Robert I le Vieux, duc de Bourgogne

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Robert I 'le Vieux' de France (von Burgundy), duc de Bourgogne

French: Robert Duc de Bourgogne, le Vieux, Spanish: Duque de Borgoña (1031 - 21 de marzo 1076), Príncipe de Francia, Conde de Charolais y Langre (1027 - 21 de marzo 1076), Conde de Auxerre (1040-1060) Roberto I "El Viejo" de Borgoña, duc de Bourgogne
Also Known As: "Robert I 'le vieux' de Bourgogne", ""The Old"", "le Vieux", "El Viejo", "Prince of France /Robert/", "Duke of Burgundy /Robert I/", ""le /Veille"/", "O Velho", "Robert the Old // 1 Duke of Burgundy", "Robert I Prince Of France //", "The Old", "Robert Capet", "Great Capet", "Le..."
Birthdate:
Death: March 18, 1076 (64-65)
Fleury-sur-Orne, Calvados, Lower Normandy, France
Place of Burial: Saint-Seine-l'Abbaye, Burgundy, France
Immediate Family:

Son of Robert II Capet, "the Pious" king of the Franks and Constance of Arles, queen consort of the Franks
Husband of Ermangarde "Blanche" de Bourgogne
Ex-husband of Hélie de Semur, duchesse consort de Bourgogne
Father of Arnulfo of Burgundy; Hughes de Bourgogne; Henri le Damoiseau, duc de Bourgogne; Constance de Bourgogne, Queen consort of Castile and Leon; Robert, infant de Bourgogne and 2 others
Brother of Emergarde d'Auvergne; Hedwige de France, comtesse d'Auxerre; Hugues, roi associé de France; Henry I, king of France; Adela of France, countess of Flanders and 2 others
Half brother of .... Capet

Occupation: Duke of Burgundy, duc de Bourgogne, Herzog von Burgund, Hertig i Burgund, Duque de Borgonha (1032-1076), Comte d'Auxerre, Graf von Auxerre, Greve i Auxerre (1040-1060), Duque de Borgoña, Prince of France, duc de Bourgogne, comte d'Auxerre, Duke
Managed by: James Fred Patin, Jr.
Last Updated:

About Robert I le Vieux, duc de Bourgogne

Robert I the Old, Duke of Burgundy

  • Son of Robert II Capet, "the Pious" king of the Franks and Constance of Arles, queen consort of the Franks
  • Robert de France [ 1 ] born around 1011 and died onMarch 21, 1076, Duke of Burgundy from 1032 to 1076 , Count of Charolais , of Langres ( 1027 ), and of Auxerre (from 1040 to 1060 ).
  • Robert I st was a prince of royal blood French , son of the King of France Robert II the Pious and Constance of Arles .

