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Battle of Fredericksburg, VA December 13, 1862, US Civil War

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  • Cpl. John Calvin Conrad, (CSA) (1840 - 1909)
    U.S., Civil War Soldier Records and Profiles, 1861-1865 about John Calvin Conrad Name: John Calvin Conrad Residence: Forsyth County, North Carolina, North Carolina Age at enlistment: 22 Enlistment ...
  • Brig. Gen. Conrad Feger Jackson, (USA) (1813 - 1862)
    Civil War Union Brigadier General. At the opening of the Rebellion he was employed in the management of a petroleum oil company in the Kanawha Valley, Virginia. He immediately resigned his position, ...
  • Source:
    Brev. Maj. Charles Allen, (USA) (1833 - 1896)
    The son of Sarah Allen, in 1860 he was a carpenter living in Middletown, Dauphin County, Pennsylvania. He stood 5' 10" tall and had light hair and gray eyes.A Civil War veteran, he enlisted in Dauphin ...
  • Francis Effingham Pinto (1823 - 1905)
    Civil War Union Brevet Brigadier General. Born in New Haven, Connecticut, he served in the Mexican War as a Lieutenant in the 1st New York Volunteers. At the outbreak of the Civil War, he helped organi...
  • Capt. Paul A. Oliver, Medal of Honor (1831 - 1912)
    CitationWhile acting as aide assisted in preventing a disaster caused by Union troops firing into each other. the war erupted Oliver joined the 12th New York infantry as a 2nd lieutenant on 29 October ...

The Battle of Fredericksburg was fought December 11–15, 1862, in and around Fredericksburg, Virginia, in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War. The combat, between the Union Army of the Potomac commanded by Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside and the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia under Gen. Robert E. Lee, included futile frontal attacks by the Union army on December 13 against entrenched Confederate defenders along the Sunken Wall on the heights behind the city. It is remembered as one of the most one-sided battles of the war, with Union casualties more than twice as heavy as those suffered by the Confederates. A visitor to the battlefield described the battle to U.S. President Abraham Lincoln as a "butchery".

Burnside's plan was to cross the Rappahannock River at Fredericksburg in mid-November and race to the Confederate capital of Richmond before Lee's army could stop him. Bureaucratic delays prevented Burnside from receiving the necessary pontoon bridges in time and Lee moved his army to block the crossings. When the Union army was finally able to build its bridges and cross under fire, direct combat within the city resulted on December 11–12. Union troops prepared to assault Confederate defensive positions south of the city and on a strongly fortified ridge just west of the city known as Marye's Heights.

On December 13, the Left Grand Division of Maj. Gen. William B. Franklin was able to pierce the first defensive line of Confederate Lt. Gen. Stonewall Jackson to the south, but was finally repulsed. Burnside ordered the Right and Center Grand Divisions of major generals Edwin V. Sumner and Joseph Hooker to launch multiple frontal assaults against Lt. Gen. James Longstreet's position on Marye's Heights – all were repulsed with heavy losses. On December 15, Burnside withdrew his army, ending another failed Union campaign in the Eastern Theater.