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About William "The Lion", King of Scots
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_the_Lion [updated 26 May 2015]
William 'the Lion'
- King of the Scots
- Reign 9 December 1165 – 4 December 1214
- Predecessor Malcolm IV
- Successor Alexander II
- Spouse Ermengarde de Beaumont
Issue (legitimate; see below for illegitimate children)
- Margaret, Countess of Kent
- Isabella, Countess of Norfolk
- Alexander II of Scotland
House House of Dunkeld
- Father Henry of Scotland
- Mother Ada de Warenne
- Born About 1143
- Huntingdon, Huntingdonshire, England
- Died 4 December 1214 (aged 71) Stirling
- Burial Arbroath Abbey
William the Lion (Mediaeval Gaelic: Uilliam mac Eanric; Modern Gaelic: Uilleam mac Eanraig), sometimes styled William I, also known by the nickname Garbh, "the Rough", (c. 1143 – 4 December 1214) reigned as King of the Scots from 1165 to 1214. He had the second-longest reign in Scottish history before the Act of Union with England in 1707. James VI (reigned 1567–1625) would have the longest.
He became King following his brother Malcolm IV's death on 9 December 1165 and was crowned on 24 December 1165.
In contrast to his deeply religious, frail brother, William was powerfully built, redheaded, and headstrong. He was an effective monarch whose reign was marred by his ill-fated attempts to regain control of Northumbria from the Normans.
Traditionally, William is credited with founding Arbroath Abbey, the site of the later Declaration of Arbroath. He was not known as "The Lion" during his own lifetime, and the title did not relate to his tenacious character or his military prowess. It was attached to him because of his flag or standard, a red lion rampant with a forked tail (queue fourchée) on a yellow background. This (with the substitution of a 'double tressure fleury counter-fleury' border instead of an orle) went on to become the Royal standard of Scotland, still used today but quartered with those of England and of Ireland. It became attached to him because the chronicler John of Fordun called him the "Lion of Justice". William was grandson of David I of Scotland. He also inherited the title of Earl of Northumbria in 1152 from his father, Henry of Scotland. However he had to give up this title to King Henry II of England in 1157. This caused trouble after William became king, since he spent a lot of effort trying to regain Northumbria.
William was a key player in the Revolt of 1173–1174 against Henry II. In 1174, at the Battle of Alnwick, during a raid in support of the revolt, William recklessly charged the English troops himself, shouting, "Now we shall see which of us are good knights!" He was unhorsed and captured by Henry's troops led by Ranulf de Glanvill and taken in chains to Newcastle, then Northampton, and then transferred to Falaise in Normandy. Henry then sent an army to Scotland and occupied it. As ransom and to regain his kingdom, William had to acknowledge Henry as his feudal superior and agree to pay for the cost of the English army's occupation of Scotland by taxing the Scots. The church of Scotland was also subjected to that of England. This he did by signing the Treaty of Falaise. He was then allowed to return to Scotland. In 1175 he swore fealty to Henry II at York Castle.
The humiliation of the Treaty of Falaise triggered a revolt in Galloway which lasted until 1186, and prompted construction of a castle at Dumfries. In 1179, meanwhile, William and his brother David personally led a force northwards into Easter Ross, establishing two further castles, and aiming to discourage the Norse Earls of Orkney from expanding beyond Caithness.
A further rising in 1181 involved Donald Meic Uilleim, direct descendant of King Duncan II of Scots. Donald briefly took over Ross; not until his death (1187) was William able to reclaim Donald's stronghold of Inverness. Further royal expeditions were required in 1197 and 1202 to fully neutralise the Orcadian threat.
The Treaty of Falaise remained in force for the next fifteen years. Then Richard the Lionheart, needing money to take part in the Third Crusade, agreed to terminate it in return for 10,000 silver marks, on 5 December 1189.
William attempted to purchase Northumbria from Richard in 1194, as he had a strong claim over it. However, his offer of 15,000 marks was rejected due to wanting the castles within the lands, which Richard was not willing to give. Despite the Scots regaining their independence, Anglo-Scottish relations remained tense during the first decade of the 13th century. In August 1209 King John decided to flex the English muscles by marching a large army to Norham (near Berwick), in order to exploit the flagging leadership of the ageing Scottish monarch. As well as promising a large sum of money, the ailing William agreed to his elder daughters marrying English nobles and, when the treaty was renewed in 1212, John apparently gained the hand of William's only surviving legitimate son, and heir, Alexander, for his eldest daughter, Joan.
Despite continued dependence on English goodwill, William's reign showed much achievement. He threw himself into government with energy and diligently followed the lines laid down by his grandfather, David I. Anglo-French settlements and feudalization were extended, new burghs founded, criminal law clarified, the responsibilities of justices and sheriffs widened, and trade grew. Arbroath Abbey was founded (1178), and the bishopric of Argyll established (c.1192) in the same year as papal confirmation of the Scottish church by Pope Celestine III. William is recorded in 1206 as having cured a case of scrofula by his touching and blessing a child with the ailment whilst at York.[dubious – discuss] William died in Stirling in 1214 and lies buried in Arbroath Abbey. His son, Alexander II, succeeded him as king, reigning from 1214 to 1249.