Project MedLands, DUKES of BURGUNDY 1032-1361

ROBERT de France, son of ROBERT II "le Pieux" King of France & his third wife Constance d'Arles ([1011/12]-church of Fleury-sur-Ouche, Côte d’Or 8 or 18 Mar 1076, bur Abbaye de Saint-Seine, Côte d’Or). The Historia Francorum names (in order) "Hugonem qui cognominatus est Magnus, Henricum, Robertum, Odonem" as the four sons of King Robert and his wife Constance[144]. Rodulfus Glauber names "Heinricus rex…germanium suum Rotbertum" when recording the latter's installation as duke of Burgundy by his brother[145]. His mother supported him as candidate to be consecrated associate king in 1027, in place of his older brother Henri who was supported by their father. His father named him heir to the duchy of Burgundy in 1030. He was installed as ROBERT I Duke of Burgundy in 1032 by his brother King Henri I. Comte d'Auxerre in 1040, when he conquered the county after Hugues Bishop of Auxerre died in 1039. He lost it after the 1060 council of Autun which ended his war with Nevers[146]. “Robertus Burgundie dux” renounced rights “in villa...Gilliacus...” in favour of Saint-Germain-des-Prés by charter dated 22 Sep 1040, subscribed by “...Elie conjugis eius...”[147]. “Robertus dux Burgundiorum cum uxore mea Helia” donated “terram...Villare Bichet...in pago Belnensi” to Saint-Germain-des-Prés, with the consent of “filiorum nostrorum Hugonis et Henrici”, by charter dated to [1043/44][148]. “Robertus dux et duo filii mei Hugo et Henricus” renounced rights to revenue from land “in Gilliaco” in favour of Saint-Germain-des-Prés by charter dated 2 Feb 1053[149]. The necrology of Cîteaux records the death "VIII Id Mar" of "Robertus…dux Burgundie"[150]. The necrology of Molesme records the death "XV Kal Apr" of "Robertus dux Burgundie et Ermengardis uxor eius"[151]. There is some mystery surrounding his death: a narrative by Pierre de Saint-Julien deacon of Chalon records that “Robertus dux” died “nuper dedecorose” in the church of Fleury-sur-Ouche, without providing further details[152]. married firstly ([1033], repudiated [1048/50]) HELIE de Semur, daughter of DALMAS [I] Seigneur de Semur-en-Brionnais & his wife Aramburge ([1016]-Semur-en-Brionnais, Saône-et-Loire 22 Apr after 1055). "Robertus dux Burgundionum" confirmed the possessions of Cluny by charter dated [1040] subscribed by "Ilie uxoris eius"[153]. The date of the marriage is deduced from the charter, dated to [1034], which is subscribed by "Roberti ducis et uxoris sue", under which "Gibuinus" confirmed a donation to Saint-Etienne de Dijon[154]. “Robertus Burgundie dux” renounced rights “in villa...Gilliacus...” in favour of Saint-Germain-des-Prés by charter dated 22 Sep 1040, subscribed by “...Elie conjugis eius...”[155]. "Robertus…dux et rector inferioris Burgundiæ" donated property to Saint-Bénigne-de-Dijon by charter dated 1 Mar 1043 which names "Helie uxoris mee…"[156]. “Robertus dux Burgundiorum cum uxore mea Helia” donated “terram...Villare Bichet...in pago Belnensi” to Saint-Germain-des-Prés, with the consent of “filiorum nostrorum Hugonis et Henrici”, by charter dated to [1043/44][157]. Her parentage is confirmed by the Vita S Hugonis, which records that "Dux Burgundie, gener eius" killed the father of St Hugues (abbot of Cluny) by his own hand[158]. The "Notes historiques sur le prieuré de Marcigny", included in the cartulary of Marcigny-sur-Loire, name (in order) "sancti Hugonis abbatis Cluniacensis et Gaufredi Sinemurensis, Andræ levitæ, Joceranni et Dalmatii, et sororum eorundem…Materdis, Adalaidæ et Cecilæ atque Evellæ" as children of "Dalmatius", but do not make the link with Duke Robert[159]. "Robertus dux et uxor sua Hylia" donated money to the church of Saint-Etienne de Dijon by undated charter[160]. She was repudiated, presumably on grounds of consanguinity, before [1050] when Jean Abbot of Fécamp wrote to Pope Leo IX recording that "Tedbaldo comite et Burgundionum…duce R" had "abdicatis legitimi thori connumbiis" and had "in inhonestis et consanguinitate fœdatis thalamis"[161]. She became a nun as PETRONILLE after her repudiation[162]. The necrology of Auxerre cathedral records the death 22 Apr of "Helya uxor Rotberti ducis"[163]. married secondly ([1049]) as her second husband, ERMENGARDE d'Anjou, widow of GEOFFROY II "Ferréol" Seigneur de Château-Landon, Comte de Gâtinais, daughter of FOULQUES III "Nerra/the Black" Comte d’Anjou & his second wife Hildegarde de Metz ([1015/20]-[church of Fleury-sur-Ouche, Côte d’Or 18 Mar 1076]). The Historiæ Andegavensis names "Goffridi de Castro Landono et Ermengardis filia Fulconis Comitis Andegavensis" as parents of "Fulco comes Andegavensis"[164]. Considering that she gave birth to at least one child by her second marriage, it is unlikely that Ermengarde was born earlier than [1015]. She must therefore have been considerably younger than her brother. Her first marriage is dated very approximately to [1035]. Her second marriage is deduced from a genealogy of the Comtes d'Anjou which names "Fulco (pater) Gosfridus et Ermengardis (mater) Gosfridus (et) Fulco (et) Hildegardis, de altero patre, filia Roberti ducis fratris Henrici regis"[165]. Her second marriage is dated from the letter written before [1050] by Jean Abbot of Fécamp to Pope Leo IX recording that "Tedbaldo comite et Burgundionum…duce R" had "abdicatis legitimi thori connumbiis" and had "in inhonestis et consanguinitate fœdatis thalamis"[166]. The necrology of Molesme records the death "XV Kal Apr" of "Robertus dux Burgundie et Ermengardis uxor eius"[167]. This suggests that Ermengarde died on the same day as her husband, possibly at the same place and in the same circumstances, although it is not infrequent for medieval necrologies to record couples on the same day maybe in commemoration of a joint donation to the religious institution in question. No other source which elucidates the circumstances of Ermengarde’s death has been identified.

