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German Resistance Movement between 1933 - 1945

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Profiles

  • Johanna (Hannie) Wunder (1917 - 2004)
    im Widerstand 1943 inhaftiert; 1944 Deportation nach dem KZ Ravensbrück; dort 1945 befreit cf.: &:
  • Hermann Bergmann, Dr. med. (1892 - 1927)
    cf.:
  • Siegbert Katz (1899 - 1942)
    Eintrag im »Gedenkbuch« des Bundesarchivs: Katz, Siegbert geboren am 20. Juni 1899 in Samter (poln. Szamotuly) / - / Posen wohnhaft in Berlin (Kreuzberg) Inhaftierung: Luckau, Haftanstalt 24. Septe...
  • Dora Bahnmüller (1901 - 1944)
    Eintrag im »Gedenkbuch« des Bundesarchivs: Bahnmüller, Dora geborene Marcuse geboren am 09. Oktober 1901 in Berlin / - / Stadt Berlin wohnhaft in Berlin (Mitte) Inhaftierung: 30. November 1942, F...

The German Resistance movement consisted of several disparate political and ideological strands, which represented different classes of German society. A few civilian resistance groups developed, but the Army was the only organization with the capacity to overthrow the government, and from within it a small number of officers came to present the most serious threat posed to the Nazi regime, the July 20th Plot. . . . continued

Widerstandskämpfer ("Resistance fighters")

Individuals involved in the German Resistance against Nazism risked or lost their lives in a number of ways. They tried to overthrow the National Socialist regime, they denounced its war criminals, tried to prevent World War II and sabotaged German attacks on other countries. Some tried to protect those who were being harmed and persecuted by the Nazis, others merely refused to contribute to the Nazi war effort.

Resistance Movements

Weiße Rose / White Rose

White Rose die Weiße Rose was a non-violent, intellectual resistance group in Nazi Germany, consisting of students from the University of Munich and their philosophy professor. Today, the members of the White Rose are honoured in Germany amongst its greatest heroes, since they opposed the Third Reich in the face of almost certain death. . . . . . . continued.

Sophie (age 21) and Hans Scholl (24) and their friend Christoph Probst (24), members of the under­ground White Rose (Weiße Rose) resis­tance circle, were charged with sedition for writing, printing, and distri­buting anti-Nazi leaflets and “tried” by “Hitler’s Hanging Judge,” the noto­rious Nazi jurist Roland Freisler. (A year earlier Freisler had attended the Wann­see Confer­ence on the “final solution” to the Jewish problem.)

Originally, the Scholls had been enthu­siastic supporters of the German renewal promised by National Socialism and enrolled in the Hitler Youth organi­zation. But as their reali­za­tion of Nazi atro­cities directed against Jews on the Eastern Front grew, so did their moral outrage. Betrayed by a custo­dian in the act of distri­buting their flyers, the Scholls were found guilty in Freisler’s court and beheaded on same day at Munich’s Stadel­heim Prison.

After their deaths, their sixth and last leaflet was smuggled to the Allies, who retitled it “The Manifesto of the Students of Munich” and air-dropped millions of copies over Germany.

Members of the White Rose, especially the Scholls, became heroes in post­war Germany. One of Germany’s leading literary prizes is called the Geschwister Scholl prize (the “Scholl Siblings” prize). Many local streets and squares in Germany have been named after the brother and sister. Geschwister-Scholl-Schule is the most common school name in Germany.