Marriage and issue
Due to the terms of the Treaty of Falaise, Henry II had the right to choose William's bride. As a result, William married Ermengarde de Beaumont, a great-granddaughter of King Henry I of England, at Woodstock Palace in 1186. Edinburgh Castle was her dowry. The marriage was not very successful, and it was many years before she bore him an heir. William and Ermengarde's children were:
- Margaret (1193–1259), married Hubert de Burgh, 1st Earl of Kent.
- Isabel (1195–1253), married Roger Bigod, 4th Earl of Norfolk.
- Alexander II of Scotland (1198–1249).
- Marjorie (1200 – 17 November 1244), married Gilbert Marshal, 4th Earl of Pembroke.
Out of wedlock, William I had numerous children, their descendants being among those who would lay claim to the Scottish crown.
By an unnamed daughter of Adam de Hythus:
- Margaret, married Eustace de Vesci Lord of Alnwick
By Isabel d'Avenel:
- Robert de London
- Henry de Galightly, father of Patrick Galightly one of the competitors to the crown in 1291
- Ada Fitzwilliam (c.1146-1200), married Patrick I, Earl of Dunbar (1152–1232)
- Aufrica, married William de Say, and whose grandson Roger de Mandeville was one of the competitors to the crown in 1291
- Isabel of Scotland married Robert III de Brus then either Sir William de Ros or Robert Furfan de Ros, Magna Carta Suretor.
William I has been depicted in a historical fantasy novel : An Earthly Knight (2003) by Janet McNaughton. The novel is set in the year 1162. William, younger brother and heir to Malcolm IV of Scotland, is betrothed to Lady Jeanette "Jenny" Avenel. She is the second daughter of a Norman nobleman and the marriage politically advances her family. But she is romantically interested in Tam Lin, a man enchanted by the Fairy Queen.
Uilleam Garbh; e.g. Annals of Ulster, s.a. 1214.6; Annals of Loch Cé, s.a. 1213.10. Gillingham, John (2000). Richard I. p. 272. ISBN 0300094043. Dalrymple, Sir David (1776). Annals of Scotland. Pub. J. Murray. London. P. 300 -301. Scotland: The Making of the Kingdom, A.A.M. Duncan, p527 Scotland: The Making of the Kingdom, A.A.M. Duncan, p175 Balfour Paul, Vol. I, p.5 "An Earthly Knight", description from the cover "An Earthly Knight",Review by J. A. Kaszuba Locke "An Earthly Knight",Review by Joan Marshall
Ashley, Mike. Mammoth Book of British Kings and Queens. 1998. Magnusson, Magnus. Scotland: Story of a Nation. 2001.
The Official Website of the British Monarchy http://www.royal.gov.uk/HistoryoftheMonarchy/Scottish%20Monarchs%28400ad-1603%29/DescendantsofMalcolmIII/WilliamI.aspx
Born in 1143, William the Lion was the younger brother of Malcolm IV.
A year after his accession, he went to Normandy with Henry II and later spent Easter 1170 at Windsor. In 1174, however, he joined Henry II's son in his rebellion against his father, and invaded England. He was captured at Alnwick, Northumberland and brought to Henry II with 'his feet shackled beneath the belly of his horse.'
He was then held prisoner first in Yorkshire, later at Northampton and finally in France. He was released by the terms of the Treaty of Falaise of 8 December 1174, having been forced to agree to do homage to Henry II 'for Scotland and for all his other lands', and surrender key Scottish castles such as Edinburgh and Stirling.
As William's feudal lord, Henry now had the right to arrange his marriage, and he gave him Ermengarde de Beaumont, whose father was the son of an illegitimate daughter of Henry I.
William eventually recovered Scotland from the English king's feudal overlordship, however, when Henry II was succeeded by Richard I. Richard, determined to raise money for his third Crusade, surrendered his feudal superiority over Scotland for 10,000 merks by the Quitclaim of Canterbury on 5 December 1189 and Scotland was an independent country once more. In 1196-7, William established his sovereignty in Caithness.
Under William, the development of feudal institutions continued; in part, the Scottish monarchy's government closely resembled England's. William established royal burghs in eastern Scotland up to the Moray Firth, and extended the use of sheriffs in the same area. Perth and Stirling became major centres of royal administration.
William I was a vigorous royal patron of the Scottish Church - he founded Arbroath Abbey, Angus in or before 1178. In 1182 Pope Lucius III sent him the Golden Rose and in 1188 Pope Clement III took the Scottish Church under his special protection.
In 1192, the Pope granted a Bull to William that recognised the separate identity of the Scottish Church (previously the Church in Scotland had been brought under the authority of the Archbishop of York), and its independence of all ecclesiastical authorities apart from Rome.
Gervase of Canterbury described William as 'a man of outstanding sanctity ... much preferring to have peace than the sword and to provide for his people by wisdom rather than iron'.