Duke Robert I & his first wife HELIE de Semur had three children:

  • 1. HUGUES de Bourgogne ([1034]-killed in battle [1059/60]). "Hugonis ducis filii, bone indolis pueri" is named in a charter of "Robertus dux Burgundionum" dated [1032/39][168]. "Robertus…dux et rector inferioris Burgundiæ" donated property to Saint-Bénigne-de-Dijon by charter dated 1 Mar 1043 which names "Helie uxoris mee…seu filiorum nostrorum Hugonis…atque Heinrici"[169]. He was killed during the war with Nevers[170]. “Robertus dux Burgundiorum cum uxore mea Helia” donated “terram...Villare Bichet...in pago Belnensi” to Saint-Germain-des-Prés, with the consent of “filiorum nostrorum Hugonis et Henrici”, by charter dated to [1043/44][171]. “Robertus dux et duo filii mei Hugo et Henricus” renounced rights to revenue from land “in Gilliaco” in favour of Saint-Germain-des-Prés by charter dated 2 Feb 1053[172].
  • 2. HENRI de Bourgogne "le Damoiseau" ([1035]-27 Jan [1070/74]). "Robertus…dux et rector inferioris Burgundiæ" donated property to Saint-Bénigne-de-Dijon by charter dated 1 Mar 1043 which names "Helie uxoris mee…seu filiorum nostrorum Hugonis…atque Heinrici"[173]. He is named as first born son of Duke Robert by Orderic Vitalis, who specifies that Henri died in his father's lifetime leaving three sons whom he names[174]. “Robertus dux Burgundiorum cum uxore mea Helia” donated “terram...Villare Bichet...in pago Belnensi” to Saint-Germain-des-Prés, with the consent of “filiorum nostrorum Hugonis et Henrici”, by charter dated to [1043/44][175]. “Robertus dux et duo filii mei Hugo et Henricus” renounced rights to revenue from land “in Gilliaco” in favour of Saint-Germain-des-Prés by charter dated 2 Feb 1053[176]. "Henricus Roberti ducis filius Burgundie" granted rights in the forest of Saint-Julien to the church of Saint-Etienne de Dijon by undated charter[177]. married ? (-6 Jul 1074 or after, bur Besançon, Saint-Etienne). The wife of Henri de Bourgogne has not been identified with certainty. Abbé Maurice Chaume[178] suggested that she was a relative of Ramón Borell I Conde de Barcelona, pointing out the use of the name "Borel" by her son and grandson Dukes Eudes I and Hugues II. Szabolcs de Vajay[179] proposed more specifically that she was --- de Barcelona, daughter of Berenguer Ramón I "el Curvo" Conde de Barcelona & his third wife Guisle de Ampurias, married while her husband and his father were in Barcelona on crusade in Spain. There appears to be nothing to support the suggestion that her first name was Sibylla. Jean Richard[180] suggested that the wife of Henri de Bourgogne was possibly named Clémence, a name used by her descendants, and that she may have originated from Poitiers. There does not appear to be any direct proof to support any of these theories.

Henri de Bourgogne & his wife had seven children:

  • a) HUGUES de Bourgogne ([1056/57]-Cluny, Saône-et-Loire 29 Aug 1093, bur Abbaye de Cluny, Chapelle de Sainte-Marie). He is named as son of Henri by Orderic Vitalis[181]. His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated [21 Mar 1076/24 Jan 1077] which names "Hugo…post decessum Rotberti ducis" and which specifies that Robert was "patris Heinrici genitoris nostri"[182]. He succeeded his grandfather in 1076 as HUGUES I Duke of Burgundy, although the former intended Hugues's uncle Robert de Bourgogne as his successor. Orderic Vitalis records that Hugues succeeded in expelling Robert, along with his younger brother Simon, from Burgundy[183]. "Hugo Burgundionum dux" made a donation to Cluny dated 19 Feb 1078, subscribed by "Oddonis fratris eius, Rotberti alterius fratris eius"[184]. Duke Hugues left for Spain in [1078/79] to fight the Moors, helping Sancho I King of Aragon to take the kingdom of Navarre. Orderic Vitalis records that he abdicated as duke in favour of his younger brother Eudes, and became a monk at Cluny[185], dated to [Oct/Nov] 1079.
  • b) EUDES de Bourgogne ([1060]-Tarsus, Cilicia 23 Mar 1103, bur Abbaye de Cîteaux, Côte-d'Or, Chapelle Saint-Georges). He is named as son of Henri by Orderic Vitalis[186]. He succeeded in 1079 on the abdication of his brother as EUDES I "Borel" Duke of Burgundy.
  • c) ROBERT de Bourgogne (-Châtillon-sur-Seine, Côte d'Or 18 Sep 1111, bur Abbaye de Molesmes, near Langres). He is named as son of Henri by Orderic Vitalis[187]. "Hugo Burgundionum dux" made a donation to Cluny dated 19 Feb 1078, subscribed by "Oddonis fratris eius, Rotberti alterius fratris eius"[188]. Clerk at Langres 1077, archdeacon 1080. Bishop of Langres 1085, after the death of Renaud de Bar. "Odo dux Burgundie" confirmed a donation by "frater meus domnus Hugo" to the abbey of Molesme with the consent of "fratres mei Robertus archidiaconus, Henricus puer, Beatrix et Helia sorores mee" by charter dated to [1081/84][189]. "Odo dux Burgundie" donated the village of Marcenay to the abbey of Molesme with the consent of "omnes eius fratres et sorores Robertus, Henricus, Beatrix, Helia" by charter dated to [1080/83][190]. Robert took part in the war in Spain against the Moors, with his two brothers Eudes and Henri, in 1087. He became a Benedictine monk at Molesmes, being a friend of St Bruno who founded the Order of Chartreux[191]. The cartulary of Saint-Bénigne-de-Dijon includes a funerary elogy of the life of "Roberti Lingonensis episcopi…regum Franciæ ac ducum Burgundiæ stirpe genitus" dated 19 Oct 1111[192].
  • d) BEATRIX de Bourgogne (-after [1111/12]). "Odo dux Burgundie" confirmed a donation by "frater meus domnus Hugo" to the abbey of Molesme with the consent of "fratres mei Robertus archidiaconus, Henricus puer, Beatrix et Helia sorores mee" by charter dated to [1081/84][193]. "Odo dux Burgundie" donated the village of Marcenay to the abbey of Molesme with the consent of "omnes eius fratres et sorores Robertus, Henricus, Beatrix, Helia" by charter dated to [1080/83][194]. "Beatrix soror Rotberti Lingonensis episcopi" donated property to the abbey of Molesme by charter dated to [1085/1106][195]. "…Widone filio predicti Widonis et uxore eius Beatrice et filiis eorum Roberto et Widone" consented to the donation by "Oddo et Albertus fratres" to the abbey of Saint-Etienne de Vignory by charter dated to [1081/1112][196]. "Domina Beatrix uxor domini Widonis de Wannulriaco" donated property to Molesme by charter dated [1111/12] which names "fratris sui Roberti Linguonensis episcopi"[197]. married (after 1082) GUY [III] Seigneur de Vignory, son of GUY [II] Seigneur de Vignory & his wife Hildegarde (-before 1126).
  • e) HELIE de Bourgogne (-after [1081/84]). "Odo dux Burgundie" confirmed a donation by "frater meus domnus Hugo" to the abbey of Molesme with the consent of "fratres mei Robertus archidiaconus, Henricus puer, Beatrix et Helia sorores mee" by charter dated to [1081/84][198]. "Odo dux Burgundie" donated the village of Marcenay to the abbey of Molesme with the consent of "omnes eius fratres et sorores Robertus, Henricus, Beatrix, Helia" by charter dated to [1080/83][199]. Nun.
  • f) RENAUD de Bourgogne ([1064]-10 Jan 1092). Monk at the abbey of Saint Pierre at Flavigny, abbot from [1084/85]. The necrology of Flavigny records the death "IV Id Feb" of "Rainaldus frater ducis abbas Flaviniacensis"[200].
  • g) HENRI de Bourgogne ([1069/72]-killed in battle Astorga León 1 Nov 1112, bur Braga Cathedral). "Heynricus frater meus" witnessed the donation to Cluny of "Oddo dux Burgundie"[201]. An indication of his age is given in the charter dated to [1081/84] under which "Odo dux Burgundie" confirmed a donation by "frater meus domnus Hugo" to the abbey of Molesme with the consent of "fratres mei Robertus archidiaconus, Henricus puer, Beatrix et Helia sorores mee"[202]. His parentage is confirmed by an early 12th century document at Fleury which records that "Ainrico uni filiorum, filio…ducis Roberti" married "alteram filiam…non ex coniugali" of Alfonso VI King of Castile[203]. He took part in the war in Spain against the Moors, with his two brothers Eudes and Robert, in 1087. His aunt Queen Constance invited him to the court of Castile. Señor de Braga [1093]. He was installed as HENRIQUE Conde de Portugal in [1093] or [1095] by Alfonso VI King of Castile.
  • 3. CONSTANCE de Bourgogne ([after 1045]-[Jan/Feb] or [3 Apr/25 Oct] 1093, bur Sahagún, León, royal monastery of Santos Facundo y Primitivo). The Chronicon Trenorciensi records that "Constantiæ…filia Roberti Ducis" married firstly "Hugonis Cabilonensis Comitis" and secondly "Hispaniæ Rex Adefonsus"[204]. Considering the estimated date of her first marriage, it is unlikely that Constance was born before [1045]. She was therefore considerably younger than her brothers. A charter dated 5 Aug 1087 of "Ducem Burgundiæ Oddonem" restored property to Tournus abbey by "comitissa Cabillonensis filia Rotberti ducis", after the death of "mariti sui Hugonis comitis", adding that she subsequently became "Regina Galliciæ et Hispaniarum"[205]. "Infanta donna Urraka Regis domni Adefonsi filia" names her mother "Constantie regina" in her donation to Cluny dated 22 Feb 1117 "Spanish Era"[206], although the date was presumably AD as 1117 Spanish Era was equivalent to 1079 AD. An early 12th century document at Fleury records that "filiam Roberti ducis Bugundionem…Constantiam" married Alfonso VI King of Castile and was mother of a daughter who married "Raymundo comiti"[207]. The Chronicon Regum Legionensium names "Queen Constance" as the second of the "five legitimate wives" of King Alfonso[208]. Her second marriage date is estimated based on the likely estimated death date of her first husband in [Nov/early Dec] 1079 and her subscribing a document dated 25 Dec 1079 at Dueñas with her second husband[209]. Queen Constance was instrumental in having the Roman rite replace the Visigothic rite in the churches of Castile. "Adefonsus…Hispaniarum rex…cum coniuge mea Constantia regina" donated property to the monastery of San Salvador de Oña by charter dated 1 May 1092[210]. The date of her death is fixed by her last known mention in a charter dated 25 Jul 1093 and a donation by King Alfonso to the monastery of Sahagún dated 25 Oct 1093, which does not include Queen Constanza's name in the subscription list[211]. Pérez´s history of Sahagún monastery, published in 1782, states that "Doña Berta…Reyna…está enterrada no lejos de Doña Constanza en la Capilla" of the monastery, but does not quote the inscription which confirms this statement[212]. married firstly ([1065]) HUGUES [II] Comte de Chalon, son of THIBAUT Comte de Chalon & his wife Ermentrude (-in Spain [Nov/early Dec] 1079). married secondly (late 1079 or 8 May 1081) as his second wife, ALFONSO VI King of Castile and León, son of FERNANDO I King of Castile & his wife Sancha de León (Compostella [1036] or before Jun 1040-29 or 30 Jun 1109, bur Sahagún, León, San Mancio chapel in the royal monastery of Santos Facundo y Primitivo).

