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  • Hans Peter Hess (1703 - 1756)
    Rudolph A. “Asawaynah” Fisher (1850 - 1941)
    Rudolph Fischer was a "White Indian", captured 29 Jul 1865, near Morris Ranch, Texas, and recovered Sep 1877, at Ft. Sill, Indian Territory. Rudolph Fisher (left) and his adoptive father, Black Crow,...
  • James Crockett (1758 - 1794)
    In 1777 James Crockett was taken prisoner at his home near today's Rogersville, Tennessee by Creeks and Chickamauga Cherokees led by war chief Dragging Canoe. He was held for seventeen years. His par...
  • Arthur Campbell, Indian Scout (1743 - 1811)
    Arthur Campbell, a political and military leader in Virginia and frontier Tennessee, was born in Augusta County, Virginia, on November 3, 1743. A band of Wyandotte Indians captured fifteen-year-old Cam...
  • Mary Swaine, (A) (1649 - 1655)
    The family first settled in Watertown where William had a grant of 60 acres. In 1637 he moved his family (including sons Samuel and Daniel and daughter Mary) to the new colony of Wethersfield, where he...

During the westward expansion of pioneers in the 17th through 19th centuries, thousands of European and African settlers were captured by American Indians.

Indians waging war against settlers and other tribes often killed adult men and took women and children captive. These captives were adopted and integrated into tribal society. Their presence helped strengthen the tribe.

Settlers in pioneer areas lived with periodic threats of Indian attack and the fear that they or their families might be killed or captured. Whites perceived Indians as savages, so in their worldview a woman who was captured would be degraded by being forced to enter into relationships with Indian men, and children would be barbarized.

Settlers went to great lengths to rescue or ransom these captives, but the efforts often dragged on for years because of the difficulty of locating them and the reluctance of the Indians to return them.

Whites had a horrified fascination with "capture stories". Lurid accounts of "White Indians" were bestsellers among whites living at a distance from the frontier. These highly sensationalized accounts of returned captives told about the horrors of captivity and the indomitable spirit that kept the captives alive through years of despair.

Such stories reinforced white views that the Indians were savages. The stories were often used to justify further encroachment on Indian lands. However, the reality was often disappointingly different. The captives who survived were those who assimilated successfully, so the captives themselves were often reluctant to return when offered the opportunity years later.