William died at Stirling on 4 December 1214, aged 71, and was buried at Arbroath.
William I 'the Lion', King of Scotland 1 M, #102872, b. circa 1143, d. 4 December 1214 Last Edited=19 Jan 2011 Consanguinity Index=0.01%
William I 'the Lion', King of Scotland was born circa 1143.2 He was the son of Henry of Huntingdon, Earl of Huntingdon and Ada de Warenne.3 He married Ermengarde de Beaumont, daughter of Richard I de Beaumont, Vicomte de Beaumont and Luce de l'Aigle, on 5 September 1186 at Woodstock Palace, Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England.4 He died on 4 December 1214 at Stirling, Stirlingshire, Scotland.5 He was buried at Arbroath Abbey, Scotland.5
He gained the title of Earl of Huntingdon. He succeeded to the title of Earl of Northumberland on 12 June 1152.2 He abdicated as Earl of Northumberland in 1157.2 He succeeded to the title of King William I of Scotland on 9 December 1165.2 He was crowned King of Scotland on 24 December 1165 at Scone Abbey, Scone, Perthshire, Scotland.2
He succeeded his older brother, Malcolm IV. William fought to regain Northumberland from England, beginning the 'Auld Alliance' with France, but was captured at Alnwick and forced to acknowledge Henry II as Scotland's overlord in 1174.. He bought back Scotland's sovereignty from Richard I for #6600 (1189) towards the Third Crusade and in 1192 won long-canvased papel recognition of the Scotish Church's independence under Rome. His reign of almost 49 years was the longest in Scottish history. A strong and popular king. He was buried at Tironensian Abbey, Arbroath. Succeeded by his son, Alexander II.
Child of William I 'the Lion', King of Scotland and unknown daughter de Hythus
- Margaret (?)5 d. a 1226
Children of William I 'the Lion', King of Scotland [and mistress(es)]:
- Robert de London5
- Henry Galightly+5
- Aufrica (?)5
- Ada (?)+5 b. b 1174, d. 1200
Child of William I 'the Lion', King of Scotland and unknown daughter Avenal
- Isabella (?)+5
Children of William I 'the Lion', King of Scotland and Ermengarde de Beaumont
- Isabella of Scotland+6 d. a 1253
- Margaret of Scotland+6 b. c 1193, d. 1259
- Alexander II 'the Peaceful', King of Scotland+ b. 24 Aug 1198, d. 6 Jul 1249
- Marjorie of Scotland6 b. b 1214, d. 17 Nov 1244
- * [S106] Royal Genealogies Website (ROYAL92.GED), online ftp://ftp.cac.psu.edu/genealogy/public_html/royal/index.html. Hereinafter cited as Royal Genealogies Website.
- * [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999), page 196. Hereinafter cited as Britain's Royal Families.
- * [S323] Sir James Balfour Paul, The Scots Peerage: founded on Wood's edition of Sir Robert Douglas's The Peerage of Scotland (Edinburgh, Scotland: David Douglas, 1904), volume 1, page 4. Hereinafter cited as The Scots Peerage.
- * [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families, page 197.
- * [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families, page 198.
- * [S323] Sir James Balfour Paul, The Scots Peerage, volume 1, page 5.
Famous Scots: King William I "The Lion" (1143-1214)
William the Lion William "The Lion" was a grandson of King David I and came to the throne after the death of his elder brother, Malcolm IV in 1165. The nickname "The Lion" was accorded to him after his death and may have been due either to his valour and strength in battle (though he was not always successful) or, more likely, to the heraldic symbol which he adopted - the red lion rampant on a yellow background - which has remained a royal symbol to this day.
William was crowned at Scone on December 24, 1165 at the age of 22 and was to reign for nearly 50 years - a prodigious length of time by any standards, but unheard of in those violent days.
William was red-haired and energetic. Early in his reign he attempted to recover land in Northumberland which had been given to King David in 1149 by King Stephen of England but which had been ceded by his brother Malcolm. The stories of his butchery of the local population were chronicled in detail by later (English) historians. However, he was ultimately unsuccessful as he was surprised by an attack by the English army while besieging Alnwick castle. In the mist, he mistook a party of English knights for his own. He is said to have fought fearlessly but his horse was speared and he was captured. He spent five months as a prisoner of Henry II while the English army plundered the south of Scotland as far as Edinburgh.
Lion Rampant William was only released under the Treaty of Falaise. Under this, William was forced to swear allegiance to King Henry II of England and English garrisons remained in the castles which had been captured. This lasted until after Henry's death in 1189. At that stage he was able to negotiate out of the oath by providing money to King Richard (the Lionheart) who needed finance to go on a crusade to the Holy Land.
In 1178 William founded the Abbey of Arbroath which was dedicated to Thomas à Becket who had been murdered by Henry II in 1170. The Abbey was later to be place where the famous "Declaration of Arbroath" was signed in 1320 by the Scottish nobles in the time of Robert the Bruce.
