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Croatoan Indians: Trace of the legend of Croatians in North Carolina, USA

Croatoan Indijanci: Tragom legende o Hrvatima u Sj. Karolini, USA

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CROATOAN INDIANS

Following historical facts and some language clues

Article, Source: Croaton Indians, from website of Mrs. Kristina Gogić, mag.iur./LLM

ABSTRACT

This paper deals with the first Croatians, members of the Dubrovnik fleet serving under the command of the Spanish navy, who set foot on the American soil. There are exact data and sources in Croatian and foreign archives, written documents dating as far as the 12th century among them. There are descriptions of the Dubrovnik fleet at the time of the discovery of America and the finding of the inscription in modern day North Carolina from the 16th century. There are also several language clues found in a letter written by a Croatian emigrant to the mayor of the city of Dubrovnik (1936).

INTRODUCTION

As I have recently visited North America, namely New York City, I remembered a dear friend of mine, a doctor from Dubrovnik, who had given me an ancient document on the first Croatians who, supposedly, set foot on the American soil. Naturally, it was about the Dubrovnik fleet that, serving under the command of the Spanish fleet, participated in the discovery of America and on the Indians incorrectly named so as it had been believed to be India. I consider that parts of this work should be shared with the Croatian public (and others if interested) since I find this matter quite fascinating.

DUBROVNIK FLEET AT THE TIME OF THE DISCOVERY OF AMERICA

Written texts regarding the Dubrovnik maritime transport, some dating as far as the 12th century, are kept at the National Archives in Dubrovnik. At first, ships from Dubrovnik sailed across the Mediterranean Sea. Later on, when the sea route to India around Africa was discovered and especially after the discovery of America, the center of the international trading moved towards the oceans. The Dubrovnik fleet adjusted to the new circumstances and built big transoceanic vessels.

From the mid-15th and particularly during the 16th century, the Dubrovnik fleet became one of the largest in the world. Only the Spanish and the Dutch fleets were bigger. At the beginning of the 16th century, Palladius Foscus wrote that not one corner of Europe was too distant for the merchants of Dubrovnik, who had had over three hundred ships.

In 1573 in Venice, Ivan M. Sagri published a book on sea currents in the Atlantic Ocean. It was written by his brother Nikola Sagri, the captain of the largest Dubrovnik ship called «S. Spiritus et Sancta Maria di Loreto». Among other things, it reported of the Dubrovnik fleet, which consisted of almost one hundred ships, stating that their ships «cut the waves across the seas all over the world»[1]. One of the biggest ships from Dubrovnik was described by Serafin Razzi, an Italian humanist and writer. On September 11, 1557 he visited the ship that had been brought to anchor in the city of Vasto in Abruzo, Italy. He said it had been the largest ship sailing the seas, carrying 1200 cartloads of grain, with the crew of 140 men. He admired its grandeur and beauty: its main room had a carved, painted and gilded ceiling.The adjacent room was a saloon where the ceiling was painted «in roses». The ship had three masts with baskets on top and rope ladders for climbing.

From all the above it is obvious that in the 16th century Dubrovnik had one of the most powerful fleets in the world. In addition to numerous coastal vessels that sailed the Adriatic sea, Dubrovnik had huge transoceanic ships that sailed across the world and their seamen’s knowledge of the Atlantic ocean was exceptional.

Thanks to their sailing qualities and accomplishments, our sailors gained an outstanding reputation at the time and were even spoken of by Shakespeare.This powerful fleet never had any invasive colonial tendencies nor goals like Spain, Portugal, France, Netherlands and England. It only had one interest – to profit from maritime transport.

Spain, being the first to discoved America, took possession of the entire New World, with the Roman Pope’s blessing, thus becoming the most important Western European country and the ruler of the seas, controlling several coastal countries and territories. The Dubrovnik ships, under the command of the Spanish navy, were involved in Spanish expeditions and sea wars. Consequently, as the seamen from Dubrovnik were included in conquering the city of Corunna (1532), Algeria (1541), the expedition to Tunisia etc., it can be assumed that our seamen were among the first to arrive at the newly discovered territories, including the Americas. The Dubrovnik ships also took part in the battle of Levant in 1571, serving to the Spanish.

A member of the Martolosić family from the island of Lopud, participated in the discovery of the continent as a pilot.[2] Members of the Ohmučević family also worked for the Spanish and Petar Ohmučević-Ivelja took part in the siege of Lisbon and some actions in America, called India at the time. He was appointed the General captain of India.

Another distinguished seaman Vice Bune from the island of Lopud was highly respected by the Spanish king who had sent him to India as his emissary and even appointed him the Viceking of Mexico.[3] For such services, the Republic of Dubrovnik was granted special privileges regarding free sailing and trading. Some ten certified copies of these privileges are kept in the National Archives in Dubrovnik.

Other seamen from Dubrovnik who served under the Spanish command were treated with great honours and respect by the Spanish. Spain forbade other nations all trade in the New World, firmly guarding its newly acquired possessions in the West Indies or elswhere. Only Spanish and Dubrovnik ships were allowed to visit Spanish properties and lands in the New World. In 1597 and 1588 captain Mateo Letiele from Dubrovnik sailed from Cadisco to India, modern day America. The document relating to these voyages was signed by Pavao Ivanov Malitia and Marko Petrov, both from Dubrovnik, situated in Cadisco at the time.[4]

In his book «Land of Silent People»[5] St John mentioned ships from Dubrovnik, saying that sailors from Dubrovnik – known as the «Aragosy» – had been among the first to come to the San Francisco Bay. According to that, we can draw a conclusion that karaka ships from Dubrovnik, with as many as 140 crew members, sailed the seas, suffered damages or were destroyed by hurricanes, sailing along the undiscovered east coast, all the way to North America. Those who survived most probably swam ashore the unknown land and settled there.

There are documents from the 16th century reporting on several men from Dubrovnik who emigrated and settled in the newly discovered territories in America. In 1520 two brothers Mato and Dominiko Konkegjević emigrated from the island of Koločep and went to the West Indies (America) and lived there for more than thirty years.

FINDING OF THE MYSTERIOUS INSCRIPTION «CROATOAN»

As the first Europeans arrived at modern day America, they met tribes which apparently belonged to the same race of Asian origins [6], their civilizations at different stages of development. Among many native tribes that lived along the Atlantic Ocean coastline, there was one called Virginia.[7] According to Ptolemai’s geography book «Apalchen» from 1598, the state of Virginia was named after this tribe. Explorers called all the native groups Indians because the geographers of the time believed India had been situated in the western Atlantic.[8]

Following the age of Christopher Columbus and especially during the 16th century, a large number of daring seamen explored the new continents. First English expeditions aiming to establish new colonies in modern day North Carolina were fruitless. First English colonies had disappeared without trace and the only thing left behind was the word «CROATAN» carved into a tree trunk.

In 1581 Sir Walter Raleigh appeared at the English Court. He rose rapidly in the favour of queen Elizabeth I and soon became famous for his engagement in the suppression of Irish rebellions. His dream was to found an English colony to match and oppose Spanish expansion in the New World. In order to do so, he asked for a permission from the queen for an expedition to North America to found English settlements. He was granted a royal charter by the queen authorizing him to explore and colonise any new territories. Sir Raleigh was not put in charge of the expedition. The first English expedition was led by Philip Adams and Arthur Barlow and they found a colony on the island of Roanoka in 1584 known as «Roanoka colony». The Indian tribes they found there were called Manteo and Wanchese. Reports from a book called «Voyages» state: « We saw children who had had the finest chestnut hue skin and brownish hair»[9]. Based on these first reports, Hawks concluded that the Europeans had most probably already been among the natives before the arrival of Adams and Barlow. Other natives’ complexion was yellowish-brown, their faces flat, their hair thick and black like the Mongolians’. The natives explained as follows:

«Twenty five years ago, in 1558, an unknown ship carrying white people was destroyed near Secotan… Some of the crew members were saved by the natives … After spending several weeks on Wocoton (Ocroake), they tried to sail on a fragile natives’ raft. Perhaps they died. Their boats were soon found aground on another island not far from Wocoton».

The natives reported of yet another wreck on shore from the shipwreck some six years previously and that could have been in 1564. No one survived but the Indians. Two months later the expedition went back to England and took Manteo and Wanches with them. On arriving to England, the two of them were introduced at Court.

Another English expedition, which took Manteo and Wanches back home, reached the island of Roanoke on July 3rd, 1584.[10]. In the reports on this expedition the name «Croatan» showed up for the first time. It related to Manteo’s place of birth – an island by the same name. Indeed, some old maps marked an island called Croatoan lying between the Cookon horn and the Hatteras horn, the island of Ocracoke south of it.

The third English expedition, also organised and equipped by Sir Walter Raleigh and led by J.White in 1587, sailed in the same direction. When they reached their destination, they learned from some friendly Indians that the fifteen men left from the previous expedition had all died.[11] Manteo was baptised on August 13th, 1587 and given the title of the Lord of Roanoka by White who had been appointed the Governor of the New Territories. In addition to that, Manteo became the chieftain of the Roanoka tribe. Five days later White’s granddaughter Eleonor gave birth to a baby girl. To honour the first white child born and baptised in North America, she was named Virginia Dare[12]. J.White returned to England on August 27th, 1587 leaving the colony on the island. Three years later, on August 15th,1590 he came back with the supplies. However, he found nothing but grass and a smouldering hearth. There were letters CRO carved into one of the tree trunks and the word CROATOAN into another.

Unfortunately, stormy weather prevented them from further exploration and they had to return to England[13]. Nobody knows what happened to the first Anglo-Saxon colonists and why they disappeared. The first attempt to establish an English colony was unsuccessful.

LANGUAGE CLUES

Apart from the unexplained historical data regarding the word CROATOAN, there are also certain fascinating language clues found in a letter written by Josip Cuculić, an imigrant from Chicago, to the mayor of the city of Dubrovnik on May 31st, 1936. In one of the Chicago libraries Mr Cuculić has found a small book written by an officer of the USA army some hundred years previously. In it, Cuculić read about the Croatan Indians and wrote: »…and now what intrigues me more than an average American is that I have found lots of words similar to Croatian words in the book. Their similarity is fascinating. They coincide in meaning, spelling and pronunciation. I believe you will also find it interesting so I here present some of them.

Gundulić’s dialect of Croatian language has been used so I’m confident that the vessel had come from Dubrovnik.»

The following are some of the Croatian words used by the Croatan Indians from the above mentioned book:

INDIAN WORD - CROATIAN TRANSLATION - MEANING IN ENGLISH

  • Eunuk, Yonoke - Junak - Hero
  • Mojno - Mirno - Quiet

With the Atlantic, they don’t pronounce «r» as «r» but as «j» a sin YOURNAL (jojnal).

HROATAN (CROATIAN) ISLAND CRATIAN ISLAND

The descendants of Kroat (Croatan) Indians still live in the USA. According to Josip Cuculić’s letter, the above book also stated that a ship came near the Hatteras Horn in 1541 but broke against the reefs and the shipwreck victims went ashore. Eventually they became friends with the natives, married their girls and called themselves Croatan Indians. In time, their descendants spread all over the USA and Canada, reaching some 800 000 to 2 million in number. Some became congressmen and senators. It is said that the former president of the USA Coolidge (1923-1929) was one of them, his surname possibly originating from Kulić or Kucić.

Many American politicians wanted to classify the Croatan Indians as black people (which used to be a degrading status but would be quite the opposite today with the president Obama in the White House) but they have always opposed such classification and finally the politicians gave in. Nowdays, these white descendants live in Virginia and have 30 national schools in Robinson and Sampson Counties. Louis Adamich, an American writer of Yugoslavian origin, wrote a book on all the nations populating the USA. At page 235 of his book, talking about Americans from Yugoslavia (the book had been written before Yugoslavia dissolved) he stated that our nations (without specifying the nations from former Yugoslavia) were the integral part of the history of the USA. As the above documents testify, Croatoan Indians were involved in the stories (translated as Croatian Indians) and the word CROATAN was inscribed in a tree so we are inclined to believe that it must be the Croatian nation.

According to his book, the Croatan Indians live in Robeson County in North Carolina where there are still people who call themselves Croats and assert to be the descendants of Croatan tribes. Another branch of the descendants lives in West Virginia and the Cumberland area in Maryland.

Manteo, one of the Croatan Indians, eventually returned to his homeland, became a chieftain and titled Lord. His name could be a variety of Croatian male names Mateo or Mate, quite frequent names in Dalmatia.

Another matter worth mentioning is as follows. Some of our constructors were involved in the building of the Suez Canal (1859-1869). They stayed in Port Tewfik near a place called Suez, in a quarter called «Croati» and this quarter still exists under the same name.

This points out that our nation has always been connected with the names CROATOAN, CROATAN and CROATI in all the corners of the world.

The above mentioned book on Croatan Indians found in a Chicago library by Josip Cuculić should be given proper attention and carefully examined.

Thomas Hariot, a scientist who participated in the second expedition, took Manteo under his wing, taught him English and learned some basics of Croatian language from Manteo. Hariot studied people of the region and on returning to England in 1588 he wrote a book «Brefe and a True Report on the Newly Discovered Land of Virginia «. This book too should be taken into consideration as a source of historical data regarding the first white settlers in the region around the Hatteras Horn, in spite of many foreign scientists’ opinion (as they are not necessarily right). There is a strong possibility that our sailors were the first white people who populated the area around the Hatteras Horn in the USA. It is up to our scientists to do their job and research this matter properly knowing that – being a maritime nation – the Croatians have been quite interested in it.

CONCLUSION

This work is based on written documents and pieces of information whose credibility is unquestionable. They have been kept in national libraries, Croatian as well as foreign.

The select bibliography is as follows.

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY

  • 1. G.M. Sagri: Debating the diversity of the western ocean Nicole Sagria Collection, Venice, 1574th,
  • 2. Manuscripts Serafino Razzi, Travel, preswerved in the National Library in Florence,
  • 3. M. Resetar, Dubrovnik ship XVI century, Dubrovnik 1908th, no. 13, pages 1-3,
  • 4. S. Razzi, A trip to Abruzzo, Firenze 1969,
  • 5. S. Krasic, Serafin razzi and Dubrovnik, Dubrovnik horizons, Zagreb 1971., No. 7-8, pages 26-30,
  • 6. Foretić, Our share of people in general to foreign navies and maritime affairs through the centuries, maritime antology, I, Zagreb, 1962., pages: 269-301
  • 7. J. Tadic: The first immigrants to America, Politics, Belgrade, Easter number, 1940., page 8,
  • 8. Ptolomy: Geography, Universal description of the country, Venezia, D.M. 1598th, Chapter XXXIII, America or description „Indian“ on page 205,
  • 9. A. Maurois: History of the United States, 1942nd to 1952nd, Naprijed, Zagreb, 1960., page 12,
  • 10. Francais L. Hawks: History of North Carolina, Fayetevile: E.J. Hale&Son, 1857., I, page 80, Full report of Amadas and Barlow, re-inscribed by R. Hakluyt, Travel, III, 246 f., pages 69-88,
  • 11. George J. Prpic: Early Croatian Contacts with America and mystery of Kroatan, Journal of Croatian Studies, vol. I, 1960., page 16,
  • 12. National Geography: Ghost Fleet of the Outer Banks, no. 3, September 1969th, page 19
  • 13. J. White: A letter written to Richard Haklout on February 4th, 1593. in the Hakluyt’s Primacy of the Navigation (Mac Lehose, NY) VIII, p. 418, Stefan Lorant, edition; The New World; First Pictures of the America

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www.croatianhistory.net/gif/croatoan.jpg

FINDING OF THE MYSTERIOUS INSCRIPTION «CROATOAN» and Sign on the tree.

Source of image from website and article: Croatian history.net - Croatian mariners in the New World; Croatian Guilds and Collegiums,

See also: Croatian mariners in the New World; Croatian Guilds and Collegiums (on the Geni)

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CROATIA and CROATIANS and the LOST COLONY 1585-1590

CROATOAN

www.croatia.org/crown/oldphotos/lostcolony.jpgCroatia and Croatians and the Lost Colony, Croatoan - 1585-1590

www.croatia.org/crown/oldphotos/raleighpoem.jpgSir Walter Raleigh, poem upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Sir_Walter_Raleigh.jpgSir Walter Raleigh

The heaven, the earth and all the liquid mayne,
The Moones, bright Globe, and Starees Titanian,
A Spirit within maintaines: and their whole Masse,
A Minde, which through each part infus' d doth passe,
Fashions, and workes, and wholly doth transpierce,
All this great body of the Universe

Sir Walter Raleigh

Sir Walter Raleigh, from wikipedia: Sir Walter Raleigh (Ralegh),was an English landed gentleman, writer, poet, soldier, politician, courtier, spy and explorer. He was cousin to Sir Richard Grenville and younger half-brother of Sir Humphrey Gilbert. He is also well known for popularising tobacco in England. En | Hr | De | Cz | Es | It | Pt | Hu | Pl | Fr | Nl | Sv | Ro | Ru | La

Works of Sir Walter Raleighm on the project Gutenberg.