Duke Robert & his [first/second] wife had two children:

  • 4. ROBERT de Bourgogne (-poisoned [1113]). He is named as son of Duke Robert by Orderic Vitalis[213]. Petit, followed by Jean Richard, suggests that Robert and Simon were sons of Duke Robert by his second marriage[214]. Given his active career in the early 12th century, a birth date in the 1050s is more likely than in the late 1030s/early 1040s, but there appears to be no surviving primary source which points either way. Orderic Vitalis records that he was declared heir to the duchy of Burgundy by his father, after his older [half-]brother died, but was dispossessed by his nephew Duke Hugues I[215]. A charter dated 5 Aug 1087 of "Ducem Burgundiæ Oddonem" restored property to Tournus abbey by "comitissa Cabillonensis filia Rotberti ducis", after the death of "mariti sui Hugonis comitis", adding that she subsequently became "Regina Galliciæ et Hispaniarum", subscribed by "Rotberti avunculi ducis fratris Reginæ", the charter signed at León[216]. Orderic Vitalis records that he "made a friendly alliance" with Adelaida, widow of Roger I Count of Sicily, who arranged his marriage and appointed him co-regent for her son[217]. He was murdered by his mother-in-law with a poisoned draught after Count Roger II came of age[218]. His death date is estimated from Orderic Vitalis recording that "for ten years he defended the principality [Sicily] vigourously against all attacks"[219]. married (1102 or 1103) [SIBYLLE] of Sicily, daughter of ROGER I Count of Sicily & his second wife Eremburge de Mortain. Orderic Vitalis records that Adelaida, widow of Roger I Count of Sicily, arranged the marriage of "her daughter" (unnamed) to Robert de Bourgogne whom she appointed co-regent for her son[220]. Kerrebrouck says that Sibylle was the possible name of this daughter and that she was born from his third marriage[221], presumably reading the passage in Orderic Vitalis literally. It seems more likely chronologically that she was the daughter of Count Roger's second marriage.
  • 5. SIMON de Bourgogne (-after 1087). He is named as son of Duke Robert by Orderic Vitalis[222]. Petit, followed by Jean Richard, suggests that Robert and Simon were sons of Duke Robert by his second marriage[223]. He was expelled from Burgundy with his brother Robert[224]. Bouchard speculates that "Simon" was an error for "Hugh", who is not mentioned by Orderic Vitalis. However, as Hugues had been dead for some time when Orderic wrote his chronicle such an omission may not be surprising[225].