William failed to assert his authority over the rebellious south-west of Scotland. This was not helped by the fact that he had to first ask permission of his "liege-lord" Henry to be allowed to deal with the matter. William captured one of the ring-leaders but had to send him to Henry to be dealt with. Henry demand an oath of loyalty - and promptly returned the outlaw to Galloway where he immediately attacked William's garrison.
William is known to have been planning another invasion of England to retake Northumberland early in the 13th century after King John came to the throne of England and there were a number of skirmishes along the border. But he eventually negotiated a treaty instead - he is said to have had a "divine warning" of the consequences of invasion.
In 1186 William married Ermengarde de Beaumont who at last bore him a son in 1198 (later King Alexander II) when William was aged 53. He also had three daughters (all of whom married English nobles as part of the peacemaking process with King John of England).
William I "the Lion" ( known in Gaelic as Uilliam Garm1 or William the Rough), (1142/1143 - December 4, 1214) reigned as King of Scots from 1165 to 1214. His reign was the longest in Scottish history before the Act of Union with England in 1707. He became King following his brother Malcolm IV's death on 9 December 1165 and was crowned on 24 December 1165. banner of William the Lion, King of Scotland from 1165 to 1214.
In contrast to his deeply religious, frail brother, William was powerfully-built, redheaded, and headstrong. He was an effective monarch whose reign was marred by his ill-fated attempts to regain control of Northumbria from the English. Section from Shepherds map of the British Isles about 802 AD showing the kingdom of Northumbria Northumbria is primarily the name of a petty kingdom of Angles, Danes and Norwegians which was formed in Great Britain at the beginning of the 7th century, and of the much smaller earldom...
Traditionally, William founded Arbroath Abbey, the site of the later Declaration of Arbroath. Interestingly, he was not known as "The Lyon" during his own lifetime, and the sobriquet did not relate to his tenacious character or his military prowess. William adopted the use of the Lion Rampant by his right to do so under the law of Heraldry. Arbroath Abbey, showing distinctive sandstone colouring. ... The Declaration of Arbroath was a declaration of Scottish independence, and set out to confirm Scotlands status as an independent, sovereign state and its use of military action when unjustly attacked. ...
The "Lion" became attached to him because of his flag or standard, a red lion rampant (with a forked tail) on a yellow background. This (with the addition of a 'double tressure fluery counter-fluery' border) went on to become the Royal standard of Scotland; the British Monarch when in Scotland honors the display of Scotland's Royal Standard due to the fact they share a Common ancestor with the Scots. However, this common ancestor is not William the Lion, but William's Great Grandfather, King Malcolm III,who was also known as "Canmore" meaning "Great Head". He was the husband of Queen Saint Margaret,and also the Great Grandfather of English King Henry II. The rampant lion within the 2nd quarter of Great Britain's Royal arms represents their common ancestry with the Scots. The Royal Standard of Scotland The Royal Standard of Scotland, also known as the Lion Rampant is a flag used historically by the Kings of Scotland. ... Royal motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) Scotlands location within the United Kingdom Languages English, Gaelic, Scots Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow First Minister Jack McConnell Area - Total - % water Ranked 2nd UK 78,782 kmÂ² 1. ...
William arranged the Auld Alliance, the first treaty for mutual self-defence between nations. Scotland, France, and Norway subscribed to the treaty. Although Norway never took much part in it, it played a role in Franco-Scottish (and English) affairs until 1746. The Auld Alliance was an alliance between Scotland, France, and Norway which had its origins in the Orkneyinga saga and the colonisation of Normandy. ... One of the most influential doctrines in history is that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ... // Events Catharine de Ricci (born 1522) canonized. ...
William also inherited the title of Earl of Northumbria in 1152. However he had to give up this title to King Henry II of England in 1157. This caused trouble after William became king, since he spent a lot of effort trying to regain Northumbria. Section from Shepherds map of the British Isles about 802 AD showing the kingdom of Northumbria Northumbria is primarily the name of a petty kingdom of Angles, Danes and Norwegians which was formed in Great Britain at the beginning of the 7th century, and of the much smaller earldom... Events March 4 - Frederick I Barbarossa is elected King of the Germans Eleanor of Aquitaine has her marriage to Louis VII annulled May 18 - Eleanor of Aquitaine marries Henry of Anjou Church of Ireland acknowledges Popes authority Almohad Dynasty conquers Algeria Establishment of the archbishopric of Nidaros (Trondheim), Norway... Henry II (5 March 1133 â€“ 6 July 1189) ruled as Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, and as King of England (1154â€“1189) and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland, eastern Ireland, and western France. ... Events Births September 8 - King Richard I of England (died 1199) Leopold V of Austria (died 1194) Hojo Masako, wife of Minamoto no Yoritomo (died 1225) Deaths August 21 - King Alfonso VII of Castile (born 1105) Agnes of Babenberg, daughter of Leopold III of Austria Sweyn III of Denmark Yury...
