of Alfred the Great.

Children of WILLIAM and MATILDA FLANDERS are:

  1. ROBERT 2 COURTHOSE, DUKE OF NORMANDY, b. 1052, Normandy, France; d. 10 Feb 1133/34, Cardiff, Glamorganshire, Wales.
  2. ABBESS OF CAEN CECILIA, b. 1056, Normandy, France; d. 30 Jul 1126, Caen, Calvados, France.
  3. PRINCE OF ENGLAND RICHARD, b. 1057, Normandy, France; d. 1081, New Forest, Hampshire, England.
  4. WILLIAMII, RUFUS, KING OF ENGLAND, b. 1060, Normandy, France; d. 2 Aug 1100, New Forest, Hampshire, England.

Notes for WILLIAM II, RUFUS, KING OF ENGLAND:

WILLIAM II, called Rufus (1060?-1100), King of England (1087-1100), who extended his power into Normandy and Scotland. He was the third son of William the Conqueror, King of England, who on his deathbed named him as his successor in England, leaving the duchy of Normandy to his eldest son, Robert (1054?-1134). William Rufus, as he was known because of his ruddy complexion, was crowned in Westminster Abbey in 1087. The following year William's uncle Odo, bishop of Bayeux (1036?-97), led a rebellion of Norman barons who sought to unseat him in favor of Robert. William's English subjects, believing his promises of less oppressive taxation and more liberal laws, helped him quell the revolt. The king, despite his promises, continued to pursue a domestic policy that was harsh and venal.

Biography

Matilda was born about 1031, the daughter of Baudouin V, count of Flanders, and Adèle de France. Very little is known about her early years. Her descent from the English king Alfred 'the Great' was one reason why William, duke of Normandy sought her in marriage. Apparently she refused him, as she did not want to be married to a bastard. Furious, William forced entry to her room and beat her. This rather unconventional behaviour led her to change her mind and they married in 1051, although they had to wait until 1059 before receiving the papal dispensation.

William relied heavily on her and she acted as regent in Normandy whenever he was absent. After the conquest of England she was crowned William's queen at Winchester. She went to the north of England with him and at Selby gave birth to the future King Henry I, probably their tenth or eleventh child. In 1069 she went back to the duchy of Normandy where she remained in charge.

When she became ill in 1083 William hurried over from England to be with her. She died on 2 November 1083 at Caen and was buried there.

Of particular interest is the 11th century slab, a sleek black stone decorated with her epitaph, marking her grave at the rear of the church. It is of special note since the grave marker for William was replaced as recently as the beginning of the 19th century. Years later, their graves were opened and their bones measured, proving their physical statures.

Children

Some doubt exists over how many daughters there were. This list includes some entries which are obscure.

  1. Robert Curthose (c. 1054 – 1134), Duke of Normandy, married Sybil of Conversano, daughter of Geoffrey of Conversano
  2. Adeliza (or Alice) (c. 1055 – ?), reportedly betrothed to Harold II of England (Her existence is in some doubt.)
  3. Cecilia (or Cecily) (c. 1056 – 1126), Abbess of Holy Trinity, Caen
  4. William Rufus (1056 – 1100), King of the English
  5. Richard, Duke of Bernay (1057 – c. 1081), killed by a stag in New Forest
  6. Alison (or Ali) (1056 -c. 1090), was once announced the most beautiful lady, died unmarried.
  7. Adela (c. 1062 – 1138), married Stephen, Count of Blois
  8. Agatha(c. 1064 – c. 1080), betrothed to (1) Harold of Wessex, (2) Alfonso VI of Castile
  9. Constance (c. 1066 – 1090), married Alan IV Fergent, Duke of Brittany; poisoned, possibly by her own servants
  10. Matilda (very obscure, her existence is in some doubt)
  11. Henry Beauclerc (1068–1135), King of England, married (1) Edith of Scotland, daughter of Malcolm III, King of Scotland, (2) Adeliza of Louvain

Gundred (c. 1063 – 1085), wife of William de Warenne (c. 1055 – 1088), was formerly thought of as being yet another of Matilda's daughters, with speculation that she was William I's full daughter, a stepdaughter, or even a foundling or adopted daughter. However, this connection to William I has now been firmly debunked--see Gundred's discussion page for further information.