Duke Robert & his second wife ERMENGARDE d'Anjou had one child:

  • 6. AUDEARDE [Hildegarde] de Bourgogne (-after 1120, bur Poitiers, [%C3%A9glise abbatiale de Saint-Jean l'Evangéliste de Montierneuf]). The Chronicle of Saint-Maxence records the marriage of "Guido comes" and "Aldeardim filiam Roberti ducis Burgundiæ" after he repudiated his previous wife[226]. Her precise parentage is deduced from a genealogy of the Comtes d'Anjou which names "Fulco (pater) Gosfridus et Ermengardis (mater) Gosfridus (et) Fulco (et) Hildegardis, de altero patre, filia Roberti ducis fratris Henrici regis"[227]. married (Mar 1069, separated 1076) as his third wife, GUILLAUME VIII Duke of Aquitaine, GUILLAUME VI Comte de Poitou, son of GUILLAUME V "le Grand" Duke of Aquitaine [GUILLAUME III Comte de Poitou] & his third wife Agnès de Mâcon [Bourgogne-Comt%C3%A9] (1023-Chizé near Niort, Poitou 25 Sep 1086, bur Poitiers, église abbatiale de Saint-Jean l'Evangéliste de Montierneuf).

Robert I st Burgundy Duke of Burgundy 1032-1076, by Wikipedia

In 1030 , probably pushed by Queen Constance , he rebelled with his brother Henry I st against the king, their father. Henri took the castle of Dreux and Robert kidnapped Beaune and Avallon. They reconciled at the instigation of Guillaume de Volpiano abbot of Saint-Bénigne of Dijon . The following year, after the death of his father, supported by his mother Constance d'Arles, he revolted against his older brother, claiming the throne. War ensued between the two brothers. Henri supported by the Duke of Normandy made any resistance impossible and Robert defeated nearVilleneuve-Saint-Georges renounced the succession and returned to possession of the Duchy of Burgundy that his father had planned to grant him [ 2 ] . He could only take possession of it at the end of 1031 or at the beginning of 1032 , only after his brother Henri, driven from the royal domain by Constance, had succeeded in recovering his throne.

The succession of the Outer-Saône

On the other side of the Saône, in the county of Burgundy , the last king, Rudolf III died in 1032 without posterity. Two of his nephews, Eudes , son of his sister Berthe de Bourgogne and Conrad , husband of his niece Gisèle , daughter of his sister Gerberge, could claim his succession. Discarding Eudes, the choice of Rodolphe fell on Conrad whom he called to his succession. Eudes claimed his right. Renaud I first son of Otte Williamkissed his party entered the league against Conrad and pushed both attempts ( 1033 - 1036 ) that Eudes did to take possession of the kingdom of Burgundy. TeaMay 17, 1038Day of Solothurn diet which saw the connection to the Empire of the county, Renaud I first chose to appear in Dijon, in the company of the counts of Chalon and Nevers, bishops of Langres and Soissons, rather than honor the emperor; proving the interest and support (?) that the Duke Robert had to show for the affairs of Overseas Saône [ 4 ] .

Interventions in Auxerrois

Tea November 4, 1039 Hugues de Chalon , count of Chalon and bishop of Auxerre wasdying. He had been the sole defender of the rights claimed by KingRobert the Pious in his struggle to become master of Burgundy and he owed royal favor to having been consecrated theMarch 5, 999as bishop of Auxerre. He had played a role of adviser to the duke and his influence in Burgundy had been considerable. His death sparked an intervention of Robert I st in the Auxerrois against Renaud , Count of Nevers, brother of the Duke [ 5 ] . Did Robert want to take possession of the county or have his suzerainty recognized byRenaud, or even to have Héribert accepted as bishop, successor of Hugues de Chalon? The historian J. Richard writes that the reasons for his intervention in Auxerrois are obscure [ 6 ] . The armed encounter which took place between the two adversaries atSainte-Vertu , in the Yonne, cost the life of Count Renaud. The death of the Count ended hostilities and allowed Robert I st to maintain its domination over Auxerre.