From: Croatian encyclopedia "Leksikografski Zavod Miroslav Krleža": Raleigh, Walter (o. 1552–1618), engl. pomorac i pjesnik; vođa ekspedicija u Sjevernu Ameriku 1584–89 (osnovao koloniju Virginiju) i Gvajanu; lažno optužen za veleizdaju i pogubljen. Autor Povijesti svijeta. (croatian)

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First map to use the name "America" for the New World - 1507

i.redd.it/gw0r26kwbr0y.jpg

First map to use the name "America" for the new world - 1507

assets.atlasobscura.com/media/W1siZiIsInVwbG9hZHMvYXNzZXRzLzc1YTlkY2MzODAyODAyZjYwM19NYXJ0aW4gV2FsZHNlZW11zIhsbGVyLCBXb3JsZCBtYXAuanBnIl0sWyJwIiwiY29udmVydCIsIi1xdWFsaXR5IDgxIC1hdXRvLW9yaWVudCJdLFsicCIsInRodW1iIiwiMTI4MHg-Il1d/Martin%20Waldseem%C3%BCller%2C%20World%20map.jpg

Martin Waldseemüller, World map, In 1507, This Map Used the Name 'America' for the First Time. Only five copies of this early map of the whole globe still exist, and one is now for sale in London.

statelibrarync.org/learnnc/sites/default/files/images/munstermap.jpgMap of the New World, 1540This map of the Americas, the first to show them as two connected continents not connected to any other landmass, first appeared in Sebastian Münster's edition of Ptolemy’s Geographia in 1540. This version appeared in an Italian edition of the Geographia in about 1571. This map shows Europeans' evolving ideas about the New World, and especially about North America. The mythical Sea of Verrazano is depicted, splitting the North American continent in two, and both North America and the Pacific Ocean are far too narrow.

See: Other maps

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CROATIA and CROATIANS and the LOST COLONY 1585-1590 (Book 2003)

By Adam S. Eterovich

America was being colonized by the English in 1585-1590 at Croatoan-Roanoke on the Atlantic coast in the Carolinas. This was called the Lost Colony. Sir Walter Raleigh was given a Royal Charter to colonize. When the English returned in 1590 they found carved on a tree “Croatoan” and no colonists. Western historians state that Croatoan-Croatan is an Indian word. This was the first English attempt to colonize in America.

In 1588 the great Spanish Armada attacked England. It is estimated that at least fifteen percent of the war galleons and merchant fleet under Spanish flag were from Dalmatia, Croatia.

In 1588 the Pope, Sixtus V, was a Croatian and the Great Vizier or Prime Minister of the Turkish Empire, Siavus Pasha Hrvat (Hrvat means Croatian) was a Croatian. At that point in time these two individuals were the most powerful and influential men in all of Europe. Both were immigrants; one an "Italian", the other a "Turk".

A Croatian traveling west in Europe or to the New World from 1300-1700 could have been identified in documents as Hungarian, Venetian, Austrian, Turkish, Italian-Venetian, Schiavon, Slavonian, Illyrian, Dalmatian or from the Republic of Ragusa (Dubrovnik).

In 2003 to state or assume that Croatians participated in discovery of new lands and were with Columbus would not be believed and probably questioned in many circles. The 1400's-1650's were in fact a golden age for Croatia disproportionate to her size in territory and population, considering the Ottoman Turk invasion and conquest of Croatia up to Croatian-Dalmatia and the Republic of Ragusa.

Previous, during and after the discovery of America, Croatians participated in mercantile and diplomatic activities in Spain, Portugal, England, France, Florence, Venice, Genoa and in India, America, Canada, Central and South America. Their presence in England at the time of colonization was neither accidental nor luck.

Voyages on the American Coast

In 1498 John Cabot, discoverer of North America, started on his second voyage and then coasted along the East shore of the American mainland to Cape Hatteras. Explorations of later date found pieces of a broken sword of Italian workmanship, and that two silver earrings of Venetian make had been seen upon a boy who was a native of the North-West country in America which might indicate the destruction of part of Cabot's fleet. Cabot's lawyer was a Dalmatian from Dubrovnik-Ragusa.

New Dalmatia

The New England Coast was first called New Dalmatia by explorer Verrazano in 1524. This had been written about by French, Italian and American historians. Verrazano mentions Sclavonia, Dalmatia and names four islands after Dalmatian islands. Isola Lunga is Dugi Otok or Long Island, New York. Verrazano discovered New York and may have lost ships off the Carolina coast.

San Blas-Saint Vlaho

Jean Alfonse in the Alfonse Voyages of the 1540's along the Atlantic coast comments on passing Cap S. Blas, not naming it, with a notation of northeast of Florida in beautiful country at the port of Chatelain which would be Charleston, South Carolina. S. Blas is Saint Vlaho or Sveti Vlaho in Croatian. Saint Vlaho is the Patron Saint of Dubrovnik in Croatia.

Levantine Mariners

In 1565 Menendez de Aviles, the new governor of Florida, wiped out a colony of French Huguenots trying to settle near present-day Jacksonville. The "Levantine" mariners aboard the Flagship rebelled and took the ship and disappeared. Navigation would dictate that the ship went north and could have crashed off of Hatteras. Levantine mariners were usually Dalmatian-Croatian Catholics. Spain would not allow on her ships Greek Orthodox or Moslems.

Sir Walter Raleigh and Nikola Gozi-Gucetich

Sir Walter Raleigh and Nikola Gozi-Gucetich held meetings in 1585 in London, prior to the voyage, with the admiral Lord Charles Howard of Effingham. Croatoan Island was first called My Lord Admirals Island in honor of Lord Howard of Effingham. Nikola Gozi-Gucetich of Dubrovnik was the second largest foreign banker in England. His nephew, Paolo Gondola-Gundulich, wrote letters to a friend in Florence from London of Drake and Raleigh in Virginia and other voyages. The Dalmatian-Croatian colony had a Fraternity in London. They probably were venture capitalists in a number of English voyages of exploration.

Croatian Place Names in North Carolina

Place names and names found in North Carolina associated with Croatia are: Croatamonge, Croatamung Island, Croatan Indians, Croatan Indian Park, Croatan National Forest, Croatan Sound, Croatan Township, Croatan Wildlife Area, Croatoan and Croatoan Island.

Croato an--Croat an

Croato-Croata-Croati is the Italian form of Croatia or Croatian. The Italian alphabet does not have a K. When a person is from a place such as Split, Dubrovnik, Ragusa, Zagreb, as examples - you can say he is a: Splitcan, Hvaran, Dubrovcan, Ragusan, Zagrebcan, Trogiran, Hercegovan. Croatia was not a country in the 1500s but a part of Venice, Austria, Hungary, Turkey or the Republic of Dubrovnik-Ragusa. One could say they were: Croatians, Croatans or Croatoan s. All historians and experts state that Croatoan is an Algonquin Indian name. Other experts state there is no CR or KR sound in the Algonquin language in that area.

Is Ottorasko-Hrvatsko (Croatia)?

Cape Hatteras: Place name variations included Hatarask, Hotoras, Hatorask, Hatorasck, Hatrask, Otterasco, 0ttorasko. Ottorasko was the earliest name given to this island south of Port Ferdinando with Croatoan southward from it again.

Melingi-Melingoi

The Melungeon, Lumbee, and Croatan groups in America claim to be a mixture of Indian and European mariners, liberated slaves, Lost Colonists, and remnants of Spanish and Portuguese settlements. There is considerable speculation as to the origin of the name Melungeon. The Melingi-Melingoi were Slavic groups in the Balkans that would have willingly served in Turkish fleets.

Turkish Slaves

Sir Frances Drake liberated hundreds of slaves in the Caribbean while plundering Spanish settlements. Drake brought material help to the Roanoke Colony and left the Turks and Moors and some European slaves at Roanoke. These liberated slaves far outnumbered the English Colonists; some left with Drake and were returned to Turkey. The Turkish slaves were captured in sea battles in the Mediterranean. Almost all Turkish admirals in the 1500’s were Croatian-Dalmatians. Bosnia-Hercegovina, one half of Croatia and parts of the Dalmatian coast, all part of the Croatian kingdom, were conquered by Turkey. Many Dalmatian mariners served in Turkish fleets; the second language at the Turkish Court for the military and marine was Croatian. Twenty two Great Viziers (Prime Ministers) of the Turkish Empire were Croatians.

Fish

At the Lost Colony, Ribuckon meant in Algonquin Indian a fishing place or fish; Cipo was mullet fish; Cante-Cante meant to sing and dance and Sat was time. There were many other similarities. Gray eyes and blondish hair amongst the Indians was noted for centuries. Gray eyes and light hair is found in Croatia in great numbers and not found in any other Mediterranean people.

Research should be done at Istanbul, Turkey to determine the names of those "Turks" returned by the English from the Lost Colony. DNA and blood testing is now being conducted, but is not considering Croatians or Croatia and Bosnia.

Books

  • Eterovich, Adam S.: Croatia and Croatians at the Lost Colony, 1585-1590. San Carlos: Ragusan Press. 2003. Soft Cover, 8 1/2 x 11, 156 pages. Illustrated. - The first English colony in America.
  • Eterovich, Adam S.: Croatian Contributions to San Francisco from 1849-1949 to Restaurants, Coffee Saloons, Oyster Saloons, Saloons, Liquor, Importers-Exporters, Fruits-Produce, Fishermen-Oystermen and Mariners. San Carlos: Ragusan Press, 2003. Soft Cover. 215 pages. Illustrated.
  • Eterovich, Adam S.: Gold Rush Pioneers From Croatia, Bosnia-Hercegovina and the Boka Kotor. San Carlos: Ragusan Press, 2003, 2527 San Carlos Ave., San Carlos, CA 94070. Soft Cover, 81/2x11.- Covers the Gold Rush of 1848 in California and the Silver Boom of 1859 in Nevada. Included are the saloons, coffee saloons, and restaurants. All pioneers are listed in an extensive Index. Eterovich, Adam S. A Guide to Croatian Genealogy. San Carlos, Calif.: Ragusan Press, 1995. 50 pages. Booklet. $14.00. Includes Maps, Translations, Archives.
  • Eterovich, Adam S.: A Guide and Index to Croatian Coats of Arms. San Carlos: Ragusan Press, 2003. 70 pages. Soft Cover. Spiral Bound. - An index and guide to the Nobility of Croatia. Over 7000 names and variations. Eterovich, Adam S. Croatian Popes and Saints and the Croatian Checkered Arms. San Carlos: Ragusan Press, 1998. 60 pages. $15.00. A booklet containing all forms of family and state arms with the Croatian checkered arms. Thirteen Popes had similar Arms.
  • Eterovich, Adam S.: Croatians in California, 1849-1999. San Carlos, Ca: Ragusan Press, 2000. 650 pages. - Gold Rush pioneers, the wild west-saloons, restaurants, farms, orchards, vineyards, fishermen, music, celebrations, societies, churches and 1000's of individuals. 800 biographies. 115 Illustrations.
  • Eterovich, Adam S. and Simich, Jerry L.: General Index to Croatian Pioneers in California, 1849-1999. San Carlos, Ca.: Ragusan Press. 1999. 370 pages. - An Index by Name, Date, Occupation or Activity, Location, Town of Origin and Reference Source. Abstracted from cemeteries, voting registers, census, society records church records and other source. 45,000 individuals plus mariages.
  • Eterovich, Adam S.: Croatian Pioneers in America, 1685-1900. San Carlos, Ca.: Ragusan Press, 1979. 205 pages. - Covers those that came to the Southern United States and to the West for the Gold Rush.
  • Eterovich, Adam S.: Marco Polo Croatian Adventurer. San Carlos. Calif.: Ragusan Press, 1987. 12 page Booklet. - Marko Polo born on Island of Korcula, Dalmatia, Croatia.
  • Eterovich, Adam S.: Croatia in the New World: Columbus, The Republic of Ragusa (Dubrovnik) and Saint Vlaho (Saint Blaise) Patron Saint of Dubrovnik. San Carlos, Calif.: Ragusan Press, 1993. Booklet. - Four Croatians with Columbus.
  • Eterovich, Adam S.: Croatia in the New World: Sebastian Cabot's Voyage to the Rio De La Plata, 1526-1530. San Carlos, Calif.: Ragusan Press, 1990. - Croatian officers and mariners with Cabot. Cabot could be Croatian.
  • Eterovich, Adam S.: Croatia in the New World: The Verrazano Voyages to America and Canada, 1523-1524. San Carlos, Calif.: Ragusan Press, 1990. Booklet - New England was first named New Dalmatia. Verrazano could be Croatian.

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Useful Books, Sources, Articles, Websites, Resources, Interesting pages,,..

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Croatoan Indijanci: Tragom legende o Hrvatima u Sjevernoj Karolini

Ekspedicija: Englezi su se začudili jer su među Indijancima vidjeli djecu s crvenkastosmeđom kosom i očima boje kestena.

članak, autor: dr. sc. Božo Skoko, 06. kolovoza 2013., Večernji List

Gdje li sve hrvatska noga nije stala? Koračala je po vrhovima Anda i podzemnim hodnicima rudnika Perua, Bolivije i Sjedinjenih Američkih Država. Bila je na Aljasci i Ognjenoj zemlji. Pustila je korijen u brazilskoj prašumi, zamrznutoj Patagoniji i vrućem pijesku sjevernog Čilea. Teturala je na palubi broda uz kalifornijsku obalu, ali i na Parani, Urugvaju i Mississippiju. Klečala je pod teretom u luci Buenos Airesa, ali i pred križem u hrvatskim crkvama. Navlačila je gumenu čizmu luizijanskog oštrigara, ali i finu gradsku cipelu čileanskog poslovnog čovjeka. Doticala je pozornicu Metropolitena, ali je gazila i prljave podove saluna i boardinghousea. Išla je pravim putem, ali i prečicom pa i stranputicom. Stotinu puta se uputila kući u Hrvatsku i isto toliko puta ostala u Americi..."

Tako bismo – kroz zabilješku profesora Ljubomira Antića iz knjige Hrvati i Amerika – ukratko mogli sažeti tešku, ali i slavnu povijest hrvatskih iseljenika. Ta je povijest obilježena brojnim legendama, uspomenama i pričama koje govore o neustrašivosti, otvorenosti, snalažljivosti pa i ludosti naših predaka, koji su – bježeći od neimaštine ili političkog terora pokušavali podizati nove domove daleko u slobodi tuđine. A poznato je da su Hrvati stoljećima naseljavali i najudaljenije dijelove svijeta. Zapravo je danas hrvatske tragove moguće pronaći na gotovo svim meridijanima i paralelama, gdje je kročila ljudska noga. Međutim, jedan trag na obalama američke savezne države Sjeverne Karoline, koju zapljuskuje Atlantski ocean na američkom istoku, mogao bi uvelike promijeniti povijest doticaja Europljana s novootkrivenim američkim kontinentom. Isto tako bi mogao uvelike pridonijeti slici Hrvata kao velikih pomoraca i istraživača koji su slijedili Kolumba.

Hrvatski bjegunci

No sve počinje jednom legendom koja se u Dalmaciji počela prepričavati polovicom šesnaestog stoljeća. Prema kazivanju starih Dubrovčana, a navodno i nekim povijesnim zapisima, oko 1540. godine iz Dubrovnika su za Ameriku isplovila dva broda, a na njima su uglavnom bili hrvatski bjegunci pred Turskom najezdom iz Bosne i Hercegovine. Prolazili su mjeseci i godine, a brodovi se nisu vraćali, niti se čulo išta o sudbini njihovih pomoraca i putnika. Nekoliko godina kasnije, drugi dubrovački brodovi koji su se uspješno vratili iz Amerike, donijeli su crne vijesti kako su se brodovi razbili na opasnim hridima strmih istočnih obala nadomak slobode, a mogućim preživjelima izgubio se svaki trag. Neki povjesničari smatraju da se to dogodilo 1558. godine, a neki spominju i druge godine. Međutim za ovu priču godina je zapravo irelevantna jer da nije uslijedio nastavak priče, bila bi to još jedna sasvim obična sudbina kakvih je zapisano na stotine u dalmatinskim arhivima i srcima tužnih obitelji koje su zagledane u more čekale sinove da ima se vrate. Naime, takva putovanja u 16. stoljeću bila su uobičajena jer su Dubrovčani bili na glasu kao odvažni pomorci, istraživači i diplomati, a Hrvati u Dalmaciji čak i u stranoj literaturi nazivani su jednima od najboljih pomorskih naroda u Europi. Na kraju, više je autora koji tvrde kako je nekoliko Dalmatinaca bilo na Kolumbovim brodovima u trenutku povijesnog otkrića Amerike 12. listopada 1492. godine. U svakom slučaju nastavak ove zanimljive priče, kojom se već stoljećima bave američki ali i hrvatski istraživači, zabilježili su britanski pustolovi, koji su četrdesetak godina poslije – oko 1590. upravo u Sjevernoj Karolini, na otoku Roanok, pokušali osnovati prvu anglosaksonsku koloniju na tlu Amerike.