Matilda was a seventh generation direct descendent of Alfred the Great. Her marriage to William strengthened his claim to the throne. Every sovereign of England is directly descended continuously from her, including Queen Elizabeth II.

Birth: ABT 1031, Flanders
Death: 2 Nov 1083, Caen, Calvados, France
Burial: Church Holy Trinity, Caen, Calvados, France

Biografi på svenska

Matilda från Flandern, född ca. 1031, dog 1083, var en engelsk drottning, gift med William the Conqueror.

Hon var dotter till grev Balduin V i Flandern och Adela Capet, dotter till Robert II i Frankrike.

Matilda, som var en bortskämd ung dam, brukade uttrycka sin åsikt och få vad hon ville, tillkännagav William av Normandys representant som kom för att be henne om att hon hade en alltför stor börda (som en ättling till Alfred den Stora)) att överväga att gifta sig med en jävel. När detta upprepades innan William, åkte han från Normandie till Brugge där han hittade henne på väg till kyrkan. Han borde ha dragit Matilda ur sadeln, bärd av hennes dyrbara kostym, sparkat på henne och på modernt språk "gett henne en runda" innan han kastade henne på vägen framför sin fars tjänare och sedan åkte bort. Därefter beslutade hon att gifta sig med honom, och till och med ett förbud från påven avskräckte henne inte.

Det fanns rykten om att Matilda var förälskad i den engelska ambassadören i Flandern, en sax så blek att han nästan var en albino, med namnet Brihtric (som också kallades "Snow") och redan gift.

Ändå - som många andra kvinnor, trodde Matilda att "erövrade" av en mäktig man - men det tog fem år innan bröllopet stannade, men sedan med stor pumpning och stående krönades hon 1068 i Winchester och betraktas som Englands första " riktig "drottning.

Oavsett om det fanns någon sanning om hon var förälskad i Brihtric eller inte, använde hon senare sin makt som drottningen av England för att konfiskera Brihtrics landområden (utan formella anklagelser, än mindre en rättegång) och kastade honom i fängelse där han dog under mystiska omständigheter, kanske förgiftning.

När William förberedde sig på att invadera England, utrustade hon ett skepp Mora för sina egna pengar och gav honom. Under många år tros hon vara involverad i skapandet av Bayeux-vävnaden, men historiker tror inte längre detta; det verkar ha beställts av Williams halvbror Odo, biskopen av Bayeux och gjord av sax i Kent.

Matilda hade tio barn och Vilhelm ansågs ha varit trogen mot henne, åtminstone tills deras son Robert gjorde uppror mot sin far och hon tog sitt parti mot Vilhelm. Han förlitade sig hårt på henne och tillät henne att dela sina framgångar.

Vid hennes död 1083 blev William tyrannisk och folket skyllde det för hans förlust av henne. Hon begravdes i St. Stephen's i Caen, Normandie (i nuvarande Frankrike) och William begravdes senare vid hennes sida. Många år senare öppnades gravarna och benen mättes och därför kan vi veta hur länge de var.

Barn:

Det råder tvivel om hur många döttrar de hade. Denna lista innehåller några tvivelaktiga noteringar.

  1. Robert Curthose (ca. 1054–1134), hertig av Normandie, g.m Sybil av Conversano, dotter till Geoffrey av Conversano
  2. Adeliza (eller Alice) (ca. 1055–?), hon ska ha varit trolovad med Harald II av England (Det råder vissa tvivel om hennes existens)
  3. Cecilia (or Cecily) (ca. 1056–1126), abbedissa i Holy Trinity, Caen
  4. Vilhelm Rufus (1056–1100), kung av England
  5. Richard (1057-ca. 1081), dödad av en kronhjort i New Forest
  6. Adela (ca. 1062–1138), g.m Stephen, greve av Blois
  7. Agatha (ca. 1064–c. 1080), trolovad med (1) Harald av Wessex, (2) Alfons VI av Kastilien
  8. Constance (ca. 1066–1090), g.m Alan IV Fergent, hertig av Bretagne; förgiftad, möjligen av sina egna tjänare
  9. Matilda (mycket tvivel råder kring hennes existens)
  10. Henry Beauclerc (1068–1135), kung av England, g.m (1) Matilda (eller Edith) av Skottland, dotter till Malcolm III av Skottland, (2) Adeliza av Louvain

Den här artikeln är hämtad från Matilda av Flanders (Wikipedia - svenska).