The son of Renaud Guillaume I er , strengthened his power by his marriage in 1045 with Ermengarde of Tonnerreand claimed its rights to the county of Auxerre. The war resumed. In1057 a ducal army commanded by Hugues, the eldest son of the duke, invaded Auxerrois and burned the city of Saint-Bris [ 7 ] . In1058 Robert I st , helped Thibaud , Count of Blois, also became Count of Champagne, attacked the Abbey of Saint-Germain of Auxerre [ 8 ] . Around 1059 and 1060, the eldest son of Robert Ier , Hugh, was killed shortly afterwards in a war action against the Count Guillaume I er de Nevers. The following year, Thibaud , returned to war in Auxerrois and only succeeded in burning Toucy. The Council of Autun in 1060marks the end of this war in Auxerrois. The duke seems to have given up his rights over the Auxerrois [ 9 ] .

The "murder" of Dalmace I st Semur -in-Brionnais

Robert was of a violent and fierce character. According to the statements of certain historians, in particularE. Petit, taken up by Eugène Jarry [ 10 ] , to which the historianJ. Richard [ 11 ] does not subscribe : who writes "We do not know anything about the kind of death to which Damas de Semur", Duke Robert is said to have, in a fit of anger following a quarrel over a meal, killed Dalmace de Semur [ 11 ] , his father-in-law, as well as his brother-in-law, Jocerand [ 12 ] , son of Dalmace, who wanted to intervene.

Shipping to Spain

Father Hugues de Cluny , who played a role in Spain in the propagation of the Gregorian reform and in the eradication of the Mozarabic rite , interested the Burgundian nobility in the Reconquista. Robert I st Old surrendered in 1058in Barcelona, ​​at the court of Count Raymond Borel this city. He was accompanied by his second sonHenri, son of his first wife Helie de Semur. Following this meeting, Henri would have married a relative of the count [ 13 ] , whose nickname passed to his descendants.

Violence and Robbery

The paucity of information about Robert I stis extreme laments J. Richard. Nevertheless, the facts that historians know of him in the last years of his life are nothing but violence and robbery in which he was engaged. These abuses could be a reflection of his growing impecuniosity, more perhaps than of a fiery character [ 15 ]. Historians like J. Garnier and A. Kleinclausz have even given him the nickname "Robert without land". The Duke's atrocities committed against churches and abbeys are numerous. He had removed the crops, seized the tithes, had seized the cellars. In Auxerrois, Langrois, Dijonnais and Auxois, complaints from monks were raised everywhere. Such crimes could not go unpunished. They earned Robert to be excommunicated. The monks summoned him to the council held in Autun (1060 ?) Where he made amends. It is probable that it was at the Council of Autun that his trip to Rome was decided, which must have taken place between the years1060 and 1064 and which was to bring him forgiveness for his crimes.

Death

According to the historian E. Petit [ 16 ] , Robert of Burgundy died onMarch 21, 1076of a shameful and tragic accident on which we have no details, in the church of Fleurey-sur-Ouche , and the historian J. Richardsays about his death [ 17 ] : "the ecclesiastical historians are grieving the old Duke of marriage" incestuous "contracted after the repudiation of the Duchess Helie of Semur Ermengarde of Anjou with his cousin at3 thdegree descending from Hugh the Great, says Abbot Hugh; we allude to a "shameful" death by adding: "Robert died " dedecorose " [ 18 ] in the church of Fleurey-sur-Ouche".