William was a key rebel in the Revolt of 1173-1174 against Henry II. In 1174, during a raid in support of the revolt, William recklessly charged the English troops himself, shouting, "Now we shall see which of us are good knights!" He was unhorsed and captured by Henry's troops and taken in chains to Northampton, and then transferred to Falaise in Normandy. Henry then sent an army to Scotland and occupied it. As ransom and to regain his kingdom, William had to acknowledge Henry as his feudal superior and agree to pay for the cost of the English army's occupation of Scotland by taxing the Scots. This he did by signing the Treaty of Falaise. He was then allowed to return to Scotland. The Revolt of 1173â€“1174 was a rebellion against Henry II of England by three of his sons, his wife Eleanor of Aquitaine and rebel supporters. ... Events Vietnam is given the official name of Annam by China. ... Falaise is a commune in the Calvados département, in the Basse-Normandie administrative région, in Normandy, north-western France. ... Flag of Normandy Mont Saint Michel is a historic pilgrimage site and a symbol of Normandy Normandy is a geographical region in northern France. ...
The Treaty of Falaise remained in force for the next fifteen years. At the end of that time the new English king, Richard the Lionheart, agreed to terminate it in return for 10,000 silver marks. Richard needed the money to take part in the Third Crusade. Richard I (September 8, 1157 â€“ April 6, 1199) was King of England from 1189 to 1199. ... The Third Crusade (1189â€“1192) was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin. ...
Due to the terms of the Treaty of Falaise, Henry II had the right to choose William's bride. William was married to Ermengarde de Beaumont, a granddaughter of King Henry I of England, in 1186. Edinburgh Castle was her dowry. The marriage was not very successful, and it was many years before an heir, Alexander, was born. William and Ermengarde's children were: Henry I of England (c. ... Events John the Chanter becomes Bishop of Exeter. ... Edinburgh Castle and NorLoch, around 1780 by Alexander Nasmyth Edinburgh Castle is an ancient stronghold on the Castle Rock in the centre of the city of Edinburgh, has been in use by assorted military forces since 900 BC and only transferred from Ministry of Defence administration recently. ...
1. Margaret (1193-1259), married Hubert de Burgh, 1st Earl of Kent.
2. Isabella (1195-1253), married Roger Bigod, 4th Earl of Norfolk.
3. Alexander II of Scotland (1198-1249), reigned 1214-1249.
4. Marjorie (1200-1244), married Gilbert Marshal, 4th Earl of Pembroke.
William died in Stirling in 1214 and lies buried in Arbroath Abbey. His son, Alexander II, succeeded him as king.
William I King of Scotland Written by: The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica
Born 1143 Died December 4, 1214 Stirling, Scotland
William The Lion (born 1143—died Dec. 4, 1214, Stirling, Stirlingshire, Scot.), king of Scotland from 1165 to 1214; although he submitted to English overlordship for 15 years (1174–89) of his reign, he ultimately obtained independence for his kingdom.
William was the second son of the Scottish Henry, Earl of Northumberland, whose title he inherited in 1152. He was forced, however, to relinquish this earldom to King Henry II of England (reigned 1154–89) in 1157. Succeeding to the throne of his elder brother, King Malcolm IV, in 1165, William joined a revolt of Henry’s sons (1173) in an attempt to regain Northumberland. He was captured near Alnwick, Northumberland, in 1174 and released after agreeing to recognize the overlordship of the king of England and the supremacy of the English church over the Scottish church.
Upon Henry’s death in 1189, William obtained release from his feudal subjection by paying a large sum of money to England’s new king, Richard I (reigned 1189–99). In addition, although William had quarreled bitterly with the papacy over a church appointment, Pope Celestine III ruled in 1192 that the Scottish church owed obedience only to Rome, not to England. During the reign of King John in England, relations between England and Scotland deteriorated over the issue of Northumberland until finally, in 1209, John forced William to renounce his claims.
In his effort to consolidate his authority throughout Scotland, William developed a small but efficient central administrative bureaucracy. He chartered many of the major burghs of modern Scotland and in 1178 founded Arbroath Abbey, which had become probably the wealthiest monastery in Scotland by the time of his death. William was succeeded by his son Alexander II.
Geni user contribution:
Surnamed 'The Lion' due to the rampant (stand on hind legs) red lion on a yellow field, which he had as his standard. It would go on to become Scotland's Royal Heraldic colors. Ferocious fighter & military commander, but of questionable ability as a tactician. Abbey at Arbroath was founded by William. He was buried in front of the high altar.
Sources: The book, 'A House of King's' The book, 'Scotland, Past & Present' The book, 'The Scottish World' (plus many more)
SOURCE NOTES: 1) GENEALOGY: Royal Ancestors of Magna Charta Barons; Page; 226; G929.72; C6943ra; Denver Public Library; Genealogy
2) Royal Genealogies Website (ROYAL92.GED), online <ftp://ftp.cac.psu.edu/genealogy/public_html/royal/index.html>. Hereinafter cited as Royal Genealogies Website.
3) Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Family: A Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999), page 196. Hereinafter cited as Britain's Royal Family.
4) Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Family, page 197.
5) Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Family, page 198.
William I "the Lion", King of Scotland1 b. 1143, d. 4 December 1214
Father Énric mac Dabid, rí Alban2 b. circa 1114, d. 12 June 1152
Mother Ada de Warenne2 b. circa 1120, d. 1178
William I "the Lion", King of Scotland was the second son of the Scottish Henry, Earl of Northumberland.3 Also called Willelm Rex Scotie.4 He was the successor of Énric mac Dabid, rí Alban; 1st Earl of Northumberland.5,3 William I "the Lion", King of Scotland was born in 1143.6,2,3,7 He was the son of Énric mac Dabid, rí Alban and Ada de Warenne.2 William I "the Lion", King of Scotland inherited the earldom of Northumberland from his father, assigned to him by King David on the death of his father, in 1152.3,6 2nd Earl of Northumberland at England between 12 June 1152 and 1157.3,6 He relinquished the earldom of Northumberland to King Henry II of England in 1157.3 He saw the Earldom of Northumberland surrendered to King Henry II of England by his elder brother, Malcolm, King of Scotland, in 1157.6 He made frequent attempts to regain the Earldom of Northumberland between 1157 and 1165.6 He was the successor of Malcolm IV "the Maiden", King of Scotland; 6th Earl of Huntingdon and Northampton.7 William I "the Lion", King of Scotland was recognized as Earl of Huntingdon by King Henry II of England, but denied the Earldom of Northumberland, upon which he became an enemy of the King in 1165.7 He succeeded to the throne of his elder brother, King Malcolm IV, in 1165.3 7th Earl of Huntingdon at England between 1165 and 12 July 1174.7 King of Scotland between 9 December 1165 and 1214.2,3 He was enthroned, succeeding his brother, Malcolm IV, on 24 December 1165 at Scone, Scotland.2 He associated with daughter Avenal, daughter of Richard Avenal, before 1170. William I "the Lion", King of Scotland joined a revolt of Henry's sons in an attempt to regain Northumberland in 1173.3 The Great Rebellion: Henry II versus his heir, Henry "the Young King", his two older brothers, the Earl of Leicester, the King of Scots, the King of France, and the Count of Flanders. In 1172/73 at 19 Henry II.8,9 Annals of Monte Fernando 1174: "Capcio Willelmi regis Scocie."10 He and Henri II "Courtmanteau", roi d' Angleterre concluded a peace treaty between England and Scotland in 1174.11 William I "the Lion", King of Scotland was the predecessor of Simon de St. Liz III, 8th Earl of Huntingdon; 8th Earl of Huntingdon and Northampton.12 William I "the Lion", King of Scotland submitted to English overlordship for 15 years between 1174 and 1189.3 He was deprived of his earldom on 12 July 1174.13 He joined with Prince Henry of England in rebellion against his father, was defeated and taken prisoner at Alnwick on 12 July 1174.13 He founded Arbroath Abbey, which had become probably the wealthiest monastery in Scotland by the time of his death, in 1178 at Scotland.3 He obtained a regrant of Huntingdon from the King, but immediately resigned it to his brother David in 1185.12 He married Ermengarde de Beaumont, daughter of Richard, comte de Beaumont La Maine, on 5 September 1186 at Woodstock Palace, Oxfordshire, England.14,2,12 William I "the Lion", King of Scotland purchased, for 10,000 marks, from Richard I a release of all claim to allegience from Scotland in 1189.12 He ultimately obtained independence for his kingdom in 1189.3 He obtained release from his feudal subjection by paying a large sum of money to England's new king, Richard I, on the death of Henry II in 1189.3 He supported in his claim of independency for Scotland when Pope Celestine III ruled that the Scottish church owed obedience only to Rome, not to England, in 1192.3 He was forced by King John to forevermore renounce his claim to Northumberland in 1209 at England.3 Annals of Monte Fernando 1214: "Willelmus rex Scottorum Ob."15 He died on 4 December 1214 at Stirling, Stirlingshire, Scotland, at age 71 years.2,3,12 William I "the Lion", King of Scotland was buried in Arbroath Abbey, Aberbrothock, Scotland.16,2,12
Family 1 daughter Avenal b. circa 1147 Child
- Isabel MacCrinan+ b. c 117017
Family 2 Ermengarde de Beaumont b. after 1170, d. 11 February 1233/34 Children
- Alexander II "the Peaceful", King of Scotland+ b. 24 Aug 1198, d. 6 Jul 124916,2
- Margaret MacCrinan+ b. c 1201?18
- [S206] With additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr. and assisted by David Faris Frederick Lewis Weis, Weis: AR 7th ed., 89-26.
- [S484] Peter Townend, B:P, 105th, Kings of Scotland, pgs. lxx-lxxv.
- [S862] Various EB CD 2001, William I (k. of Scot.).
- [S1278] K.S.B. Keats-Rohan, Domesday Descendants, pg. 1106.
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- [S215] Revised by others later George Edward Cokayne CP, VI:644.