Pronašli hrvatske tragove?

Tome je prethodila prva engleska ekspedicija na sjevernoamerički kontinent, koju su vodili Philip Amadas i Arthur Barlow 1584. Začudili su se kad su među tamošnjim Indijancima vidjeli "djecu s vrlo lijepom crvenkastosmeđom kosom i očima boje kestena", jer su svi ostali Indijanci bili izrazito crni. Po tome su zaključili da su prije njih Engleza, ovdje morali biti neki drugi bijelci. Također ih je iznenadilo koliko su ti Indijanci bili prijateljski raspoloženi. Nazivali su se Hatteras, prema otoku na kojem su živjeli, a Englezi su ih zvali Croatoan ili Croatan, prema imenu njihova naselja na otoku južno od Roanokea. Istraživači su u svojim zapisima spominjali svjedočenja Indijanaca o njihovu podrijetlu. Posebno su isticali Mantea i Wanchesea, koje su poslije odveli u Englesku, gdje su naučili jezik te vratili u Ameriku kako bi pomagali Englezima kao njihovi namjesnici. Po njima nazvana su dva mjesta na otoku Roanok. Njihovo je svjedočenje danas neprocjenjivo važno za razumijevanje legende o Craoatian Indijancima. Naime, ispričali su kako su neki bijelci prije tridesetak godina doživjeli brodolom u blizini te da su se neki od njih spasili. Poslije su pokušali otploviti uz pomoć dvaju čamaca, koje su napravili zajedno s Indijancima, ali u tome nisu uspjeli pa su ostali živjeti s njihovim roditeljima. U svakom slučaju, ti mladi Indijanci nisu znali puno o podrijetlu brodolomaca, niti zašto je njihovo naselje nazvano Croatan, ali je Englezima bilo jasno kako su na ovom prostoru i prije njih boravili Europljani te su bili slobodniji u komunikaciji s tim plemenom. Poslije je na otok Roanoke došlo nekoliko engleskih doseljeničkih skupina, među kojima i ona čuvenog sir Waltera Raleigha, koju je vodio John White, koji je trebao postati guverner prve engleske kolonije na novom kontinentu. Bilo je to 1587.

Tajna izgubljene kolonije

Godinu dana poslije, po izbijanju rata sa Španjolskom, White se vratio u Europu, ostavivši doseljenike na otoku Roanoke. S njima je dogovorio kako će mu ostaviti obavijest ako se u međuvremenu presele. Ako s Roanokea odu u Croatan, bliže Indijancima ostavit će natpis Craotoan urezan u koru drveta. Ako to bude u nuždi, ostavit će urezan i križ. U međuvremenu White nije mogao pronaći brodove kojima bi se iz Europe vratio natrag. Kad se nakon dvije godine u ljeto 1590. White konačno vratio na otok Roanoke, ostao je zaprepašten jer nije našao nikoga. Naselje je bilo opustošeno i ograđeno, poput utvrde. Na velikom stablu pronašao je urezan natpis Croatoan, bez križa. Nadajući se kako su mu sunarodnjaci na sigurnom među indijanskim prijateljima na obližnjem otoku, pokušao je otploviti do njega ali ga je u tome spriječilo nevrijeme pa je bio prisiljen već u listopadu vratiti se u Englesku, a da nije do kraja riješio zagonetku o "izgubljenoj koloniji". Međutim, većina je vjerovala kako su zbog napada drugih Indijanaca i nedostatka hrane, iselili i ostali živjeti u miješanom plemenu Croatan Indijanaca, koje su poslije istraživači smatrali vrlo naprednima. Godine 1714. namjesnik Sjeverne Karoline John Lawson pohodio je Craotian Indijance na Hatterasu i oni su mu ispričali kako su neki od njihovih predaka bili bijelci te da su znali "govoriti u knjigu". Godine 1885. država ih je priznala pod imenom Croatani i od tada im je nekoliko puta mijenjano ime. U okrugu Robeson živi ih oko 40 tisuća, a većina njih su farmeri ili tvornički radnici.

Hoće li se ikad doznati?

Od 1887. imaju vlastitu školu Croatan Normal School, u kojoj su se školovali njihovi učitelji, a iz koje se poslije razvio i Pembroke State University. Posljednjih nekoliko desetljeća komunikaciju s njima, uime hrvatske zajednice u SAD-u, održavaju hrvatski franjevci iz Chicaga, odnosno tamošnji Hrvatski etnički institut. Jedan od franjevaca fra Robert Jolić, tijekom službe u Chicagu 2000. godine posjetio je otoke Roanok i Hatteras u potrazi za Croatan Indijancima. Ondje je našao brojne tragove koji podsjećaju na to neobično pleme i izgubljenu englesku koloniju. Uostalom dolazite li ovdje sa sjeverozapada lokalnom cestom br. 168 pa pređete na 158 u potrazi za ovdašnjim dugim otocima, koji se poput štita pružaju uz istočnu obalu, vidjet ćete kako se cesta 158 ponosno naziva Croatan Boulevard, a proći ćete i kroz veličanstvenu šumu Croatan National Forest. Natpis Croatoan koji je Englez White pronašao na starom hrastu, nedaleko od današnje utvrde Fort Raleigh, moguće je vidjeti na jednom minijaturnom deblu kreiranom u turističke svrhe te u originalnom Whiteovom izvješću. Većina tamošnjih turističkih djelatnika je prvi put od ovog franjevca čula mogućnost da su tamošnji Indijanci dobili ime po Hrvatima, koji su ondje doplovili prije Engleza, asimilirali se i ostavili svoje gene naraštajima ljepuškastih smeđokosih Indijanaca. Iako o tome nema nikakvih relevantnih znanstvenih činjenica, priča im je zvučala atraktivno. Više od 400 godina, koliko je prošlo od prvog spomena Croatan Indijanaca u Europi, ipak je predugačko razdoblje da bismo ikada do kraja rasvijetlili što se uistinu dogodilo na divljim obalama Sjeverne Karoline nedugo nakon što je Kolumbo otkrio taj kontinent, kad je Dubrovačka Republika počela širiti svoj utjecaj i na Novi svijet surađujući i sa Španjolcima i Englezima. Ovo pleme i dalje ostaje zagonetka, a njihovo hrvatsko podrijetlo - vječna legenda.

Croatoan – jezikoslovci ga teško mogu protumačiti kao indijanski dijalekt

O prvim susretima Europljana s američkim kontinentom objavljena je 1955. u Londonu izvrsna knjiga urednika Davida Quinna "The Roanok Voyages 1584. – 1590." U njoj je moguće pronaći zapise prvih istraživača, pa tako i Arthura Barlowea. On piše kako su Croatani bili izvrsni trgovci te da su dobro poznavali bjelačko oružje, što jasno govori o njihovu iskustvu s bijelcima. Quinn misli kako su se s njima možda susreli Španjolci, koji su doživjeli brodolom. Međutim, riječ je samo o pretpostavci, po kojoj i američki znanstvenici hrvatskog podrijetla poput Prpicha, Adamica i Rouceka s pravom tvrde da su to uistinu mogli biti i hrvatski moreplovci. U prilog njihovim tvrdnjama ide i natpis Croatan, koji i najbolji jezikoslovci i stručnjaci za indijanske dijalekte teško mogu protumačiti, pa otud ostaje jednostavno tumačenje kako je jednostavno riječ o izvedenici tadašnjeg latinskog naziva hrvatskog imena.

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CROATOAN

From: Wikipedia En | Hr | Pl | Catala | Ru

eng. Croatan, hrv. (cro.) Croatan (Croatan Indijanci), pl. Kroatanie (plemię Indian Ameryki Północnej o mieszanej krwi), ru, Кроато́ан (англ. Сroatoan, совр. Сroaton, также иногда Кроата́н, Кроато́н),

English

The Croatan are a small Native American group living in the coastal areas of what is now North Carolina. They may have been a branch of the larger Roanoke people or allied with them.[1] The Croatan people of North Carolina who exist today live in Cumberland, Sampson, and Harnett counties predominantly.[citation needed] _____________________________________________________________________________________ The Roanoke (/ˈroʊəˌnoʊk/), also spelled Roanoac, were a Carolina Algonquian-speaking people whose territory comprised present-day Dare County, Roanoke Island and part of the mainland at the time of English exploration and colonization. They were one of the numerous Carolina Algonquian tribes, which may have numbered 5,000-10,000 people in total in eastern North Carolina at the time of English encounter.1

History

The Roanoke may have had their capital on the western shore of Croatan Sound, at Dasamonguepeuk. This was one of the significant towns noted by the English colonists in the sixteenth century.1

Numerous place names were derived from the Roanoke.

The last known chief of the Roanoke was Wanchese, who traveled to England with colonists in 1584. The smaller Croatan people may have been a branch of the Roanoke or a separate tribe allied with it. 1

See more: here _____________________________________________________________________________________

History

The Croatan lived in current Dare County, an area encompassing the Alligator River, Croatan Sound, Roanoke Island, Ocracoke Island, and parts of the Outer Banks, including Hatteras Island. Now extinct as a tribe, they were one of the Carolina Algonquian peoples, numerous at the time of English encounter in the 16th century. The Roanoke territory also extended to the mainland, where they had their chief town on the western shore of Croatan Sound. _____________________________________________________________________________________

upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c6/North_carolina_algonkin-dorf.jpg/220px-North_carolina_algonkin-dorf.jpgNorth Carolina Algonkin dorf

Total population: 64 - 80
Regions with significant populations: North Carolina
Languages: Carolina Algonquian
Religion: Immortality of the Soul

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Algonquian peoples: The Algonquian are one of the most populous and widespread North American native language groups. Today, thousands of individuals identify with various Algonquian peoples. Historically, the peoples were prominent along the Atlantic Coast and into the interior along the Saint Lawrence River and around the Great Lakes. This grouping consists of the peoples who speak Algonquian languages.

A 16th-century sketch of the Algonquian village of Pomeiock

Before Europeans came into contact, most Algonquian settlements lived by hunting and fishing, although quite a few supplemented their diet by cultivating corn, beans and squash (the "Three Sisters"). The Ojibwe cultivated wild rice.[citation needed]

upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/11/Algic_langs.png/375px-Algic_langs.pngPre-contact distribution of Algonquian languages

upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/33/The_village_of_Pomeioc%2C_North_Carolina%2C_1885%2C_color_-_NARA_-_535753.jpg/800px-The_village_of_Pomeioc%2C_North_Carolina%2C_1885%2C_color_-_NARA_-_535753.jpgA 16th-century sketch of the Algonquian village of Pomeiock. The village of Pomeioc, North Carolina, 1885

General notes: Artwork. Caption reads: "The towne of Pomeiock and true forme of their howses, covered and enclosed some with matts, and some with barcks of trees. All compassed abowt with smale poles stuck thick together in stedd of a wall."

References: References | Colonial period | Tribal identities | List of Historic Algonquian Speaking Peoples

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Croatan Indians were a part of the Carolina Algonquians, a southeastern designation of the greater Algonquian source. Agriculture was the Native Americans' primary food source, and the fact that they could feed the colonists as well as themselves demonstrates very effectively the efficiency of their farming. The Native Americans regulated each person's position in society by public marks. The chiefs or leaders, called werowances, controlled between one and eighteen towns. The greatest were able to muster seven or eight hundred fighting men. The English marveled at the great awe in which these werowances were held, saying no people in the world carried more respect towards their leaders. Werowance actually means "he who is rich". Chiefs and their families were held in great status and with respect, but they had to convince followers that action or cause was wise, they did not command. The role of the chief was to spread wealth to his tribe, otherwise respect was lost.1

Beliefs

The Native Americans living in the Carolinas believed in the immortality of the soul. Upon death, the soul either enters heaven to live with the gods or goes to a place near the setting sun called Popogusso, to burn for eternity in a huge pit of fire. The concept of heaven and hell was used on the common people to respect leaders and live a life that would be beneficial to them in the afterlife. Conjurors and priests were distinctive spiritual leaders. Priests were chosen for their knowledge and wisdom, and were leaders of the organized religion. Conjurors on the other hand were chosen for their magical abilities. Conjurors were thought to have powers from a personal connection with a supernatural being (mostly spirits from the animal world).2

European colonization

It is known that the arrival of English Settlers upset some pre-existing tribal relationships. The Algonquian people advocated cooperation while others (the Yamasee, Cherokee and Chickasaw, for example) resisted. Later, this conflict between tribes and settlers would lead to the Yamasee War. Tribes that maintained mutually beneficial contact with the settlers gained power through their access to and control of European trade goods. While the English may have held great military superiority over the Carolina Algonquians, the Native Americans' control over food and natural resources was a much more decisive factor in the conflict with early settlers. Despite the varying relationships among tribes, the Roanoke and Croatan were believed to have been on very good terms with English Settlers of the Roanoke Colony. Wanchese, the last leader of the Roanoke, accompanied the English on a trip to England.3

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Wanchese

Wanchese (Wan-Keece) - Wanchese was the last known ruler of the Roanoke Native American tribe encountered by English colonists in the late sixteenth century. Along with Chief Manteo he travelled to London in 1584, where the two men created a sensation at court. Hosted at Durham House by the explorer and courtier Sir Walter Raleigh, he and Manteo assisted the scientist Thomas Harriot with the job of deciphering and learning the Carolina Algonquian language. Unlike Manteo, Wanchese evinced little interest in learning English, and did not befriend his hosts, remaining suspicious of English motives in the New World. In April 1586, having returned to Roanoke, he finally ended his good relations with the English, leaving Manteo as the colonists' sole Indian ally. Contrary to the famous narrative of the Lost Colony production there is no evidence that Wanchese was ever the chief of the Roanoke People, however he was influential within his tribe.

Born: Unknown Probably present-day Roanoke, North Carolina
Died: Unknown Probably present-day Roanoke, North Carolina
Known for: The Lost Colony, travels to England, resistance to English settlement

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Roanoke Colony, Colony of England, 1585–c. 1590

upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a6/Roanoke_map_1584.JPG/250px-Roanoke_map_1584.JPGRoanoke map, 1584, Virginea Pars map, drawn by John White during his initial visit in 1585. Roanoke is the small pink island in the middle right of the map.

Coordinates: 35° 55′ 41.73″ N, 75° 42′ 14.75″ W

Roanoke Island

History: Established 1585,
Birth of Virginia Dare: August 18, 1587,
Abandoned: Before August c. 1590,
Found abandoned: August 18, 1590,
Population: 1587 - 116,
Today: part of United States. Dare County, North Carolina

Background | Raleigh's charter | https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roanoke_Colony#First_voyages_to_Roanoke_Island | In the New World | Lost Colony | Return to the Lost Colony | Investigations into Roanoke | Reports of John Smith and William Strachey | Hypotheses about the disappearance: Integration with local tribes, Other theories: Spanish, Dare Stones, Virginia Pars Map | Archaeological evidence | Climate factors | Lost Colony of Roanoke DNA Project - See: The Lost Colony Center for Science and Research - Lost Colony DNA Project, official website

See also: List of colonists at Roanoke | List of people who disappeared mysteriously | Timeline of the colonization of North America

References

Further reading:

  • Hariot, Thomas, John White and John Lawson (1999). A Vocabulary of Roanoke. Evolution Publishing: Merchantville, NJ. ISBN 1-889758-81-7. This volume contains practically everything known about the Croatan language spoken on Roanoke Island.
  • Miller, Lee, Roanoke: Solving the Mystery of the Lost Colony ,Retrieved April 2011
  • Giles Milton (2000). Big Chief Elizabeth. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 0-374-26501-1. Critically acclaimed account, based on contemporary travel accounts from 1497–1611, of attempts to establish a colony in the Roanoke area. Milton is also the author of the 2013 children's fictional work, Children of the Wild, which tells the story of the colony through the eyes of four English children.

External links:

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The Lost Colony

upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/81/Croatoan.jpg/220px-Croatoan.jpg

The return of Governor White to the "Lost Colony"

Governor John White returned to Roanoke in 1590 to find the word "croatoan" carved on a tree. It is possible that some of the survivors of the Lost Colony of Roanoke may have joined the Croatan. Governor White finally reached Roanoke Island on August 18, 1590, three years after he had last seen them in Virginia, but he found his colony had been long deserted. The buildings had collapsed and "the houses [were] taken down".4 The few clues about the colonists' whereabouts included the letters "CROATOAN" carved into a tree.4 Croatoan was the name of a nearby island (likely modern-day Hatteras Island) in addition to the local tribe of Native Americans. Roanoke Island was not originally the planned location for the colony and the idea of moving elsewhere had been discussed. Before the Governor's departure, he and the colonists had agreed that a message would be carved into a tree if they had moved and would include an image of a Maltese Cross if the decision was made by force.4 White found no such cross and was hopeful that his family was still alive.4

The Croatan, like other Carolina Algonquians, suffered from epidemics of infectious disease, such as smallpox in 1598. These greatly reduced the tribe's numbers and left them subject to colonial pressure. They are believed to have become extinct as a tribe by the early seventeenth century.

Speculation of the fate of the "Lost Colony"

Based on legend, some people said that the Lumbee tribe, based in North Carolina, were descendants of the Croatan and survivors of the Lost Colony of Roanoke Island. For over a hundred years, historians and other scholars have been examining the question of Lumbee origin. Although there have been many explanations and conjectures, two theories persist. In 1885, Hamilton McMillan, a local historian and state legislator, proposed the "Lost Colony" theory. Based upon oral tradition among the Lumbees and what he deemed as strong circumstantial evidence, McMillan posited a connection between the Lumbees and the early English colonists who settled on Roanoke Island in 1587 and the Algonquian tribes (Croatan included) who inhabited coastal North Carolina at the same time. According to historical accounts, the colonists mysteriously disappeared soon after they settled, leaving little evidence of their destination or fate. McMillan's hypothesis, which was also supported by the historian Stephen Weeks, contends that the colonists migrated with the Indians toward the interior of North Carolina, and by 1650 had settled along the banks of the Lumber. It is suggested the present-day Lumbees are the descendants of these two groups.5

Other scholars believe the Lumbees to be descended from an eastern Siouan group called the Cheraws. During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries a number of Siouan-speaking tribes occupied southeastern North Carolina. John R. Swanton, a pioneering ethnologist at the Smithsonian Institution, wrote in 1938 that the Lumbees were probably of Cheraw descent but were also genealogically influenced by other Siouan tribes in the area. Contemporary historians such as James Merrell and William Sturtevant confirm this theory by suggesting that the Cheraws, along with survivors of other tribes whose populations had been devastated by warfare and disease, found refuge from both aggressive settlers and hostile tribes in the Robeson County swamps in eastern North Carolina.6

Late twentieth-century research has demonstrated that among surnames established as Lumbee ancestors were numerous mixed-race African Americans free in Virginia before the American Revolution, and their descendants who migrated to the Virginia and North Carolina frontiers in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. These "free people of color" were mostly descendants of European women and African men, who worked and lived together in colonial Virginia. These connections have been traced for numerous individuals and families through court records, land deeds and other existing historical documents.78 In Robeson County, they may have intermarried with Native American survivors and acculturated as Indian.[clarification needed]

Modern era and legacy

The Lost Colony Center for Science and Research has excavated English artifacts within the territory of the former Croatan tribe. The artifacts may also be evidence of trade with the tribe, or of natives finding them at the former colony site. The Center is conducting a DNA study to try to determine if there are European lines among Croatan descendants.

In 1910, the North Carolina state legislature renamed the Croatan Indians in North Carolina to "Cherokee" and designated them a branch of the Cherokee Nation.9

georgiainfo.galileo.usg.edu/images/uploads/markers/croatanindiancommunityhm.jpg

A historical marker placed by the state of Georgia states "In 1870 a group of Croatan natives migrated from their homes in Robeson County, North Carolina, following the turpentine industry to southeast Georgia. Eventually many of the Croatans became tenant farmers for the Adabelle Trading Company, growing cotton and tobacco. The Croatan community established the Mt. Zion Baptist Church in Adabelle, as well as a school and a nearby cemetery. After the collapse of the Adabelle Trading Company, the Croatans faced both economic hardship and social injustice. As a result, most members of the community returned to North Carolina by 1920." 10

Source of image from website: GerogiaInfo.galileo.usg.edu - Bulloch County Historical Markers, Croatan Indian Community, Source: David Seibert, Marker: Croatan Indian Community, Location: Adabelle Rd at US 301

Researchers from the University of Bristol, UK have also been excavating on Hatteras Island in conjunction with the Croatoan Archaeological Society. Hatteras Island is the main locus for the settlement of the Croatoan tribe, and to date they have discovered a large contact/pre-contact period settlement, midden deposits and European trade items.

Notable people

  • Anna Evans Murray, educator and civic leader
  • Manteo disappeared after 1587, ambassador and mediator.

See also: Algonquian languages, Algonquian peoples, Aquascogoc, Carolina Algonquian (Pamlico), Dasamongueponke, Roanoke tribe, Secotan

Notes: 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10

References:

  • K.I. Blu: "Lumbee", Handbook of North American Indians, vol. 14: 278-295, Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 2004
  • T. Hariot, J. White, J. Lawson: A vocabulary of Roanoke, vol. 13, Merchantville: Evolution Publishing, 1999
  • Th. Ross: American Indians in North Carolina, South Pines, NC: Karo Hollow Press, 1999
  • G.M. Sider: Lumbee Indian histories, vol. 2, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993
  • S.B. Weeks: The lost colony of Roanoke, its fate and survival, New York: Knickbocker Press, 1891
  • J.R. Swanton: "Probable Identity of the Croatan Indians." U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Office of Indian Affairs, 1933
  • J. Henderson: "The Croatan Indians of Robeson County, North Carolina", U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Office of Indian Affairs, 1923
  • K.O. Kupperman: "Roanoke, the Abandoned Colony", Rowman and Littlefield, 1984

Hrvatski / Croatian

Croatan Indijanci (Croatan Indians, 'Hrvatski Indijanci', Lumbee). - Narod 1 tajanstvenog porijekla danas nastanjen u Sjevernoj Karolini u okruzima Robeson, Hoke, Scotland, i Cumberland. docsouth.unc.edu/nc/butler/croatan52.jpg

Porijeklo i povijest

Riječ 'Croatan' veoma je popularna u Sjevernoj Karolini.

Postoji više teorija o njihovom porijeklu, najpopularnija je ona da su potomci Hatteras Indijanaca i kolonista (njih oko 120; među njima je navodno bilo i dubrovačkih pomoraca) koji su se 1587. naselili na otoku Roanoak. Otok leži pred obalom Sjeverne Karoline. Naselje u kojem su živjeli nazvano je 'Lost Colony' (Izgubljena kolonija) jer su stanovnici netragom nestali, vjerojatno su se priključili Indijancima i otišli. Mnogi današnji Lumbee imaju ista prezimena kao i nestali kolonisti. Prema Adolph Dial-u, povjesničaru iz plemena Lumbee, Croatani i Englezi su sudjelovali u stvaranju današnjih Lumbee Indijanaca.

Riječ 'Croatan' dano je ovom plemenu prema napisu CRO koji je bio ucrtan na jednom drvetu. -Druga je teorija da su Lumbee potomci Čerokija, Tuscarora i Istočnih Siouxa. Tijekom 1800-tih godina, Lumbee su bili nazivani imenom Croatan Indians jer su izgledali poput Indijanaca ali su živjeli poput bijelih naseljenika. Sjeverna Karolina im je dala poseban legalni status, uključujući i pravo da imaju svoje vlastite škole. Prva njihova škola 'Croatan Normal School' otvorena je 1887. u Pembroke-u u Sjevernoj Karolini. Danas je to 'Pembroke State University'.

Danas su najveće samostalno pleme istočno od rijeke Mississippi, prema popisu iz 1990. bilo ih je 48.000. Oni čine najveću indijansku grupu bez rezervata i mnogi žive i rade od zemlje. Lumbee ili Croatan Indijancima odbijen je federalni status 'Indijanskog plemena' zbog visokog postotka miješane krvi, kako one iz drugih plemena tako i crnačke. Lumbee su naime bili poznati po tome što su pružali utočište izbjeglim crnačkim robovima. Lumbee su danas organizirani u više plemena, to su: Kaweah Indian Nation iz Sjeverne Karoline, pleme United Lumbee Nation of North Carolina and America. Ovdje treba napomenuti i da se ostaci Cheraw Indijanaca prodaju pod Croatane nazivavši sebe Lumbee Tribe of Cheraw Indians.

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upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/cc/Henry_Berry_Lowrie.jpg/220px-Henry_Berry_Lowrie.jpg Henry Berry Lowrie nazivan "Indian Robin Hood", njihova poznata ličnost iz (1860-tih) ima među ovim narodom status narodnog heroja. Bio je kako kažu 'veliki bandit'. Njegova obitelj porijeklom iz Virginije bila je poznata po gradnji cesta. Njegovo ime danas nosi cesta Lowrie road u Sjevernoj Karolini. _____________________________________________________________________________________

Alternativna teorija o porijeklu

Američki znanstvenici Dr. Paul Heinegg i Dr. Virginia E. Demarce su iznjeli teoriju u svojoj knjizi Free African Americans, utemeljenu na genaološkim dokumentima i drugim dokazima , da Croatani , odnosno današnji Lumbee uopće nisu indijanci , nego su mulatskog (mješanog crnačkog i bjelačkog) porijekla.

Članak iz 1872. u New York Herald-u govori o okrugu Robeson u kojemu živi većina Lumbee-a ( od 1885 do 1911. nazivanih Croatan) kao o "Mulatskom Kapitolu". Također popis stanovništva iz kolonijalnog vremena govori da je stanovništvo okruga Robeson ( tada Bladen ) "sve mulatsko i crnačko , bez indijanaca" ("is all Mulatto and Negro, No Indians".)

Današnja baština

Lost Colony center for Science and Research, je danas službeni znanstveno-istraživački centar uz otok Manteo (bivši Roanoke) koji se od 1998. bavi povijesnim, arheološkim, genealoškim i biogenetskim (DNK) analizama svih dostupnih tragova prvobitnih doseljenika i okolnih Indijanaca (The Croatan Project, East Carolina University).

Poznati Croatani

Poznate osobe kroatanskog (lumbeejskog) podrijetla.

  • Heather Locklear 1.

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docsouth.unc.edu/nc/butler/croatan58c.jpg

Literatura

  • K.I. Blu: Lumbee. Handbook of North American Indians vol. 14: 278-295, Smithsonian Institution, Washington 2004
  • B. Fell: Saga America. U.S. Academy of Sciences and Arts & Harward University, Harward 1980
  • A.S. Eterovich: Croatia and Croatians, and the Lost Colony. Ragusan Press, San Carlos, Ca. 2003
  • T. Hariot, J. White, J. Lawson: A vocabulary of Roanoke. Evolution Publishing, Merchantville 1999
  • Th. Ross: American Indians in North Carolina. Karo Hollow Press, South Pines 1999
  • G.M. Sider: Lumbee Indian histories. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1993
  • S.B. Weeks: The lost colony of Roanoke, its fate and survival. Knickbocker Press, New York 1891

Izvori

  1. HUD CodeTalk Celebrities of Native American Heritage - link not working

Algonquian | Indijanci, Sjeverna Karolina | Indijanska plemena | Misterije _____________________________________________________________________________________

See image here: Manda, žena vrač, dobri duh s lulom

Manda Cherokee, rođena Perić, iz Popova Polja. Odselila je iz rodne Hercegovine u SAD, u vrijeme Karađorđevićeve diktature, nakon što su joj oduzeli cijelu ljetinu i to u vrijeme najcrnje američke prohibicije 20-ih godina prošlog stoljeća.

Tamo pokreće prvu privatnu punionicu ilegalnog home-made alkohola te prebacuje šverc škije iz Hercegovine u Ameriku posredstvom dubrovačkih trgovačkih linija. Ondje se udaje za poglavicu plemena Wanachake. Zbog njezine mudrosti postala je poglavarica sjevrenih plemena istočno od Ontarija. Nije bila pohlepna, pa je dosta ušteđevine darovala hercegovačkim doseljenicima u Sjevernu Ameriku, koji su dalje granali poslove. Polovicu dobiti slali su u rodnu grudu da narod opstane. Fra Didak Buntić poslao joj je zahvalnicu za borbu protiv gladi na Humu. Domoroce je očarala poznavanjem ljekovitih trava, pa je bila i liječnica koju su zvali Manda Vrač Dobri duh s lulom. Fotografija Hercegovina zemlja svjetlosti.

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CROATIANS SAILED TO NEW WORLD BEFORE COLUMBUS AND VIKINGS?

s3.amazonaws.com/photos.geni.com/p13/e3/ac/74/98/53444849730999f9/croatia-usa_flags_original.jpgMoorish Croats: During the medieval Cordoba Emirate and Caliphate under Omeyids dinasty, a number of Croats from Dalmatia reached Moorish Spain, either enslaved by Arabian pirates or also as mercenaries and workers; they present the earliest known Croatian diaspora, and also the first confirmed Croats converted to Islam. The most reputed among them are the Moorish army generals of Dalmatian origin: Hadjib Badr in 10th century, and Wadha el-Ameri, Zohair al-Ameri, Mudjahid Al-Ameri and Ali Al-Ameri in 11th century. Hadjib Badr (original surname: Badrov) was born in Dalmatia in the second half of 9th century. Then he came in the Cordoba Emirate of Moorish Spain under the Omayads dinasty, and as a mercenary he converted to islam there. He advanced in Moorish army up to his supreme position of the main military leader of islamic Spain between 902 - 921. Due to his activities, this land expanded over Spain and Maghreb, and became the independent Cordoba Calyphate under Abdurrahman III. Badrov was among the first known Croats reaching an important position out of his homeland, and first attested Croat converted to islam. Generals al-Ameri: In the medieval history of 10th and 11th century the most reputed are two Dalmatians immigrated in Moorish Spain under the Omayads dynasty. Both were mercenaries, and then became there the main military leaders of Cordoba Caliphate: Wadha el-Ameri (1009-1013) and his son Zohair al-Ameri (1018-1036), and also Mudjahid al-Ameri (1011-1045) and his son Ali al-Ameri (1045-1076) as the leaders of taifa Denia-Baleares. A hypothesis indicates that America was named after them, because they organized the Moorish expeditions in Western ocean; the same suggest also Al-Idrizi's medieval indications on Atlantic, the old Arabic inscriptions in American cliffs, and new findings of coins with kuffic inscriptions in USA. From them probably descend the medieval ethnic group of Hvirtamanna in eastern USA, which was mentioned in the old Viking reports; their descendants may be the recent tribe Croatans in southeastern coast of USA, being the best known indicator on the early presence of Croats in America. Croat petroglyphs (medieval inscriptions by overseas Croats): Before 3 decades in Bahia coast of Brasil a medieval inscription on stone was found, reminding of the medieval Glagolitic alphabet in the early Croatia. Subsequently also 61 similar inscriptions of this Glagolitic type from 7th - 14th centuries on the rocks of Mt Sierra de Amambay in Paraguay have been discovered. Some American scientists think that the scriptors of these petroglyphs probably took part in the construction of the earliest American town Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco). Andrija Zeljko Lovric presented his paper of archeological finds of Islamic coins and Glagolitic writing in Paraguay on the second day of the symposium called The Islamic World in the Twentieth Century, held in the Zagreb Islamic Center. He speaks that previous explorers did not understand the script and believed it to be Viking runes. Lovric lists numerous data contributing to the theory that the traces lead to Croatian sailors. First of all, among all Slav peoples that used the Glagolitic alphabet, only the Croats were renowned as sailors and, technically speaking, the only ones who could have reached America. In addition, the Glagolitic script was used the longest by Croats. Second, in town of Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco), the statues of Guarani rulers bearing Croatian coats of arms on their chests were found. Even more exciting for inquiring Americans are the fabulous discoveries of Dragutin Pavlicevic, Senior Research Fellow at the University of Zagreb’s Institute for Croatian History. Known far and wide as the best historian in his weight class, Pavlicevic’s robust, enhanced and exceptional methodology has uncovered the Croat origins of a number of American Indian tribes, including the Croatans, a North Carolina tribe originating in the noble blood of Croat mariners, a Croat fact confirmed by local place-names (e.g., Croatan Sound; Croatamung Island) as well as skin color, hair and facial features (e.g., the gray eyes and light hair found in Croatia in greater number than in any other Mediterranean people). Another Croat-Indian tribe, the Mateos, carry the name of their Croat progenitor, Mate. Never one to exaggerate facts or inflate numbers, Pavlicevic estimates there are some two million Croato-Indians in the United States alone. A hallowed name in Croat studies, Adam S. Eterovic’s extraordinary research also offers compelling evidence of an early Croat presence in the New World, especially in terms of breathtaking linguistic and onomastic evidence stretching from Brazil to New York.

  • Ragoso Bay in Brazil from the Croat Ragusa.
  • Panama’s Otoque from Otok.
  • Saboga, from za Boga;
  • Punta Mala, from Mala.
  • San Blas, from St. Vlaho, patron saint of Ragusa.
  • Cape Hatteras, also recorded as Otterasco and Orrotrasko, from Hrvatsko.
  • Potomac from Potomak.
  • Long Island from Dugi Otok.

In addition to all the above there is abundant evidence in the flora and fauna of Croatia, including American cactuses in medieval Dalmatia. _____________________________________________________________________________________

s3.amazonaws.com/photos.geni.com/p13/82/d2/2a/51/534448496aa9e13b/decoding_word_croatoan_original.jpg

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m.blog.hu/le/legendaknyomaban/image/vanishing/map-virg.jpg https://legendaknyomaban.blog.hu/2010/04/15/megmagyarazhatatlan_eltunesek_ii_resz

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start_page/3steps-matches.png Back to the portal Index:

CROATOAN INDIANS

Following historical facts and some language clues

Article, Source: Croaton Indians, from website of Mrs. Kristina Gogić, mag.iur./LLM

ABSTRACT

This paper deals with the first Croatians, members of the Dubrovnik fleet serving under the command of the Spanish navy, who set foot on the American soil. There are exact data and sources in Croatian and foreign archives, written documents dating as far as the 12th century among them. There are descriptions of the Dubrovnik fleet at the time of the discovery of America and the finding of the inscription in modern day North Carolina from the 16th century. There are also several language clues found in a letter written by a Croatian emigrant to the mayor of the city of Dubrovnik (1936).

INTRODUCTION

As I have recently visited North America, namely New York City, I remembered a dear friend of mine, a doctor from Dubrovnik, who had given me an ancient document on the first Croatians who, supposedly, set foot on the American soil. Naturally, it was about the Dubrovnik fleet that, serving under the command of the Spanish fleet, participated in the discovery of America and on the Indians incorrectly named so as it had been believed to be India. I consider that parts of this work should be shared with the Croatian public (and others if interested) since I find this matter quite fascinating.

DUBROVNIK FLEET AT THE TIME OF THE DISCOVERY OF AMERICA

Written texts regarding the Dubrovnik maritime transport, some dating as far as the 12th century, are kept at the National Archives in Dubrovnik. At first, ships from Dubrovnik sailed across the Mediterranean Sea. Later on, when the sea route to India around Africa was discovered and especially after the discovery of America, the center of the international trading moved towards the oceans. The Dubrovnik fleet adjusted to the new circumstances and built big transoceanic vessels.

From the mid-15th and particularly during the 16th century, the Dubrovnik fleet became one of the largest in the world. Only the Spanish and the Dutch fleets were bigger. At the beginning of the 16th century, Palladius Foscus wrote that not one corner of Europe was too distant for the merchants of Dubrovnik, who had had over three hundred ships.

In 1573 in Venice, Ivan M. Sagri published a book on sea currents in the Atlantic Ocean. It was written by his brother Nikola Sagri, the captain of the largest Dubrovnik ship called «S. Spiritus et Sancta Maria di Loreto». Among other things, it reported of the Dubrovnik fleet, which consisted of almost one hundred ships, stating that their ships «cut the waves across the seas all over the world»[1]. One of the biggest ships from Dubrovnik was described by Serafin Razzi, an Italian humanist and writer. On September 11, 1557 he visited the ship that had been brought to anchor in the city of Vasto in Abruzo, Italy. He said it had been the largest ship sailing the seas, carrying 1200 cartloads of grain, with the crew of 140 men. He admired its grandeur and beauty: its main room had a carved, painted and gilded ceiling.The adjacent room was a saloon where the ceiling was painted «in roses». The ship had three masts with baskets on top and rope ladders for climbing.

From all the above it is obvious that in the 16th century Dubrovnik had one of the most powerful fleets in the world. In addition to numerous coastal vessels that sailed the Adriatic sea, Dubrovnik had huge transoceanic ships that sailed across the world and their seamen’s knowledge of the Atlantic ocean was exceptional.

Thanks to their sailing qualities and accomplishments, our sailors gained an outstanding reputation at the time and were even spoken of by Shakespeare.This powerful fleet never had any invasive colonial tendencies nor goals like Spain, Portugal, France, Netherlands and England. It only had one interest – to profit from maritime transport.

Spain, being the first to discoved America, took possession of the entire New World, with the Roman Pope’s blessing, thus becoming the most important Western European country and the ruler of the seas, controlling several coastal countries and territories. The Dubrovnik ships, under the command of the Spanish navy, were involved in Spanish expeditions and sea wars. Consequently, as the seamen from Dubrovnik were included in conquering the city of Corunna (1532), Algeria (1541), the expedition to Tunisia etc., it can be assumed that our seamen were among the first to arrive at the newly discovered territories, including the Americas. The Dubrovnik ships also took part in the battle of Levant in 1571, serving to the Spanish.

A member of the Martolosić family from the island of Lopud, participated in the discovery of the continent as a pilot.[2] Members of the Ohmučević family also worked for the Spanish and Petar Ohmučević-Ivelja took part in the siege of Lisbon and some actions in America, called India at the time. He was appointed the General captain of India.

Another distinguished seaman Vice Bune from the island of Lopud was highly respected by the Spanish king who had sent him to India as his emissary and even appointed him the Viceking of Mexico.[3] For such services, the Republic of Dubrovnik was granted special privileges regarding free sailing and trading. Some ten certified copies of these privileges are kept in the National Archives in Dubrovnik.

Other seamen from Dubrovnik who served under the Spanish command were treated with great honours and respect by the Spanish. Spain forbade other nations all trade in the New World, firmly guarding its newly acquired possessions in the West Indies or elswhere. Only Spanish and Dubrovnik ships were allowed to visit Spanish properties and lands in the New World. In 1597 and 1588 captain Mateo Letiele from Dubrovnik sailed from Cadisco to India, modern day America. The document relating to these voyages was signed by Pavao Ivanov Malitia and Marko Petrov, both from Dubrovnik, situated in Cadisco at the time.[4]

In his book «Land of Silent People»[5] St John mentioned ships from Dubrovnik, saying that sailors from Dubrovnik – known as the «Aragosy» – had been among the first to come to the San Francisco Bay. According to that, we can draw a conclusion that karaka ships from Dubrovnik, with as many as 140 crew members, sailed the seas, suffered damages or were destroyed by hurricanes, sailing along the undiscovered east coast, all the way to North America. Those who survived most probably swam ashore the unknown land and settled there.

There are documents from the 16th century reporting on several men from Dubrovnik who emigrated and settled in the newly discovered territories in America. In 1520 two brothers Mato and Dominiko Konkegjević emigrated from the island of Koločep and went to the West Indies (America) and lived there for more than thirty years.

FINDING OF THE MYSTERIOUS INSCRIPTION «CROATOAN»

As the first Europeans arrived at modern day America, they met tribes which apparently belonged to the same race of Asian origins [6], their civilizations at different stages of development. Among many native tribes that lived along the Atlantic Ocean coastline, there was one called Virginia.[7] According to Ptolemai’s geography book «Apalchen» from 1598, the state of Virginia was named after this tribe. Explorers called all the native groups Indians because the geographers of the time believed India had been situated in the western Atlantic.[8]

Following the age of Christopher Columbus and especially during the 16th century, a large number of daring seamen explored the new continents. First English expeditions aiming to establish new colonies in modern day North Carolina were fruitless. First English colonies had disappeared without trace and the only thing left behind was the word «CROATAN» carved into a tree trunk.

In 1581 Sir Walter Raleigh appeared at the English Court. He rose rapidly in the favour of queen Elizabeth I and soon became famous for his engagement in the suppression of Irish rebellions. His dream was to found an English colony to match and oppose Spanish expansion in the New World. In order to do so, he asked for a permission from the queen for an expedition to North America to found English settlements. He was granted a royal charter by the queen authorizing him to explore and colonise any new territories. Sir Raleigh was not put in charge of the expedition. The first English expedition was led by Philip Adams and Arthur Barlow and they found a colony on the island of Roanoka in 1584 known as «Roanoka colony». The Indian tribes they found there were called Manteo and Wanchese. Reports from a book called «Voyages» state: « We saw children who had had the finest chestnut hue skin and brownish hair»[9]. Based on these first reports, Hawks concluded that the Europeans had most probably already been among the natives before the arrival of Adams and Barlow. Other natives’ complexion was yellowish-brown, their faces flat, their hair thick and black like the Mongolians’. The natives explained as follows:

«Twenty five years ago, in 1558, an unknown ship carrying white people was destroyed near Secotan… Some of the crew members were saved by the natives … After spending several weeks on Wocoton (Ocroake), they tried to sail on a fragile natives’ raft. Perhaps they died. Their boats were soon found aground on another island not far from Wocoton».

The natives reported of yet another wreck on shore from the shipwreck some six years previously and that could have been in 1564. No one survived but the Indians. Two months later the expedition went back to England and took Manteo and Wanches with them. On arriving to England, the two of them were introduced at Court.

Another English expedition, which took Manteo and Wanches back home, reached the island of Roanoke on July 3rd, 1584.[10]. In the reports on this expedition the name «Croatan» showed up for the first time. It related to Manteo’s place of birth – an island by the same name. Indeed, some old maps marked an island called Croatoan lying between the Cookon horn and the Hatteras horn, the island of Ocracoke south of it.

The third English expedition, also organised and equipped by Sir Walter Raleigh and led by J.White in 1587, sailed in the same direction. When they reached their destination, they learned from some friendly Indians that the fifteen men left from the previous expedition had all died.[11] Manteo was baptised on August 13th, 1587 and given the title of the Lord of Roanoka by White who had been appointed the Governor of the New Territories. In addition to that, Manteo became the chieftain of the Roanoka tribe. Five days later White’s granddaughter Eleonor gave birth to a baby girl. To honour the first white child born and baptised in North America, she was named Virginia Dare[12]. J.White returned to England on August 27th, 1587 leaving the colony on the island. Three years later, on August 15th,1590 he came back with the supplies. However, he found nothing but grass and a smouldering hearth. There were letters CRO carved into one of the tree trunks and the word CROATOAN into another.

Unfortunately, stormy weather prevented them from further exploration and they had to return to England[13]. Nobody knows what happened to the first Anglo-Saxon colonists and why they disappeared. The first attempt to establish an English colony was unsuccessful.

LANGUAGE CLUES

Apart from the unexplained historical data regarding the word CROATOAN, there are also certain fascinating language clues found in a letter written by Josip Cuculić, an imigrant from Chicago, to the mayor of the city of Dubrovnik on May 31st, 1936. In one of the Chicago libraries Mr Cuculić has found a small book written by an officer of the USA army some hundred years previously. In it, Cuculić read about the Croatan Indians and wrote: »…and now what intrigues me more than an average American is that I have found lots of words similar to Croatian words in the book. Their similarity is fascinating. They coincide in meaning, spelling and pronunciation. I believe you will also find it interesting so I here present some of them.

Gundulić’s dialect of Croatian language has been used so I’m confident that the vessel had come from Dubrovnik.»

The following are some of the Croatian words used by the Croatan Indians from the above mentioned book:

INDIAN WORD - CROATIAN TRANSLATION - MEANING IN ENGLISH

  • Eunuk, Yonoke - Junak - Hero
  • Mojno - Mirno - Quiet

With the Atlantic, they don’t pronounce «r» as «r» but as «j» a sin YOURNAL (jojnal).

HROATAN (CROATIAN) ISLAND CRATIAN ISLAND

The descendants of Kroat (Croatan) Indians still live in the USA. According to Josip Cuculić’s letter, the above book also stated that a ship came near the Hatteras Horn in 1541 but broke against the reefs and the shipwreck victims went ashore. Eventually they became friends with the natives, married their girls and called themselves Croatan Indians. In time, their descendants spread all over the USA and Canada, reaching some 800 000 to 2 million in number. Some became congressmen and senators. It is said that the former president of the USA Coolidge (1923-1929) was one of them, his surname possibly originating from Kulić or Kucić.

Many American politicians wanted to classify the Croatan Indians as black people (which used to be a degrading status but would be quite the opposite today with the president Obama in the White House) but they have always opposed such classification and finally the politicians gave in. Nowdays, these white descendants live in Virginia and have 30 national schools in Robinson and Sampson Counties. Louis Adamich, an American writer of Yugoslavian origin, wrote a book on all the nations populating the USA. At page 235 of his book, talking about Americans from Yugoslavia (the book had been written before Yugoslavia dissolved) he stated that our nations (without specifying the nations from former Yugoslavia) were the integral part of the history of the USA. As the above documents testify, Croatoan Indians were involved in the stories (translated as Croatian Indians) and the word CROATAN was inscribed in a tree so we are inclined to believe that it must be the Croatian nation.

According to his book, the Croatan Indians live in Robeson County in North Carolina where there are still people who call themselves Croats and assert to be the descendants of Croatan tribes. Another branch of the descendants lives in West Virginia and the Cumberland area in Maryland.

Manteo, one of the Croatan Indians, eventually returned to his homeland, became a chieftain and titled Lord. His name could be a variety of Croatian male names Mateo or Mate, quite frequent names in Dalmatia.

Another matter worth mentioning is as follows. Some of our constructors were involved in the building of the Suez Canal (1859-1869). They stayed in Port Tewfik near a place called Suez, in a quarter called «Croati» and this quarter still exists under the same name.

This points out that our nation has always been connected with the names CROATOAN, CROATAN and CROATI in all the corners of the world.

The above mentioned book on Croatan Indians found in a Chicago library by Josip Cuculić should be given proper attention and carefully examined.

Thomas Hariot, a scientist who participated in the second expedition, took Manteo under his wing, taught him English and learned some basics of Croatian language from Manteo. Hariot studied people of the region and on returning to England in 1588 he wrote a book «Brefe and a True Report on the Newly Discovered Land of Virginia «. This book too should be taken into consideration as a source of historical data regarding the first white settlers in the region around the Hatteras Horn, in spite of many foreign scientists’ opinion (as they are not necessarily right). There is a strong possibility that our sailors were the first white people who populated the area around the Hatteras Horn in the USA. It is up to our scientists to do their job and research this matter properly knowing that – being a maritime nation – the Croatians have been quite interested in it.

CONCLUSION

This work is based on written documents and pieces of information whose credibility is unquestionable. They have been kept in national libraries, Croatian as well as foreign.

The select bibliography is as follows.

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY

  • 1. G.M. Sagri: Debating the diversity of the western ocean Nicole Sagria Collection, Venice, 1574th,
  • 2. Manuscripts Serafino Razzi, Travel, preswerved in the National Library in Florence,
  • 3. M. Resetar, Dubrovnik ship XVI century, Dubrovnik 1908th, no. 13, pages 1-3,
  • 4. S. Razzi, A trip to Abruzzo, Firenze 1969,
  • 5. S. Krasic, Serafin razzi and Dubrovnik, Dubrovnik horizons, Zagreb 1971., No. 7-8, pages 26-30,
  • 6. Foretić, Our share of people in general to foreign navies and maritime affairs through the centuries, maritime antology, I, Zagreb, 1962., pages: 269-301
  • 7. J. Tadic: The first immigrants to America, Politics, Belgrade, Easter number, 1940., page 8,
  • 8. Ptolomy: Geography, Universal description of the country, Venezia, D.M. 1598th, Chapter XXXIII, America or description „Indian“ on page 205,
  • 9. A. Maurois: History of the United States, 1942nd to 1952nd, Naprijed, Zagreb, 1960., page 12,
  • 10. Francais L. Hawks: History of North Carolina, Fayetevile: E.J. Hale&Son, 1857., I, page 80, Full report of Amadas and Barlow, re-inscribed by R. Hakluyt, Travel, III, 246 f., pages 69-88,
  • 11. George J. Prpic: Early Croatian Contacts with America and mystery of Kroatan, Journal of Croatian Studies, vol. I, 1960., page 16,
  • 12. National Geography: Ghost Fleet of the Outer Banks, no. 3, September 1969th, page 19
  • 13. J. White: A letter written to Richard Haklout on February 4th, 1593. in the Hakluyt’s Primacy of the Navigation (Mac Lehose, NY) VIII, p. 418, Stefan Lorant, edition; The New World; First Pictures of the America

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www.croatianhistory.net/gif/croatoan.jpg

FINDING OF THE MYSTERIOUS INSCRIPTION «CROATOAN» and Sign on the tree.

Source of image from website and article: Croatian history.net - Croatian mariners in the New World; Croatian Guilds and Collegiums,

See also: Croatian mariners in the New World; Croatian Guilds and Collegiums (on the Geni)

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CROATIA and CROATIANS and the LOST COLONY 1585-1590

CROATOAN

www.croatia.org/crown/oldphotos/lostcolony.jpgCroatia and Croatians and the Lost Colony, Croatoan - 1585-1590

www.croatia.org/crown/oldphotos/raleighpoem.jpgSir Walter Raleigh, poem upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Sir_Walter_Raleigh.jpgSir Walter Raleigh

The heaven, the earth and all the liquid mayne,
The Moones, bright Globe, and Starees Titanian,
A Spirit within maintaines: and their whole Masse,
A Minde, which through each part infus' d doth passe,
Fashions, and workes, and wholly doth transpierce,
All this great body of the Universe

Sir Walter Raleigh

Sir Walter Raleigh, from wikipedia: Sir Walter Raleigh (Ralegh),was an English landed gentleman, writer, poet, soldier, politician, courtier, spy and explorer. He was cousin to Sir Richard Grenville and younger half-brother of Sir Humphrey Gilbert. He is also well known for popularising tobacco in England. En | Hr | De | Cz | Es | It | Pt | Hu | Pl | Fr | Nl | Sv | Ro | Ru | La

Works of Sir Walter Raleighm on the project Gutenberg.

from: Croatian encyclopedia "Leksikografski Zavod Miroslav Krleža": Raleigh, Walter (o. 1552–1618), engl. pomorac i pjesnik; vođa ekspedicija u Sjevernu Ameriku 1584–89 (osnovao koloniju Virginiju) i Gvajanu; lažno optužen za veleizdaju i pogubljen. Autor Povijesti svijeta. (croatian)

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First map to use the name "America" for the New World - 1507

i.redd.it/gw0r26kwbr0y.jpg

First map to use the name "America" for the new world - 1507

assets.atlasobscura.com/media/W1siZiIsInVwbG9hZHMvYXNzZXRzLzc1YTlkY2MzODAyODAyZjYwM19NYXJ0aW4gV2FsZHNlZW11zIhsbGVyLCBXb3JsZCBtYXAuanBnIl0sWyJwIiwiY29udmVydCIsIi1xdWFsaXR5IDgxIC1hdXRvLW9yaWVudCJdLFsicCIsInRodW1iIiwiMTI4MHg-Il1d/Martin%20Waldseem%C3%BCller%2C%20World%20map.jpg

Martin Waldseemüller, World map, In 1507, This Map Used the Name 'America' for the First Time. Only five copies of this early map of the whole globe still exist, and one is now for sale in London.

statelibrarync.org/learnnc/sites/default/files/images/munstermap.jpgMap of the New World, 1540This map of the Americas, the first to show them as two connected continents not connected to any other landmass, first appeared in Sebastian Münster's edition of Ptolemy’s Geographia in 1540. This version appeared in an Italian edition of the Geographia in about 1571. This map shows Europeans' evolving ideas about the New World, and especially about North America. The mythical Sea of Verrazano is depicted, splitting the North American continent in two, and both North America and the Pacific Ocean are far too narrow.

See: Other maps

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CROATIA and CROATIANS and the LOST COLONY 1585-1590 (Book 2003)

By Adam S. Eterovich

America was being colonized by the English in 1585-1590 at Croatoan-Roanoke on the Atlantic coast in the Carolinas. This was called the Lost Colony. Sir Walter Raleigh was given a Royal Charter to colonize. When the English returned in 1590 they found carved on a tree “Croatoan” and no colonists. Western historians state that Croatoan-Croatan is an Indian word. This was the first English attempt to colonize in America.

In 1588 the great Spanish Armada attacked England. It is estimated that at least fifteen percent of the war galleons and merchant fleet under Spanish flag were from Dalmatia, Croatia.

In 1588 the Pope, Sixtus V, was a Croatian and the Great Vizier or Prime Minister of the Turkish Empire, Siavus Pasha Hrvat (Hrvat means Croatian) was a Croatian. At that point in time these two individuals were the most powerful and influential men in all of Europe. Both were immigrants; one an "Italian", the other a "Turk".

A Croatian traveling west in Europe or to the New World from 1300-1700 could have been identified in documents as Hungarian, Venetian, Austrian, Turkish, Italian-Venetian, Schiavon, Slavonian, Illyrian, Dalmatian or from the Republic of Ragusa (Dubrovnik).

In 2003 to state or assume that Croatians participated in discovery of new lands and were with Columbus would not be believed and probably questioned in many circles. The 1400's-1650's were in fact a golden age for Croatia disproportionate to her size in territory and population, considering the Ottoman Turk invasion and conquest of Croatia up to Croatian-Dalmatia and the Republic of Ragusa.

Previous, during and after the discovery of America, Croatians participated in mercantile and diplomatic activities in Spain, Portugal, England, France, Florence, Venice, Genoa and in India, America, Canada, Central and South America. Their presence in England at the time of colonization was neither accidental nor luck.

Voyages on the American Coast

In 1498 John Cabot, discoverer of North America, started on his second voyage and then coasted along the East shore of the American mainland to Cape Hatteras. Explorations of later date found pieces of a broken sword of Italian workmanship, and that two silver earrings of Venetian make had been seen upon a boy who was a native of the North-West country in America which might indicate the destruction of part of Cabot's fleet. Cabot's lawyer was a Dalmatian from Dubrovnik-Ragusa.

New Dalmatia

The New England Coast was first called New Dalmatia by explorer Verrazano in 1524. This had been written about by French, Italian and American historians. Verrazano mentions Sclavonia, Dalmatia and names four islands after Dalmatian islands. Isola Lunga is Dugi Otok or Long Island, New York. Verrazano discovered New York and may have lost ships off the Carolina coast.

San Blas-Saint Vlaho

Jean Alfonse in the Alfonse Voyages of the 1540's along the Atlantic coast comments on passing Cap S. Blas, not naming it, with a notation of northeast of Florida in beautiful country at the port of Chatelain which would be Charleston, South Carolina. S. Blas is Saint Vlaho or Sveti Vlaho in Croatian. Saint Vlaho is the Patron Saint of Dubrovnik in Croatia.

Levantine Mariners

In 1565 Menendez de Aviles, the new governor of Florida, wiped out a colony of French Huguenots trying to settle near present-day Jacksonville. The "Levantine" mariners aboard the Flagship rebelled and took the ship and disappeared. Navigation would dictate that the ship went north and could have crashed off of Hatteras. Levantine mariners were usually Dalmatian-Croatian Catholics. Spain would not allow on her ships Greek Orthodox or Moslems.

Sir Walter Raleigh and Nikola Gozi-Gucetich

Sir Walter Raleigh and Nikola Gozi-Gucetich held meetings in 1585 in London, prior to the voyage, with the admiral Lord Charles Howard of Effingham. Croatoan Island was first called My Lord Admirals Island in honor of Lord Howard of Effingham. Nikola Gozi-Gucetich of Dubrovnik was the second largest foreign banker in England. His nephew, Paolo Gondola-Gundulich, wrote letters to a friend in Florence from London of Drake and Raleigh in Virginia and other voyages. The Dalmatian-Croatian colony had a Fraternity in London. They probably were venture capitalists in a number of English voyages of exploration.

Croatian Place Names in North Carolina

Place names and names found in North Carolina associated with Croatia are: Croatamonge, Croatamung Island, Croatan Indians, Croatan Indian Park, Croatan National Forest, Croatan Sound, Croatan Township, Croatan Wildlife Area, Croatoan and Croatoan Island.

Croato an--Croat an

Croato-Croata-Croati is the Italian form of Croatia or Croatian. The Italian alphabet does not have a K. When a person is from a place such as Split, Dubrovnik, Ragusa, Zagreb, as examples - you can say he is a: Splitcan, Hvaran, Dubrovcan, Ragusan, Zagrebcan, Trogiran, Hercegovan. Croatia was not a country in the 1500s but a part of Venice, Austria, Hungary, Turkey or the Republic of Dubrovnik-Ragusa. One could say they were: Croatians, Croatans or Croatoan s. All historians and experts state that Croatoan is an Algonquin Indian name. Other experts state there is no CR or KR sound in the Algonquin language in that area.

Is Ottorasko-Hrvatsko (Croatia)?

Cape Hatteras: Place name variations included Hatarask, Hotoras, Hatorask, Hatorasck, Hatrask, Otterasco, 0ttorasko. Ottorasko was the earliest name given to this island south of Port Ferdinando with Croatoan southward from it again.

Melingi-Melingoi

The Melungeon, Lumbee, and Croatan groups in America claim to be a mixture of Indian and European mariners, liberated slaves, Lost Colonists, and remnants of Spanish and Portuguese settlements. There is considerable speculation as to the origin of the name Melungeon. The Melingi-Melingoi were Slavic groups in the Balkans that would have willingly served in Turkish fleets.

Turkish Slaves

Sir Frances Drake liberated hundreds of slaves in the Caribbean while plundering Spanish settlements. Drake brought material help to the Roanoke Colony and left the Turks and Moors and some European slaves at Roanoke. These liberated slaves far outnumbered the English Colonists; some left with Drake and were returned to Turkey. The Turkish slaves were captured in sea battles in the Mediterranean. Almost all Turkish admirals in the 1500’s were Croatian-Dalmatians. Bosnia-Hercegovina, one half of Croatia and parts of the Dalmatian coast, all part of the Croatian kingdom, were conquered by Turkey. Many Dalmatian mariners served in Turkish fleets; the second language at the Turkish Court for the military and marine was Croatian. Twenty two Great Viziers (Prime Ministers) of the Turkish Empire were Croatians.

Fish

At the Lost Colony, Ribuckon meant in Algonquin Indian a fishing place or fish; Cipo was mullet fish; Cante-Cante meant to sing and dance and Sat was time. There were many other similarities. Gray eyes and blondish hair amongst the Indians was noted for centuries. Gray eyes and light hair is found in Croatia in great numbers and not found in any other Mediterranean people.

Research should be done at Istanbul, Turkey to determine the names of those "Turks" returned by the English from the Lost Colony. DNA and blood testing is now being conducted, but is not considering Croatians or Croatia and Bosnia.

Books

  • Eterovich, Adam S.: Croatia and Croatians at the Lost Colony, 1585-1590. San Carlos: Ragusan Press. 2003. Soft Cover, 8 1/2 x 11, 156 pages. Illustrated. - The first English colony in America.
  • Eterovich, Adam S.: Croatian Contributions to San Francisco from 1849-1949 to Restaurants, Coffee Saloons, Oyster Saloons, Saloons, Liquor, Importers-Exporters, Fruits-Produce, Fishermen-Oystermen and Mariners. San Carlos: Ragusan Press, 2003. Soft Cover. 215 pages. Illustrated.
  • Eterovich, Adam S.: Gold Rush Pioneers From Croatia, Bosnia-Hercegovina and the Boka Kotor. San Carlos: Ragusan Press, 2003, 2527 San Carlos Ave., San Carlos, CA 94070. Soft Cover, 81/2x11.- Covers the Gold Rush of 1848 in California and the Silver Boom of 1859 in Nevada. Included are the saloons, coffee saloons, and restaurants. All pioneers are listed in an extensive Index. Eterovich, Adam S. A Guide to Croatian Genealogy. San Carlos, Calif.: Ragusan Press, 1995. 50 pages. Booklet. $14.00. Includes Maps, Translations, Archives.
  • Eterovich, Adam S.: A Guide and Index to Croatian Coats of Arms. San Carlos: Ragusan Press, 2003. 70 pages. Soft Cover. Spiral Bound. - An index and guide to the Nobility of Croatia. Over 7000 names and variations. Eterovich, Adam S. Croatian Popes and Saints and the Croatian Checkered Arms. San Carlos: Ragusan Press, 1998. 60 pages. $15.00. A booklet containing all forms of family and state arms with the Croatian checkered arms. Thirteen Popes had similar Arms.
  • Eterovich, Adam S.: Croatians in California, 1849-1999. San Carlos, Ca: Ragusan Press, 2000. 650 pages. - Gold Rush pioneers, the wild west-saloons, restaurants, farms, orchards, vineyards, fishermen, music, celebrations, societies, churches and 1000's of individuals. 800 biographies. 115 Illustrations.
  • Eterovich, Adam S. and Simich, Jerry L.: General Index to Croatian Pioneers in California, 1849-1999. San Carlos, Ca.: Ragusan Press. 1999. 370 pages. - An Index by Name, Date, Occupation or Activity, Location, Town of Origin and Reference Source. Abstracted from cemeteries, voting registers, census, society records church records and other source. 45,000 individuals plus mariages.
  • Eterovich, Adam S.: Croatian Pioneers in America, 1685-1900. San Carlos, Ca.: Ragusan Press, 1979. 205 pages. - Covers those that came to the Southern United States and to the West for the Gold Rush.
  • Eterovich, Adam S.: Marco Polo Croatian Adventurer. San Carlos. Calif.: Ragusan Press, 1987. 12 page Booklet. - Marko Polo born on Island of Korcula, Dalmatia, Croatia.
  • Eterovich, Adam S.: Croatia in the New World: Columbus, The Republic of Ragusa (Dubrovnik) and Saint Vlaho (Saint Blaise) Patron Saint of Dubrovnik. San Carlos, Calif.: Ragusan Press, 1993. Booklet. - Four Croatians with Columbus.
  • Eterovich, Adam S.: Croatia in the New World: Sebastian Cabot's Voyage to the Rio De La Plata, 1526-1530. San Carlos, Calif.: Ragusan Press, 1990. - Croatian officers and mariners with Cabot. Cabot could be Croatian.
  • Eterovich, Adam S.: Croatia in the New World: The Verrazano Voyages to America and Canada, 1523-1524. San Carlos, Calif.: Ragusan Press, 1990. Booklet - New England was first named New Dalmatia. Verrazano could be Croatian.

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Useful Books, Sources, Articles, Websites, Resources, Interesting pages,,..

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Croatoan Indijanci: Tragom legende o Hrvatima u Sjevernoj Karolini

Ekspedicija: Englezi su se začudili jer su među Indijancima vidjeli djecu s crvenkastosmeđom kosom i očima boje kestena.

članak, autor: dr. sc. Božo Skoko, 06. kolovoza 2013., Večernji List

Gdje li sve hrvatska noga nije stala? Koračala je po vrhovima Anda i podzemnim hodnicima rudnika Perua, Bolivije i Sjedinjenih Američkih Država. Bila je na Aljasci i Ognjenoj zemlji. Pustila je korijen u brazilskoj prašumi, zamrznutoj Patagoniji i vrućem pijesku sjevernog Čilea. Teturala je na palubi broda uz kalifornijsku obalu, ali i na Parani, Urugvaju i Mississippiju. Klečala je pod teretom u luci Buenos Airesa, ali i pred križem u hrvatskim crkvama. Navlačila je gumenu čizmu luizijanskog oštrigara, ali i finu gradsku cipelu čileanskog poslovnog čovjeka. Doticala je pozornicu Metropolitena, ali je gazila i prljave podove saluna i boardinghousea. Išla je pravim putem, ali i prečicom pa i stranputicom. Stotinu puta se uputila kući u Hrvatsku i isto toliko puta ostala u Americi..."

Tako bismo – kroz zabilješku profesora Ljubomira Antića iz knjige Hrvati i Amerika – ukratko mogli sažeti tešku, ali i slavnu povijest hrvatskih iseljenika. Ta je povijest obilježena brojnim legendama, uspomenama i pričama koje govore o neustrašivosti, otvorenosti, snalažljivosti pa i ludosti naših predaka, koji su – bježeći od neimaštine ili političkog terora pokušavali podizati nove domove daleko u slobodi tuđine. A poznato je da su Hrvati stoljećima naseljavali i najudaljenije dijelove svijeta. Zapravo je danas hrvatske tragove moguće pronaći na gotovo svim meridijanima i paralelama, gdje je kročila ljudska noga. Međutim, jedan trag na obalama američke savezne države Sjeverne Karoline, koju zapljuskuje Atlantski ocean na američkom istoku, mogao bi uvelike promijeniti povijest doticaja Europljana s novootkrivenim američkim kontinentom. Isto tako bi mogao uvelike pridonijeti slici Hrvata kao velikih pomoraca i istraživača koji su slijedili Kolumba.

Hrvatski bjegunci

No sve počinje jednom legendom koja se u Dalmaciji počela prepričavati polovicom šesnaestog stoljeća. Prema kazivanju starih Dubrovčana, a navodno i nekim povijesnim zapisima, oko 1540. godine iz Dubrovnika su za Ameriku isplovila dva broda, a na njima su uglavnom bili hrvatski bjegunci pred Turskom najezdom iz Bosne i Hercegovine. Prolazili su mjeseci i godine, a brodovi se nisu vraćali, niti se čulo išta o sudbini njihovih pomoraca i putnika. Nekoliko godina kasnije, drugi dubrovački brodovi koji su se uspješno vratili iz Amerike, donijeli su crne vijesti kako su se brodovi razbili na opasnim hridima strmih istočnih obala nadomak slobode, a mogućim preživjelima izgubio se svaki trag. Neki povjesničari smatraju da se to dogodilo 1558. godine, a neki spominju i druge godine. Međutim za ovu priču godina je zapravo irelevantna jer da nije uslijedio nastavak priče, bila bi to još jedna sasvim obična sudbina kakvih je zapisano na stotine u dalmatinskim arhivima i srcima tužnih obitelji koje su zagledane u more čekale sinove da ima se vrate. Naime, takva putovanja u 16. stoljeću bila su uobičajena jer su Dubrovčani bili na glasu kao odvažni pomorci, istraživači i diplomati, a Hrvati u Dalmaciji čak i u stranoj literaturi nazivani su jednima od najboljih pomorskih naroda u Europi. Na kraju, više je autora koji tvrde kako je nekoliko Dalmatinaca bilo na Kolumbovim brodovima u trenutku povijesnog otkrića Amerike 12. listopada 1492. godine. U svakom slučaju nastavak ove zanimljive priče, kojom se već stoljećima bave američki ali i hrvatski istraživači, zabilježili su britanski pustolovi, koji su četrdesetak godina poslije – oko 1590. upravo u Sjevernoj Karolini, na otoku Roanok, pokušali osnovati prvu anglosaksonsku koloniju na tlu Amerike.