Links



Sources

  • [110] Hugonis Floriacensis, Liber qui Modernorum Regum Francorum continet Actus 9, MGH SS IX, p. 385, additional manuscript quoted in footnote ***.
  • [111] Rodulfi Glabri, Historiarum III.9, MGH SS VII, p. 64.
  • [112] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 554.
  • [113] Obituaires de Lyon II, Diocèse de Chalon-sur-Saône, Abbaye chef d'ordre de Cîteaux, p. 608.
  • [114] Petit, Vol. V, p. 386.
  • [115] Cluny, Tome IV, 2949, p. 149.
  • [116] Petit, E. (1885) Histoire des ducs de Bourgogne de la race Capétienne (Paris), Vol. I, 21, p. 362.
  • [117] Dijon Saint-Bénigne II, 324, p. 104.
  • [118] Hildeberti Vita S Hugonis chap. 2, para. 9, (PL 159, 857-894), quoted in Petit, Vol. I, p. 167.
  • [119] Richard, J. (ed.) (1957) Le cartulaire de Marcigny-sur-Loire 1045-1144 (Dijon) ("Marcigny-sur-Loire") 2, p. 1.
  • [120] Dijon Saint-Etienne, [Tome I], 91, p. 108.
  • [121] Migne, J.-P. (ed.) Patrologiæ cursus completus, Series Latina, Vol. CXLIII: 799-800, cited in Bouchard (1987), p. 257.
  • [122] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 554.
  • [123] Histoire d'Auxerre, Tome IV, p. 13.
  • [124] Historiæ Andegavensis, RHGF X, p. 203.
  • [125] Halphen, L. (ed.), p. 247, cited thus without the full reference in Settipani, C. 'Les vicomtes de Châteaudun et leurs alliés', Keats-Rohan, K. S. B. and Settipani, C. (eds.) (2000) Onomastique et Parenté dans l'Occident medieval (Prosopographica et Genealogica, Vol. 3), p. 254 footnote 28.
  • [126] Petit, Vol. V, p. 386.
  • [127] Cluny, Tome IV, 2888, p. 82.
  • [128] Chevrier, G. and Chaume, M. (eds.) (1986) Chartes et documents de Saint-Bénigne de Dijon des origines à 1300 (Dijon) ("Dijon Saint-Bénigne") II, 324, p. 104.
  • [129] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 554.
  • [130] Dijon Saint-Bénigne II, 324, p. 104.
  • [131] Chibnall, M. (ed. and trans.) (1969) The Ecclesiastical History of Orderic Vitalis (Oxford Clarendon Press), Vol. VI, Book XIII, p. 431.
  • [132] Dijon Saint-Etienne, [Tome I], 82, p. 101.
  • [133] Chaume, M. 'En marge des croisades bourgignonnes d'Espagne', Annales de Bourgogne, t. IX (1937), p. 72, and Chaume, M. 'Les premières croisades bourgignonnes au-delà des Pyrénées', Annales de Bourgogne, t. XVIII (1946), pp. 161-5, cited in Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 560 footnote 4.
  • [134] Vajay, S. de 'Etiennette, dite de Vienne, comtesse de Bourgogne. Bourgogne, Lorraine et Espagne au XI siècle', Annales de Bourgogne, t. XXXII (1960), p. 259 note 3, cited in Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 560 footnote 4.
  • [135] Richard, J. 'Sur les alliances familiales des ducs de Bourgogne aux XII et XIII siècles', Annales de Bourgogne, t. XXX (1958), pp. 39-42, cited in Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 560 footnote 4.
  • [159] Ex Chronico Trenorciensi, RHGF XI, p. 112.
  • [160] Chifflet, P. F. (1644) Histoire de l´abbaye royale et de la ville de Tournus (Dijon), Preuves, p. 331.
  • [161] Cluny, Tome IV, 3533, p. 654, dated 1117 "Spanish Era".
  • [162] Godefroy, T. (1610) De l'origine des roys de Portugal yssus en ligne masculine de la maison de France (Paris), quoted in Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 560 footnote 16, which says that this chronicle fragment was first published at Frankfurt in 1596.
  • [163] Chronicon Regum Legionensium: Barton, S. and Fletcher, R. (trans. and eds.) The World of El Cid: Chronicles of the Spanish Reconquest (Manchester UP), p. 87.
  • [164] Referred to by Reilly (1988), Chapter 6, footnote 58.
  • [165] Alamo, J. del (ed.) (1950) (Madrid) Colección diplomatica de San Salvador de Oña 822-1284, Tomo I 822-1214 ("San Salvador de Oña (1950)") I, 99, p. 127.
  • [166] Reilly (1988), Chapter 12, p. 240.
  • [167] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XIII, p. 431.
  • [168] Richard, J. (ed.) (1957) Le cartulaire de Marcigny-sur-Loire 1045-1144 (Dijon), p. 14.
  • [169] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XIII, p. 431.
  • [170] Chifflet (1644), Preuves, p. 331.
  • [171] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XIII, p. 429, the editor in footnote 6 highlighting the absence of corroboration in Italian chronicles for this statement.
  • [172] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XIII, p. 433.
  • [173] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XIII, p. 433.
  • [174] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XIII, p. 429.
  • [175] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 555.
  • [176] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XIII, p. 431.
  • [177] Bouchard (1987), p. 257.
  • [178] Marchegay, P. and Mabille, E. (eds.) (1869) Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou (Paris) Chronicon sancti Maxentii Pictavensis, p. 404.
  • [179] Halphen, L. (ed.), p. 247, cited thus without the full reference in Settipani, C. 'Les vicomtes de Châteaudun et leurs alliés', Keats-Rohan, K. S. B. and Settipani, C. (eds.) (2000) Onomastique et Parenté dans l'Occident medieval (Prosopographica et Genealogica, Vol. 3), p. 254 footnote 28.
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Robert I le Vieux, duc de Bourgogne's Timeline

1011
1011
1030
1030
Age 19
France
1031
1031
Age 20
1032
1032
Age 21
Duke of, BURGUNDY, , France
1032
Age 21
Duke of, BURGUNDY, , France
1032
Age 21
Duke of, BURGUNDY, , France
1032
- 1076
Age 21
Burgundy, France
1034
1034
1035
1035