In 2003 Germans were invited by a tele­vision broad­caster to choose the top ten most important Germans of all time. Voters under the age of 40 helped Hans and Sophie Scholl finish in fourth place, above Bach, Goethe, Guten­berg, Bismarck, and Einstein. If the votes of young viewers alone had been counted, the Scholls would have been ranked first. Several years earlier, readers of a German women’s magazine voted Sophie Scholl “the greatest woman of the twentieth century.” Source

The Rosenstraße Protest

The Women's Rosenstraße Protest Many people believe that it was impossible for the Germans to resist the Nazi dictatorship and the deportations of German Jews. However, a street protest in early 1943 indicates that resistance was possible, and indeed, successful. A nonviolent protest in Rosenstraße ("Rose street") in Berlin in February and March 1943, carried out by the non-Jewish ("Aryan") wives and relatives of Jewish men who had been arrested for deportation. The protests escalated until the men were released. It was a significant instance of opposition to the events of the Holocaust. . . . continued

Die Rote Kapelle / Red Orchestra

Red Orchestra Die Rote Kapelle was the name given by the Gestapo to an anti-Nazi resistance movement in Berlin, as well as to Soviet espionage rings operating in German-occupied Europe and Switzerland during World War II. . . . continued.

Edelweißpiraten / Edelweiss Pirates

Edelweißpiraten were a loosely-organized group of youth in Nazi Germany and consisted of young people, mainly between the ages of 14 and 17, who had evaded the Hitler Youth. The Nazi response was harsh. . . . continued

Europäische Union

The original European Union (German: Europäische Union) was an antifascist resistance group during Germany's Nazi era. The Berlin-based resistance group was founded in 1939. . . . continued

Bästlein Jacob Abshagen Group

The Bästlein-Jacob-Abshagen Group was a German resistance group that developed around the core members Bernhard Bästlein, Franz Jacob and Robert Abshagen. It fought the National Socialist (Nazi) regime from 1940 till the end of the war in 1945. It consisted of about 300 members in over 30 groups in Hamburg factories, making it the biggest regional Nazi resistance group in the history of Hamburg. . . . continued.

Saefkow Jacob Bästlein Organization

The Saefkow-Jacob-Bästlein Organization It was one of the largest groups in the German resistance against the National Socialist state. Its hub was in Berlin. Many of its members were arrested by the Gestapo in 1944 and later killed. They published the illegal magazine, Die Innere Front ("The Internal Front"). . . . continued

Kreisau Circle

Kreisau Circle was the name the Nazi Gestapo gave to a group of German dissidents centered on the estate of Helmuth James Graf von Moltke at Kreisau, Silesia (now Krzyżowa, Poland). It is regarded as one of the main centers of German opposition to the Nazi regime. The difficulty for all such dissidents was how to reconcile patriotic loyalty to Germany with opposition to the Nazis, once the Nazis had subverted the state to such an extent that the two were almost inextricable. . . . continued

Solf-Kreis / Solf Circle

Solf Circle Solf-Kreis was an informal gathering of German intellectuals involved in the resistance against Nazi Germany. Most members were arrested and executed after attending a tea party in Berlin September 10, 1943 at the residence of Elisabeth von Thadden. The group's downfall also ultimately led to the demise of the Abwehr in February 1944. . . . continued

Robert Uhrig Group

Robert Uhrig was a German communist and resistance fighter against National Socialism. He was arrested by the Gestapo in 1934 and sentenced to hard labor at the Zuchthaus in Luckau. After his release in summer 1936, he went underground, working in the leadership of the Berlin KPD. Starting in 1938, he led a network of resistance groups in over 20 factories in Berlin, which became part of one of the largest anti-fascist resistance organizations in Berlin. . . . continued

Eherenfeld Group

Ehrenfeld Group, aka the Steinbrück Group was an anti-Nazi resistance group, active in the summer and autumn of 1944. . . . continued

Herbert Baum Group

Herbert Baum was a Jewish member of the German resistance against National Socialism together with his wife Marianne Baum (Kohn). On 18 May 1942, the group organised an arson attack on an anticommunist and anti-Semitic propaganda exhibition prepared by Joseph Goebbels at the Berliner Lustgarten.