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- [S206] With additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr. and assisted by David Faris Frederick Lewis Weis, Weis: AR 7th ed., Line 234A.27.
- [S215] Revised by others later George Edward Cokayne CP, VI:645.
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Page: Subject: New Scottish Princess: Maud of Huntingdon, wife of John de Monmouth, of Monmouth, Monmouthshire From: Douglas Richardson Date: 6/29/2013 5:15 PM To: firstname.lastname@example.org Text: Complete Peerage, 3 (1913): 169 (sub Chester) and 6 (1926): 647 (sub Huntingdon) both include accounts of John of Scotland, Earl of Chester and Huntingdon (died 1237), son and heir of David of Scotland, Earl of Huntingdon (died 1219) (brother of Kings Malcolm and William of Scotland). While Complete Peerage refers to him as "John le Scot," I find that during his lifetime, Earl John was known simply as John of Scotland, as indicated by many contemporary charters, including the items cited in the following citation:
- This document has a pedigree for John of Monmouth II, Maud (Matilda), his 1st wife she died childless and she is the daughter of John Huntingdon who is the Earl of Huntingdon. Catherine unknown she is the 2nd wife of John of Monmouth II:
- John of Scotland, Earl of Chester and Huntingdon (died 1237), son and heir of David of Scotland, Earl of Huntingdon (died 1219) (brother of Kings Malcolm and William of Scotland).
- Richard de Wyesham who was born de Monmouth, he was Lord of Wyesham in Monmouth Wales. Richard de Wyesham he is the Ancestor of our Wysham Family and he is a brother to John of Monmouth II:
Notes ◦1 - surnamed the Lion, King of Scotland, was the second son of Prince Henry, only son of David I., and succeeded his brother Malcolm IV. December 9,1165. He took part with Henry II of England in the expedition to Brittany but subsequently supported the sons of Henry in their rebellion. He invaded England in 1173, but in the following year, July 12, he was surprised and captured, with sixty of his nobles, by Ranulph de Glanville, at Alnwick. Henry sent him to Normandy, and confined him in the castle of Falaise, where he remained till the following December. On doing homage to Henry for the kingdom of Scotland, and promising to give up to him five of his principal fortresses, he was released. William made a bold stand for the independence of the church in Scotland, by his resistance to the appointment, confirmed by Pope Alexander III., of John the Scot to the see of St. Andrew's. In 1181 the Pope excommunicated him, and laid the kingdom under an interdict. A new pope, Lucius III., reversed the decree and removed the interdict. After the accession of Richard I. he paid a sum of money, and was excused from homage and received back his castles. In 1200 William the Lion did homage to King John at Lincoln, but only for the lands which he held in England. Died at Stirling, December 4, 1214, and was buried in the Abbey of Arbroath, which he had founded in 1178, in honour of Thomas a' Becket . His remains were found in good preservation in 1816.
2 - When Malcolm IV died in 1165, his brother, known as 'William the Lion' (for his lion arms) was king of Scotland. William the Lion of Scotland began an alliance with France that would eventually lead to the "Auld Alliance." Lowland Scotland and England had been having a series of battles over possession of Northumbria in North England. William the Lion wanted it back, (his predecessor Malcolm IV had returned it to England under threat of invasion), and started the alliance with France leading to a conflict with Anglo-Norman England. He launched a grand invasion of England in 1174 to reclaim Northumbria. Henry II was now King of England and involved in France, so William the Lion invaded. But the enterprise misfired, due to Scots own rashness and to an east coast mist, attributed by both sides to be divine intervention. The Scots were heavily defeated at Alnwick and William the Lion himself, taken prisoner and sent to Normandy. There he was forced to sign the Treaty of Falaise. By this humiliating document, Scotland was placed under feudal subjection to England, the Scottish church put under the jurisdiction of the English Primate (highest order of Bishops), Northumbria confirmed as English territory and the castles of Southern Scotland garrisoned by English troops. Trouble with Northumbria would be a constant factor in future Border history, especially from 1330-1580 AD. Fifteen years would pass before William the Lion was able to redress the balance. In 1189, Richard Coeur de Lion (Richard the Lionhearted), needed money for a Crusade, agreed to give back the castles and renounce his feudal superiority over Scotland in return for 10,000 marks. This was a huge sum of money for Scotland to pay and it took them many years and much taxation before they were able to repurchase their own castles and land. Three years later, Pope Celestine III released the Scottish church from English supremacy and declared that thenceforth, it should be under direct jurisdiction of Rome. It was the beginning of nearly 100 years of relative peace between England and Scotland. Scots kings had other problems to worry about though, Celtic Chieftains of the west (who still enjoyed a great measure of independence) were in a more or less state of insurrection against the central monarchy. This independence would later initiate the Crown to "deputize" the Campbell, Gordon and MacKenzie Clans to act as unoffcial 'law enforcers' in the Highlands, leading to much war and constant