Maud Le-Vieux crowned Matilda of Flanders (c. 1031 – 2 November 1083) was Queen consort of the Kingdom of England and the wife of William I the Conqueror.

Queen consort of the English; Duchess of Normandy

Consort 25 December 1066 – 2 November 1083

Consort to William I the Conqueror

Children, among other issue

Robert III Curthose

William II Rufus

Adela, Countess of Blois

Henry I Beauclerc

Royal house House of Normandy

Father: Baldwin V, Count of Flanders
Mother: Adela Capet

Preceded by

Edith of Wessex Queen consort of the English

25 December 1066 – 2 November 1083 Succeeded by

Matilda of Scotland

References

[S106] Royal Genealogies Website (ROYAL92.GED), online ftp://ftp.cac.psu.edu/genealogy/public_html/royal/index.html. Hereinafter cited as Royal Genealogies Website.

[S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Family: A Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999), page 41. Hereinafter cited as Britain's Royal Family.

[S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Family, page 42.

[S45] Marcellus Donald R. von Redlich, Pedigrees of Some of the Emperor Charlemagne's Descendants, volume I (1941; reprint, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2002), page 56. Hereinafter cited as Pedigrees of Emperor Charlemagne, I.

Biografia en Español

Matilde de Flandes (c. 1032 - Caen; 2 de noviembre de 1083), noble flamenca, hija única de los tres hijos nacidos del matrimonio entre Balduino V "de Lille", conde de Flandes y Adela de Flandes - hija. de Roberto II de Francia y nieta de Hugo Capeto.

Se casó en 1052, con el entonces duque Guillermo de Normandía, en la catedral de Notre-Dame de Eu. William más tarde se convirtió en el Rey de Inglaterra en 1066, para ser conocido como Guillermo I el Conquistador.

Aunque al principio se negó a casarse con Guillermo por su calidad de bastardo y por ser ella misma de noble ascendencia: era descendiente de Alfredo el Grande, pero estuvo de acuerdo con el matrimonio cuando el joven duque demostró su coraje prácticamente secuestrándola. Camino a la iglesia donde solía rezar. Sin embargo, Guillermo la deja libre, demostrando honor y caballerosidad. Incluso el edicto papal que prohibía el matrimonio debido a su parentesco no podía disuadirlo de no casarse con él.

Al parecer, el matrimonio no se convirtió en una unión romántica, ya que Matilde se había enamorado locamente del embajador inglés en Flandes, un sajón llamado Brihtric, quien estaba casado. Este hecho no se ha demostrado históricamente, pero la realidad es que, años más tarde, una vez reina de Inglaterra, y siendo regente del reino en ausencia de William, utilizó su poder para despojar a Brihtric de todos sus bienes y encarcelarlo, muriendo así. Uno poco después, posiblemente envenenado.

Cuando William se preparaba para invadir Inglaterra, Matilde compró un barco, el "Mora", con su propio dinero y lo regaló. Durante muchos años se creía que era la autora del famoso tapiz de Bayeux, pero los estudios modernos afirman que el verdadero autor del lienzo era el hermanastro de William, Odo, obispo de Bayeux, quien se lo había encargado a los sajones de Kent.

Matilde y Guillermo tuvieron un total de 11 hijos, y se supone que él fue un esposo leal y amoroso, hasta el momento en que el hijo mayor, Roberto, se rebela contra su padre, y Matilde toma partido por él contra su esposo.

Murió en Caen, el 2 de noviembre de 1083, a los 51 años de edad, siendo enterrada en la abadía de San Esteban de Caen, en Normandía

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Matilda of Flanders's Timeline

1031
1031
Ghent, East Flanders, Flanders, Belgium
1051
1051
Age 20
Plouigneau, Brittany, France
1055
1055
Age 24
Normandy,France
1056
1056
Age 25
Plouigneau, Bretagne, France
1056
Age 25
Normandy, France
1057
1057
Age 26
1064
1064
Age 33
Normandy, France
1066
1066
Age 35
Rouen, Seine-Maritime, Upper Normandy, France
1066
Age 35
Normandy, France