Pronašli hrvatske tragove?

Tome je prethodila prva engleska ekspedicija na sjevernoamerički kontinent, koju su vodili Philip Amadas i Arthur Barlow 1584. Začudili su se kad su među tamošnjim Indijancima vidjeli "djecu s vrlo lijepom crvenkastosmeđom kosom i očima boje kestena", jer su svi ostali Indijanci bili izrazito crni. Po tome su zaključili da su prije njih Engleza, ovdje morali biti neki drugi bijelci. Također ih je iznenadilo koliko su ti Indijanci bili prijateljski raspoloženi. Nazivali su se Hatteras, prema otoku na kojem su živjeli, a Englezi su ih zvali Croatoan ili Croatan, prema imenu njihova naselja na otoku južno od Roanokea. Istraživači su u svojim zapisima spominjali svjedočenja Indijanaca o njihovu podrijetlu. Posebno su isticali Mantea i Wanchesea, koje su poslije odveli u Englesku, gdje su naučili jezik te vratili u Ameriku kako bi pomagali Englezima kao njihovi namjesnici. Po njima nazvana su dva mjesta na otoku Roanok. Njihovo je svjedočenje danas neprocjenjivo važno za razumijevanje legende o Craoatian Indijancima. Naime, ispričali su kako su neki bijelci prije tridesetak godina doživjeli brodolom u blizini te da su se neki od njih spasili. Poslije su pokušali otploviti uz pomoć dvaju čamaca, koje su napravili zajedno s Indijancima, ali u tome nisu uspjeli pa su ostali živjeti s njihovim roditeljima. U svakom slučaju, ti mladi Indijanci nisu znali puno o podrijetlu brodolomaca, niti zašto je njihovo naselje nazvano Croatan, ali je Englezima bilo jasno kako su na ovom prostoru i prije njih boravili Europljani te su bili slobodniji u komunikaciji s tim plemenom. Poslije je na otok Roanoke došlo nekoliko engleskih doseljeničkih skupina, među kojima i ona čuvenog sir Waltera Raleigha, koju je vodio John White, koji je trebao postati guverner prve engleske kolonije na novom kontinentu. Bilo je to 1587.

Tajna izgubljene kolonije

Godinu dana poslije, po izbijanju rata sa Španjolskom, White se vratio u Europu, ostavivši doseljenike na otoku Roanoke. S njima je dogovorio kako će mu ostaviti obavijest ako se u međuvremenu presele. Ako s Roanokea odu u Croatan, bliže Indijancima ostavit će natpis Craotoan urezan u koru drveta. Ako to bude u nuždi, ostavit će urezan i križ. U međuvremenu White nije mogao pronaći brodove kojima bi se iz Europe vratio natrag. Kad se nakon dvije godine u ljeto 1590. White konačno vratio na otok Roanoke, ostao je zaprepašten jer nije našao nikoga. Naselje je bilo opustošeno i ograđeno, poput utvrde. Na velikom stablu pronašao je urezan natpis Croatoan, bez križa. Nadajući se kako su mu sunarodnjaci na sigurnom među indijanskim prijateljima na obližnjem otoku, pokušao je otploviti do njega ali ga je u tome spriječilo nevrijeme pa je bio prisiljen već u listopadu vratiti se u Englesku, a da nije do kraja riješio zagonetku o "izgubljenoj koloniji". Međutim, većina je vjerovala kako su zbog napada drugih Indijanaca i nedostatka hrane, iselili i ostali živjeti u miješanom plemenu Croatan Indijanaca, koje su poslije istraživači smatrali vrlo naprednima. Godine 1714. namjesnik Sjeverne Karoline John Lawson pohodio je Craotian Indijance na Hatterasu i oni su mu ispričali kako su neki od njihovih predaka bili bijelci te da su znali "govoriti u knjigu". Godine 1885. država ih je priznala pod imenom Croatani i od tada im je nekoliko puta mijenjano ime. U okrugu Robeson živi ih oko 40 tisuća, a većina njih su farmeri ili tvornički radnici.

Hoće li se ikad doznati?

Od 1887. imaju vlastitu školu Croatan Normal School, u kojoj su se školovali njihovi učitelji, a iz koje se poslije razvio i Pembroke State University. Posljednjih nekoliko desetljeća komunikaciju s njima, uime hrvatske zajednice u SAD-u, održavaju hrvatski franjevci iz Chicaga, odnosno tamošnji Hrvatski etnički institut. Jedan od franjevaca fra Robert Jolić, tijekom službe u Chicagu 2000. godine posjetio je otoke Roanok i Hatteras u potrazi za Croatan Indijancima. Ondje je našao brojne tragove koji podsjećaju na to neobično pleme i izgubljenu englesku koloniju. Uostalom dolazite li ovdje sa sjeverozapada lokalnom cestom br. 168 pa pređete na 158 u potrazi za ovdašnjim dugim otocima, koji se poput štita pružaju uz istočnu obalu, vidjet ćete kako se cesta 158 ponosno naziva Croatan Boulevard, a proći ćete i kroz veličanstvenu šumu Croatan National Forest. Natpis Croatoan koji je Englez White pronašao na starom hrastu, nedaleko od današnje utvrde Fort Raleigh, moguće je vidjeti na jednom minijaturnom deblu kreiranom u turističke svrhe te u originalnom Whiteovom izvješću. Većina tamošnjih turističkih djelatnika je prvi put od ovog franjevca čula mogućnost da su tamošnji Indijanci dobili ime po Hrvatima, koji su ondje doplovili prije Engleza, asimilirali se i ostavili svoje gene naraštajima ljepuškastih smeđokosih Indijanaca. Iako o tome nema nikakvih relevantnih znanstvenih činjenica, priča im je zvučala atraktivno. Više od 400 godina, koliko je prošlo od prvog spomena Croatan Indijanaca u Europi, ipak je predugačko razdoblje da bismo ikada do kraja rasvijetlili što se uistinu dogodilo na divljim obalama Sjeverne Karoline nedugo nakon što je Kolumbo otkrio taj kontinent, kad je Dubrovačka Republika počela širiti svoj utjecaj i na Novi svijet surađujući i sa Španjolcima i Englezima. Ovo pleme i dalje ostaje zagonetka, a njihovo hrvatsko podrijetlo - vječna legenda.

Croatoan – jezikoslovci ga teško mogu protumačiti kao indijanski dijalekt

O prvim susretima Europljana s američkim kontinentom objavljena je 1955. u Londonu izvrsna knjiga urednika Davida Quinna "The Roanok Voyages 1584. – 1590." U njoj je moguće pronaći zapise prvih istraživača, pa tako i Arthura Barlowea. On piše kako su Croatani bili izvrsni trgovci te da su dobro poznavali bjelačko oružje, što jasno govori o njihovu iskustvu s bijelcima. Quinn misli kako su se s njima možda susreli Španjolci, koji su doživjeli brodolom. Međutim, riječ je samo o pretpostavci, po kojoj i američki znanstvenici hrvatskog podrijetla poput Prpicha, Adamica i Rouceka s pravom tvrde da su to uistinu mogli biti i hrvatski moreplovci. U prilog njihovim tvrdnjama ide i natpis Croatan, koji i najbolji jezikoslovci i stručnjaci za indijanske dijalekte teško mogu protumačiti, pa otud ostaje jednostavno tumačenje kako je jednostavno riječ o izvedenici tadašnjeg latinskog naziva hrvatskog imena.

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CROATOAN

From: Wikipedia En | Hr | Pl | Catala | Ru

eng. Croatan, hrv. (cro.) Croatan (Croatan Indijanci), pl. Kroatanie (plemię Indian Ameryki Północnej o mieszanej krwi), ru, Кроато́ан (англ. Сroatoan, совр. Сroaton, также иногда Кроата́н, Кроато́н),

English

The Croatan are a small Native American group living in the coastal areas of what is now North Carolina. They may have been a branch of the larger Roanoke people or allied with them.[1] The Croatan people of North Carolina who exist today live in Cumberland, Sampson, and Harnett counties predominantly.[citation needed] _____________________________________________________________________________________ The Roanoke (/ˈroʊəˌnoʊk/), also spelled Roanoac, were a Carolina Algonquian-speaking people whose territory comprised present-day Dare County, Roanoke Island and part of the mainland at the time of English exploration and colonization. They were one of the numerous Carolina Algonquian tribes, which may have numbered 5,000-10,000 people in total in eastern North Carolina at the time of English encounter.1

History

The Roanoke may have had their capital on the western shore of Croatan Sound, at Dasamonguepeuk. This was one of the significant towns noted by the English colonists in the sixteenth century.1

Numerous place names were derived from the Roanoke.

The last known chief of the Roanoke was Wanchese, who traveled to England with colonists in 1584. The smaller Croatan people may have been a branch of the Roanoke or a separate tribe allied with it. 1

See more: here _____________________________________________________________________________________

History

The Croatan lived in current Dare County, an area encompassing the Alligator River, Croatan Sound, Roanoke Island, Ocracoke Island, and parts of the Outer Banks, including Hatteras Island. Now extinct as a tribe, they were one of the Carolina Algonquian peoples, numerous at the time of English encounter in the 16th century. The Roanoke territory also extended to the mainland, where they had their chief town on the western shore of Croatan Sound. _____________________________________________________________________________________

upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c6/North_carolina_algonkin-dorf.jpg/220px-North_carolina_algonkin-dorf.jpgNorth Carolina Algonkin dorf

Total population: 64 - 80
Regions with significant populations: North Carolina
Languages: Carolina Algonquian
Religion: Immortality of the Soul

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Algonquian peoples: The Algonquian are one of the most populous and widespread North American native language groups. Today, thousands of individuals identify with various Algonquian peoples. Historically, the peoples were prominent along the Atlantic Coast and into the interior along the Saint Lawrence River and around the Great Lakes. This grouping consists of the peoples who speak Algonquian languages.

A 16th-century sketch of the Algonquian village of Pomeiock

Before Europeans came into contact, most Algonquian settlements lived by hunting and fishing, although quite a few supplemented their diet by cultivating corn, beans and squash (the "Three Sisters"). The Ojibwe cultivated wild rice.[citation needed]

upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/11/Algic_langs.png/375px-Algic_langs.pngPre-contact distribution of Algonquian languages

upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/33/The_village_of_Pomeioc%2C_North_Carolina%2C_1885%2C_color_-_NARA_-_535753.jpg/800px-The_village_of_Pomeioc%2C_North_Carolina%2C_1885%2C_color_-_NARA_-_535753.jpgA 16th-century sketch of the Algonquian village of Pomeiock. The village of Pomeioc, North Carolina, 1885

General notes: Artwork. Caption reads: "The towne of Pomeiock and true forme of their howses, covered and enclosed some with matts, and some with barcks of trees. All compassed abowt with smale poles stuck thick together in stedd of a wall."

References: References | Colonial period | Tribal identities | List of Historic Algonquian Speaking Peoples

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Croatan Indians were a part of the Carolina Algonquians, a southeastern designation of the greater Algonquian source. Agriculture was the Native Americans' primary food source, and the fact that they could feed the colonists as well as themselves demonstrates very effectively the efficiency of their farming. The Native Americans regulated each person's position in society by public marks. The chiefs or leaders, called werowances, controlled between one and eighteen towns. The greatest were able to muster seven or eight hundred fighting men. The English marveled at the great awe in which these werowances were held, saying no people in the world carried more respect towards their leaders. Werowance actually means "he who is rich". Chiefs and their families were held in great status and with respect, but they had to convince followers that action or cause was wise, they did not command. The role of the chief was to spread wealth to his tribe, otherwise respect was lost.1

Beliefs

The Native Americans living in the Carolinas believed in the immortality of the soul. Upon death, the soul either enters heaven to live with the gods or goes to a place near the setting sun called Popogusso, to burn for eternity in a huge pit of fire. The concept of heaven and hell was used on the common people to respect leaders and live a life that would be beneficial to them in the afterlife. Conjurors and priests were distinctive spiritual leaders. Priests were chosen for their knowledge and wisdom, and were leaders of the organized religion. Conjurors on the other hand were chosen for their magical abilities. Conjurors were thought to have powers from a personal connection with a supernatural being (mostly spirits from the animal world).2

European colonization

It is known that the arrival of English Settlers upset some pre-existing tribal relationships. The Algonquian people advocated cooperation while others (the Yamasee, Cherokee and Chickasaw, for example) resisted. Later, this conflict between tribes and settlers would lead to the Yamasee War. Tribes that maintained mutually beneficial contact with the settlers gained power through their access to and control of European trade goods. While the English may have held great military superiority over the Carolina Algonquians, the Native Americans' control over food and natural resources was a much more decisive factor in the conflict with early settlers. Despite the varying relationships among tribes, the Roanoke and Croatan were believed to have been on very good terms with English Settlers of the Roanoke Colony. Wanchese, the last leader of the Roanoke, accompanied the English on a trip to England.3

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Wanchese

Wanchese (Wan-Keece) - Wanchese was the last known ruler of the Roanoke Native American tribe encountered by English colonists in the late sixteenth century. Along with Chief Manteo he travelled to London in 1584, where the two men created a sensation at court. Hosted at Durham House by the explorer and courtier Sir Walter Raleigh, he and Manteo assisted the scientist Thomas Harriot with the job of deciphering and learning the Carolina Algonquian language. Unlike Manteo, Wanchese evinced little interest in learning English, and did not befriend his hosts, remaining suspicious of English motives in the New World. In April 1586, having returned to Roanoke, he finally ended his good relations with the English, leaving Manteo as the colonists' sole Indian ally. Contrary to the famous narrative of the Lost Colony production there is no evidence that Wanchese was ever the chief of the Roanoke People, however he was influential within his tribe.

Born: Unknown Probably present-day Roanoke, North Carolina
Died: Unknown Probably present-day Roanoke, North Carolina
Known for: The Lost Colony, travels to England, resistance to English settlement

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Roanoke Colony, Colony of England, 1585–c. 1590

upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a6/Roanoke_map_1584.JPG/250px-Roanoke_map_1584.JPGRoanoke map, 1584, Virginea Pars map, drawn by John White during his initial visit in 1585. Roanoke is the small pink island in the middle right of the map.

Coordinates: 35° 55′ 41.73″ N, 75° 42′ 14.75″ W

Roanoke Island

History: Established 1585,
Birth of Virginia Dare: August 18, 1587,
Abandoned: Before August c. 1590,
Found abandoned: August 18, 1590,
Population: 1587 - 116,
Today: part of United States. Dare County, North Carolina

Background | Raleigh's charter | https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roanoke_Colony#First_voyages_to_Roanoke_Island | In the New World | Lost Colony | Return to the Lost Colony | Investigations into Roanoke | Reports of John Smith and William Strachey | Hypotheses about the disappearance: Integration with local tribes, Other theories: Spanish, Dare Stones, Virginia Pars Map | Archaeological evidence | Climate factors | Lost Colony of Roanoke DNA Project - See: The Lost Colony Center for Science and Research - Lost Colony DNA Project, official website

See also: List of colonists at Roanoke | List of people who disappeared mysteriously | Timeline of the colonization of North America

References

Further reading:

  • Hariot, Thomas, John White and John Lawson (1999). A Vocabulary of Roanoke. Evolution Publishing: Merchantville, NJ. ISBN 1-889758-81-7. This volume contains practically everything known about the Croatan language spoken on Roanoke Island.
  • Miller, Lee, Roanoke: Solving the Mystery of the Lost Colony ,Retrieved April 2011
  • Giles Milton (2000). Big Chief Elizabeth. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 0-374-26501-1. Critically acclaimed account, based on contemporary travel accounts from 1497–1611, of attempts to establish a colony in the Roanoke area. Milton is also the author of the 2013 children's fictional work, Children of the Wild, which tells the story of the colony through the eyes of four English children.

External links:

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The Lost Colony

upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/81/Croatoan.jpg/220px-Croatoan.jpg

The return of Governor White to the "Lost Colony"

Governor John White returned to Roanoke in 1590 to find the word "croatoan" carved on a tree. It is possible that some of the survivors of the Lost Colony of Roanoke may have joined the Croatan. Governor White finally reached Roanoke Island on August 18, 1590, three years after he had last seen them in Virginia, but he found his colony had been long deserted. The buildings had collapsed and "the houses [were] taken down".4 The few clues about the colonists' whereabouts included the letters "CROATOAN" carved into a tree.4 Croatoan was the name of a nearby island (likely modern-day Hatteras Island) in addition to the local tribe of Native Americans. Roanoke Island was not originally the planned location for the colony and the idea of moving elsewhere had been discussed. Before the Governor's departure, he and the colonists had agreed that a message would be carved into a tree if they had moved and would include an image of a Maltese Cross if the decision was made by force.4 White found no such cross and was hopeful that his family was still alive.4

The Croatan, like other Carolina Algonquians, suffered from epidemics of infectious disease, such as smallpox in 1598. These greatly reduced the tribe's numbers and left them subject to colonial pressure. They are believed to have become extinct as a tribe by the early seventeenth century.

Speculation of the fate of the "Lost Colony"

Based on legend, some people said that the Lumbee tribe, based in North Carolina, were descendants of the Croatan and survivors of the Lost Colony of Roanoke Island. For over a hundred years, historians and other scholars have been examining the question of Lumbee origin. Although there have been many explanations and conjectures, two theories persist. In 1885, Hamilton McMillan, a local historian and state legislator, proposed the "Lost Colony" theory. Based upon oral tradition among the Lumbees and what he deemed as strong circumstantial evidence, McMillan posited a connection between the Lumbees and the early English colonists who settled on Roanoke Island in 1587 and the Algonquian tribes (Croatan included) who inhabited coastal North Carolina at the same time. According to historical accounts, the colonists mysteriously disappeared soon after they settled, leaving little evidence of their destination or fate. McMillan's hypothesis, which was also supported by the historian Stephen Weeks, contends that the colonists migrated with the Indians toward the interior of North Carolina, and by 1650 had settled along the banks of the Lumber. It is suggested the present-day Lumbees are the descendants of these two groups.5

Other scholars believe the Lumbees to be descended from an eastern Siouan group called the Cheraws. During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries a number of Siouan-speaking tribes occupied southeastern North Carolina. John R. Swanton, a pioneering ethnologist at the Smithsonian Institution, wrote in 1938 that the Lumbees were probably of Cheraw descent but were also genealogically influenced by other Siouan tribes in the area. Contemporary historians such as James Merrell and William Sturtevant confirm this theory by suggesting that the Cheraws, along with survivors of other tribes whose populations had been devastated by warfare and disease, found refuge from both aggressive settlers and hostile tribes in the Robeson County swamps in eastern North Carolina.6

Late twentieth-century research has demonstrated that among surnames established as Lumbee ancestors were numerous mixed-race African Americans free in Virginia before the American Revolution, and their descendants who migrated to the Virginia and North Carolina frontiers in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. These "free people of color" were mostly descendants of European women and African men, who worked and lived together in colonial Virginia. These connections have been traced for numerous individuals and families through court records, land deeds and other existing historical documents.78 In Robeson County, they may have intermarried with Native American survivors and acculturated as Indian.[clarification needed]

Modern era and legacy

The Lost Colony Center for Science and Research has excavated English artifacts within the territory of the former Croatan tribe. The artifacts may also be evidence of trade with the tribe, or of natives finding them at the former colony site. The Center is conducting a DNA study to try to determine if there are European lines among Croatan descendants.

In 1910, the North Carolina state legislature renamed the Croatan Indians in North Carolina to "Cherokee" and designated them a branch of the Cherokee Nation.9

georgiainfo.galileo.usg.edu/images/uploads/markers/croatanindiancommunityhm.jpg

A historical marker placed by the state of Georgia states "In 1870 a group of Croatan natives migrated from their homes in Robeson County, North Carolina, following the turpentine industry to southeast Georgia. Eventually many of the Croatans became tenant farmers for the Adabelle Trading Company, growing cotton and tobacco. The Croatan community established the Mt. Zion Baptist Church in Adabelle, as well as a school and a nearby cemetery. After the collapse of the Adabelle Trading Company, the Croatans faced both economic hardship and social injustice. As a result, most members of the community returned to North Carolina by 1920." 10

Source of image from website: GerogiaInfo.galileo.usg.edu - Bulloch County Historical Markers, Croatan Indian Community, Source: David Seibert, Marker: Croatan Indian Community, Location: Adabelle Rd at US 301

Researchers from the University of Bristol, UK have also been excavating on Hatteras Island in conjunction with the Croatoan Archaeological Society. Hatteras Island is the main locus for the settlement of the Croatoan tribe, and to date they have discovered a large contact/pre-contact period settlement, midden deposits and European trade items.

Notable people

  • Anna Evans Murray, educator and civic leader
  • Manteo disappeared after 1587, ambassador and mediator.

See also: Algonquian languages, Algonquian peoples, Aquascogoc, Carolina Algonquian (Pamlico), Dasamongueponke, Roanoke tribe, Secotan

Notes: 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10

References:

  • K.I. Blu: "Lumbee", Handbook of North American Indians, vol. 14: 278-295, Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 2004
  • T. Hariot, J. White, J. Lawson: A vocabulary of Roanoke, vol. 13, Merchantville: Evolution Publishing, 1999
  • Th. Ross: American Indians in North Carolina, South Pines, NC: Karo Hollow Press, 1999
  • G.M. Sider: Lumbee Indian histories, vol. 2, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993
  • S.B. Weeks: The lost colony of Roanoke, its fate and survival, New York: Knickbocker Press, 1891
  • J.R. Swanton: "Probable Identity of the Croatan Indians." U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Office of Indian Affairs, 1933
  • J. Henderson: "The Croatan Indians of Robeson County, North Carolina", U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Office of Indian Affairs, 1923
  • K.O. Kupperman: "Roanoke, the Abandoned Colony", Rowman and Littlefield, 1984

Hrvatski / Croatian

Croatan Indijanci (Croatan Indians, 'Hrvatski Indijanci', Lumbee). - Narod 1 tajanstvenog porijekla danas nastanjen u Sjevernoj Karolini u okruzima Robeson, Hoke, Scotland, i Cumberland. docsouth.unc.edu/nc/butler/croatan52.jpg

Porijeklo i povijest

Riječ 'Croatan' veoma je popularna u Sjevernoj Karolini.

Postoji više teorija o njihovom porijeklu, najpopularnija je ona da su potomci Hatteras Indijanaca i kolonista (njih oko 120; među njima je navodno bilo i dubrovačkih pomoraca) koji su se 1587. naselili na otoku Roanoak. Otok leži pred obalom Sjeverne Karoline. Naselje u kojem su živjeli nazvano je 'Lost Colony' (Izgubljena kolonija) jer su stanovnici netragom nestali, vjerojatno su se priključili Indijancima i otišli. Mnogi današnji Lumbee imaju ista prezimena kao i nestali kolonisti. Prema Adolph Dial-u, povjesničaru iz plemena Lumbee, Croatani i Englezi su sudjelovali u stvaranju današnjih Lumbee Indijanaca.

Riječ 'Croatan' dano je ovom plemenu prema napisu CRO koji je bio ucrtan na jednom drvetu. -Druga je teorija da su Lumbee potomci Čerokija, Tuscarora i Istočnih Siouxa. Tijekom 1800-tih godina, Lumbee su bili nazivani imenom Croatan Indians jer su izgledali poput Indijanaca ali su živjeli poput bijelih naseljenika. Sjeverna Karolina im je dala poseban legalni status, uključujući i pravo da imaju svoje vlastite škole. Prva njihova škola 'Croatan Normal School' otvorena je 1887. u Pembroke-u u Sjevernoj Karolini. Danas je to 'Pembroke State University'.

Danas su najveće samostalno pleme istočno od rijeke Mississippi, prema popisu iz 1990. bilo ih je 48.000. Oni čine najveću indijansku grupu bez rezervata i mnogi žive i rade od zemlje. Lumbee ili Croatan Indijancima odbijen je federalni status 'Indijanskog plemena' zbog visokog postotka miješane krvi, kako one iz drugih plemena tako i crnačke. Lumbee su naime bili poznati po tome što su pružali utočište izbjeglim crnačkim robovima. Lumbee su danas organizirani u više plemena, to su: Kaweah Indian Nation iz Sjeverne Karoline, pleme United Lumbee Nation of North Carolina and America. Ovdje treba napomenuti i da se ostaci Cheraw Indijanaca prodaju pod Croatane nazivavši sebe Lumbee Tribe of Cheraw Indians.

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upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/cc/Henry_Berry_Lowrie.jpg/220px-Henry_Berry_Lowrie.jpg Henry Berry Lowrie nazivan "Indian Robin Hood", njihova poznata ličnost iz (1860-tih) ima među ovim narodom status narodnog heroja. Bio je kako kažu 'veliki bandit'. Njegova obitelj porijeklom iz Virginije bila je poznata po gradnji cesta. Njegovo ime danas nosi cesta Lowrie road u Sjevernoj Karolini. _____________________________________________________________________________________

Alternativna teorija o porijeklu

Američki znanstvenici Dr. Paul Heinegg i Dr. Virginia E. Demarce su iznjeli teoriju u svojoj knjizi Free African Americans, utemeljenu na genaološkim dokumentima i drugim dokazima , da Croatani , odnosno današnji Lumbee uopće nisu indijanci , nego su mulatskog (mješanog crnačkog i bjelačkog) porijekla.

Članak iz 1872. u New York Herald-u govori o okrugu Robeson u kojemu živi većina Lumbee-a ( od 1885 do 1911. nazivanih Croatan) kao o "Mulatskom Kapitolu". Također popis stanovništva iz kolonijalnog vremena govori da je stanovništvo okruga Robeson ( tada Bladen ) "sve mulatsko i crnačko , bez indijanaca" ("is all Mulatto and Negro, No Indians".)

Današnja baština

Lost Colony center for Science and Research, je danas službeni znanstveno-istraživački centar uz otok Manteo (bivši Roanoke) koji se od 1998. bavi povijesnim, arheološkim, genealoškim i biogenetskim (DNK) analizama svih dostupnih tragova prvobitnih doseljenika i okolnih Indijanaca (The Croatan Project, East Carolina University).

Poznati Croatani

Poznate osobe kroatanskog (lumbeejskog) podrijetla.

  • Heather Locklear 1.

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docsouth.unc.edu/nc/butler/croatan58c.jpg

Literatura

  • K.I. Blu: Lumbee. Handbook of North American Indians vol. 14: 278-295, Smithsonian Institution, Washington 2004
  • B. Fell: Saga America. U.S. Academy of Sciences and Arts & Harward University, Harward 1980
  • A.S. Eterovich: Croatia and Croatians, and the Lost Colony. Ragusan Press, San Carlos, Ca. 2003
  • T. Hariot, J. White, J. Lawson: A vocabulary of Roanoke. Evolution Publishing, Merchantville 1999
  • Th. Ross: American Indians in North Carolina. Karo Hollow Press, South Pines 1999
  • G.M. Sider: Lumbee Indian histories. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1993
  • S.B. Weeks: The lost colony of Roanoke, its fate and survival. Knickbocker Press, New York 1891

Izvori

  1. HUD CodeTalk Celebrities of Native American Heritage - link not working

Algonquian | Indijanci, Sjeverna Karolina | Indijanska plemena | Misterije _____________________________________________________________________________________

See image here: Manda, žena vrač, dobri duh s lulom

Manda Cherokee, rođena Perić, iz Popova Polja. Odselila je iz rodne Hercegovine u SAD, u vrijeme Karađorđevićeve diktature, nakon što su joj oduzeli cijelu ljetinu i to u vrijeme najcrnje američke prohibicije 20-ih godina prošlog stoljeća.

Tamo pokreće prvu privatnu punionicu ilegalnog home-made alkohola te prebacuje šverc škije iz Hercegovine u Ameriku posredstvom dubrovačkih trgovačkih linija. Ondje se udaje za poglavicu plemena Wanachake. Zbog njezine mudrosti postala je poglavarica sjevrenih plemena istočno od Ontarija. Nije bila pohlepna, pa je dosta ušteđevine darovala hercegovačkim doseljenicima u Sjevernu Ameriku, koji su dalje granali poslove. Polovicu dobiti slali su u rodnu grudu da narod opstane. Fra Didak Buntić poslao joj je zahvalnicu za borbu protiv gladi na Humu. Domoroce je očarala poznavanjem ljekovitih trava, pa je bila i liječnica koju su zvali Manda Vrač Dobri duh s lulom. Fotografija Hercegovina zemlja svjetlosti.

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CROATIANS SAILED TO NEW WORLD BEFORE COLUMBUS AND VIKINGS?

s3.amazonaws.com/photos.geni.com/p13/e3/ac/74/98/53444849730999f9/croatia-usa_flags_original.jpgMoorish Croats: During the medieval Cordoba Emirate and Caliphate under Omeyids dinasty, a number of Croats from Dalmatia reached Moorish Spain, either enslaved by Arabian pirates or also as mercenaries and workers; they present the earliest known Croatian diaspora, and also the first confirmed Croats converted to Islam. The most reputed among them are the Moorish army generals of Dalmatian origin: Hadjib Badr in 10th century, and Wadha el-Ameri, Zohair al-Ameri, Mudjahid Al-Ameri and Ali Al-Ameri in 11th century. Hadjib Badr (original surname: Badrov) was born in Dalmatia in the second half of 9th century. Then he came in the Cordoba Emirate of Moorish Spain under the Omayads dinasty, and as a mercenary he converted to islam there. He advanced in Moorish army up to his supreme position of the main military leader of islamic Spain between 902 - 921. Due to his activities, this land expanded over Spain and Maghreb, and became the independent Cordoba Calyphate under Abdurrahman III. Badrov was among the first known Croats reaching an important position out of his homeland, and first attested Croat converted to islam. Generals al-Ameri: In the medieval history of 10th and 11th century the most reputed are two Dalmatians immigrated in Moorish Spain under the Omayads dynasty. Both were mercenaries, and then became there the main military leaders of Cordoba Caliphate: Wadha el-Ameri (1009-1013) and his son Zohair al-Ameri (1018-1036), and also Mudjahid al-Ameri (1011-1045) and his son Ali al-Ameri (1045-1076) as the leaders of taifa Denia-Baleares. A hypothesis indicates that America was named after them, because they organized the Moorish expeditions in Western ocean; the same suggest also Al-Idrizi's medieval indications on Atlantic, the old Arabic inscriptions in American cliffs, and new findings of coins with kuffic inscriptions in USA. From them probably descend the medieval ethnic group of Hvirtamanna in eastern USA, which was mentioned in the old Viking reports; their descendants may be the recent tribe Croatans in southeastern coast of USA, being the best known indicator on the early presence of Croats in America. Croat petroglyphs (medieval inscriptions by overseas Croats): Before 3 decades in Bahia coast of Brasil a medieval inscription on stone was found, reminding of the medieval Glagolitic alphabet in the early Croatia. Subsequently also 61 similar inscriptions of this Glagolitic type from 7th - 14th centuries on the rocks of Mt Sierra de Amambay in Paraguay have been discovered. Some American scientists think that the scriptors of these petroglyphs probably took part in the construction of the earliest American town Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco). Andrija Zeljko Lovric presented his paper of archeological finds of Islamic coins and Glagolitic writing in Paraguay on the second day of the symposium called The Islamic World in the Twentieth Century, held in the Zagreb Islamic Center. He speaks that previous explorers did not understand the script and believed it to be Viking runes. Lovric lists numerous data contributing to the theory that the traces lead to Croatian sailors. First of all, among all Slav peoples that used the Glagolitic alphabet, only the Croats were renowned as sailors and, technically speaking, the only ones who could have reached America. In addition, the Glagolitic script was used the longest by Croats. Second, in town of Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco), the statues of Guarani rulers bearing Croatian coats of arms on their chests were found. Even more exciting for inquiring Americans are the fabulous discoveries of Dragutin Pavlicevic, Senior Research Fellow at the University of Zagreb’s Institute for Croatian History. Known far and wide as the best historian in his weight class, Pavlicevic’s robust, enhanced and exceptional methodology has uncovered the Croat origins of a number of American Indian tribes, including the Croatans, a North Carolina tribe originating in the noble blood of Croat mariners, a Croat fact confirmed by local place-names (e.g., Croatan Sound; Croatamung Island) as well as skin color, hair and facial features (e.g., the gray eyes and light hair found in Croatia in greater number than in any other Mediterranean people). Another Croat-Indian tribe, the Mateos, carry the name of their Croat progenitor, Mate. Never one to exaggerate facts or inflate numbers, Pavlicevic estimates there are some two million Croato-Indians in the United States alone. A hallowed name in Croat studies, Adam S. Eterovic’s extraordinary research also offers compelling evidence of an early Croat presence in the New World, especially in terms of breathtaking linguistic and onomastic evidence stretching from Brazil to New York.

  • Ragoso Bay in Brazil from the Croat Ragusa.
  • Panama’s Otoque from Otok.
  • Saboga, from za Boga;
  • Punta Mala, from Mala.
  • San Blas, from St. Vlaho, patron saint of Ragusa.
  • Cape Hatteras, also recorded as Otterasco and Orrotrasko, from Hrvatsko.
  • Potomac from Potomak.
  • Long Island from Dugi Otok.

In addition to all the above there is abundant evidence in the flora and fauna of Croatia, including American cactuses in medieval Dalmatia. _____________________________________________________________________________________

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