feuding. Eventually the powerful Clan Donald of the Isles would rebel against the kings, become an enemy of Clan Campbell, and eventually be stripped of their "Lordship' titles. Clan Campbell would benefit in future centuries from their association with the Scottish Crown in supressing and subduing the Highland clans. But at this time the rebellions were just beginning. Fergus, Prince of Galloway had rebelled no less than three times against Malcolm IV, and now in the reign of William the Lion, Fergus's sons rose again, massacring with particular gusto, the Anglo-Norman garrisons which had been stationed in southeast Scotland under the Treaty of Falaise. It was to be a long time before this last Celtic stronghold in the southwest Lowlands was to be pacified. Further north and west were the dominions of the Lords of the Isles and the Lords of Lorne. They regarded themselves as independent rulers of their own kingdoms. These are the Norse/Scots, with no particular loyalty or obligations to the Royal House of Scotland. Their allegiance was very loosely based to the Kings of Norway, although after Somerled's defeat of Viking forces, they were mostly independent and created their own kingdom: Lords of the Isles. Remember that in the reign of Malcolm IV, William the Lion's predecessor, the Norse-Scot blooded Somerled, King of Morvern, Lochaber, Argyll and the southern Hebrides, and Uncle by marriage to the Norwegian King of the Isles, had shown his contempt for Scottish Kings by sailing up the River Clyde in his ships and sacking Glasgow. They were eventually overcome by Malcolm's High Steward, Walter FitzAlan, and Somerled himself was laid low by an unlucky spear thrust. But to the Norse/Scots, the hearty warrior Gall-Gaels, that was just a setback. They could not have forseen what was to come in future centuries. Some blame the arrogance of the MacDonald's as the reason for their downfall, but that is a bit short-sighted. They had every reason to fear domination by the Scottish monarchy, for the Crown had no love of the Highlander and even less for the Islesmen. The Lowlanders considered them barbarians and the Highland view of the Lowlander was equally strained. Their stubborn claim to the Lordship and to their independence owed much to do with their beloved Celtic language and heritage which, correctly, they feared would be lost if they bowed too much to the English-speaking Scottish Crown. Somerled's descendants, the MacDougall Lords of Lorne or Lorn, and the MacDonald's Lord of the Isles, as well as the MacLeods (pronounced MacClouds) and the MacLeans (pronounced MacClane) were, in their turn, to carry out the tradition of independence. William the Lion died in 1214 and was succeeded by his son Alexander II.
3 - William the Lion, who seems to have kept the earldom in his own hands for several years, in 1179 marched into the district at the head of his earls and barons, accompanied by a large army, and subdued an insurrection fomented by the local chiefs against his authority. On this occasion he built two castles within its bounds, one called Dunscath on the northern Sutor at the entrance to the Cromarty Firth, and Redcastle in the Black Isle. In the same year we find Florence, Count of Holland, complaining that he had been deprived of its nominal ownership by King William. [ http://www.fullbooks.com/History-Of-The-Mackenzies1.html ]
4 - THE LION (ruled 1165-1214) The next king was Malcolm IV's brother, William the Lion. His name originated in the time of the crusades, when warriors from western Europe travelled to the Holy Land in search of the sepulchre where Christ was buried. The armour which encased them from head to foot made them unrecognisable, so each knight wore an emblem to identify himself. William used the emblem of a roaring, clawing beast of blood in red on a yellow background - the Lion Rampant - which also became the emblem of Scotland. William's crest proved apt, as he spent much time waging war. William ruled for 49 years, making him the longest-reigning monarch in Scotland up to that time. However, he will be chiefly remembered for his act of folly in 1174 when he flouted the peace that his broth-er had made with King I Henry of England by leading his army to Northumberland to take Alnwick Castle. Underestimating the strength of his enemy, he was caught and sent to Normandy to become a prisoner in Falaise Castle. The price of release was his kingdom: he signed the Treaty of Falaise, which allowed Scotland to pass into the hands of Henry I I. I Henry died 15 years later, and Richard Coeur-de-Lion came to the English throne, his one ambition being to go on a crusade to the Holy Land. By obtaining 10,000 merks from William the Lion, he was able to achieve this ambition, and at the same time William was final-ly released from being a vassal of the English king. An Illustrated History of Scotland by Elisabeth Fraser pub. 1997 ]
Sources 1.[S525] Colquoun_Cunningham.ged, Jamie Vans
2.[S550] Betty and Dick Field's Family History, Richard Field
3.[S541] Stirnet Genealogy, Peter Barns-Graham, Atholl1:The Scots Peerage (Kings of Scotland), The Scots P e erage (Atholl), Burkes Peerages 1934 (Kings of Scotland) , " The Royal Line of Succession" by Pitkin Guides Ltd (Reliability: 3)
4.[S541] Stirnet Genealogy, Peter Barns-Graham, Lundin1 (Reliability: 3)
William "The Lion", King of Scots's Timeline
Perth, Perth and Kinross, Scotland, United Kingdom
Huntingdon, Huntingdonshire, England
Dunfermline, Fifeshire, Scotland
Stirling, , Stirlingshire, England
Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland