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Profiles

  • Clifford Wilson Merritt (1883 - 1922)
  • Pvt. (USA), James Andrew Merritt (1837 - 1921)
    James A. Merritt served in the Union Army during the American Civil War as a Private in Company D, 11th Regiment, Indiana Cavalry. He enlisted on October 29, 1863 at Terre Haute, Indiana and was discha...
  • Sgt. Hiram Evans (1829 - 1907)
    Hiram Evans served in the Union Army during the American Civil War in Battery "B", 1st Pennsylvania Light Artillery. He enlisted on 28 Jun 1861 as a Corporal and was promoted to a Sergeant the same day...
  • Walter Franklin Powers (1852 - 1933)
    He married Martha Anna Morrison in 1875 in Lewis County, West Virginia. He moved with his family in 1876 from WV to Colorado. Walter Franklin Powers and Martha Ann Morrison had 10 children. They we...

Introduction

A farmer (also called an agriculturer) is a person engaged in agriculture, raising living organisms for food or raw materials. The term usually applies to people who do some combination of raising field crops, orchards, vineyards, poultry, or other livestock. A farmer might own the farmed land or might work as a labourer on land owned by others, but in advanced economies, a farmer is usually a farm owner, while employees of the farm are known as farm workers, or farmhands. However, in the not so distant past a farmer was a person who promotes or improves the growth of (a plant, crop, etc.) by labor and attention, land or crops or raises animals (as livestock or fish). Advancements in technology

In the U.S. of the 1930s, one farmer fed only himself and three other consumers. The same farmer now feeds well over a hundred people. However, some authors consider this estimate as flawed as it does not take into account that farming requires energy and many other resources which have to be provided by additional workers, so that the ratio of people fed to farmers is actually smaller than 100 to 1.

More distinct terms are commonly used to denote farmers who raise specific domesticated animals. For example, those who raise grazing livestock, such as cattle, sheep, goats, and horses, are known as ranchers (U.S.), graziers (Australia & U.K.), or simply stockmen. Sheep, goat, and cattle farmers might also be referred to respectively as shepherds, goatherds, and cowherds. The term dairy farmer is applied to those engaged primarily in milk production, whether from cattle, goats, sheep, or other milk producing animals. A poultry farmer is one who concentrates on raising chickens, turkeys, ducks, or geese, for either meat, egg, or feather production, or commonly, all three. A person who raises a variety of vegetables for market may be called a truck farmer or market gardener. Dirt farmer is an American colloquial term for a practical farmer, or one who farms his own land.

In developed nations, a farmer (as a profession) is usually defined as someone with an ownership interest in crops or livestock, and who provides land or management in their production. Those who provide only labor are most often called farmhands. Alternatively, growers who manage farmland for an absentee landowner, sharing the harvest (or its profits) are known as sharecroppers or sharefarmers. In the context of agribusiness, a farmer is defined broadly, and thus many individuals not necessarily engaged in full-time farming can nonetheless legally qualify under agricultural policy for various subsidies, incentives, and tax deductions.

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Notes

  • "Peasants" (in French « habitants ») may not fit this project that well. The term "peasant" does not quite actually means an occupation. And in French, the term "habitant" does not quite match "peasant". We need to clarify this.
  • For roles where the worker has no ownership or control at all over the land being exploited, see Agricultural Labourers, Farmworkers.

Sources




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