Many of Baum Group's members were all executed in Berlin-Plötzensee on March 4, 1943.: Heinz Rotholz (1922–1943), Heinz Birnbaum (1920–1943), Hella Hirsch (1921–1943), Alice Hirsch (1923 - 1942), Hanni Meyer (1921–1943), Marianne Joachim (1922–1943), Lothar Salinger (1920–1943), Helmut Neumann (1922–1943), Hildegard Löwy and Siegbert Rotholz (1922–1943). . . . continued

Vierergruppe

Vierergruppen in Hamburg, Munich and Vienna] was a small German resistance group that fought the National Socialists. There were three "groups of four" working simultaneously and independently of each other in Hamburg, Munich and Vienna. They used leaflets and wall slogans to agitate against the war, against the regime of Adolf Hitler and the Nazis. . . . continued

Bekennende Kirche / Confessing Church

Confessing Church, Bekennende Kirche was a Protestant church in Nazi Germany that arose in opposition to government-sponsored efforts to nazify the German Protestant church. A limited number of Protestants, such as Karl Barth, Dietrich Bonhoeffer and Wilhelm Busch, objected to the Nazis on moral and theological principles: they could not reconcile the Nazi state's claim to total control over the person with the ultimate sovereignty that, in Christian orthodoxy, must belong only to God.

Under the leadership of Martin Niemöller, the Pastors' Emergency League (Pfarrernotbund) was formed, presumably for the purpose of assisting clergy of Jewish descent, but the League soon evolved into a locus of dissent against Nazi interference in church affairs. . . . continued

-------------------------------

The July 20th Plot / Operation Valkyrie

The "July Plot" to Assassinate Hitler (July 20, 1944) was a coup d'état which involved a failed attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler. At least 7,000 people were arrested by the Gestapo. According to records of the Fuehrer Conferences on Naval Affairs, 4,980 people were executed.

The most prominent conspirators were ordered to be "hanged like cattle" by Hitler. At the Plötzensee prison, those people were hung on symbolic meathooks with rope. Among those executed were two field marshals, 19 generals, 26 colonels, two ambassadors, seven diplomats, one minister, three secretaries of state, as well as the head of the Reich Police.

At the end of 1943 the Schutz Staffeinel (SS) and the Gestapo managed to arrest several Germans involved in plotting to overthrow Adolf Hitler. This included Dietrich Bonhoeffer, Klaus Bonhoeffer, Josef Mueller and Hans Dohnanyi. Others under suspicion like Wilhelm Canaris and Hans Oster were dismissed from office in January, 1944.

Major Claus von Stauffenberg now emerged as the leader of the group opposed to Nazi rule. In 1942, he decided to kill Adolf Hitler. He was joined by Wilhelm Canaris,Carl Goerdeler, Julius Leber, Ulrich Hassell, Hans Oster, Peter von Wartenburg, Henning von Tresckow, Friedrich Olbricht, Werner von Haeften, Fabian Schlabrendorft, Ludwig Beck and Erwin von Witzleben.

The plot was developed as a modification of Operation Valkyrie (Unternehmen Walküre), which was approved by Hitler for use if Allied bombing of German cities or an uprising of forced laborers from occupied countries working in German factories resulted in a breakdown in law and order.

Members of the Reserve Army, including members of the Kreisau Circle, modified the plan and decided to assassinate Adolf Hitler, Hermann Goering and Heinrich Himmler. Afterward, they planned for troops in Berlin to seize key government buildings, telephone and signal centers and radio stations. Hitler's death was required to free German soldiers from their oath of loyalty to him. Operation Valkyrie was meant to give the plotters control over the government so they could make peace with the Allies and end the war.

At least six attempts were aborted before Claus von Stauffenberg decided on trying again during a conference attended by Hitler on July 20, 1944. It was decided to drop plans to kill Goering and Himmler at the same time. Stauffenberg, who had never met Hitler before, carried the bomb in a briefcase and placed it on the floor while he left to make a phone-call. The bomb exploded killing four men in the hut. Hitler's right arm was badly injured but he survived the bomb blast.

The plan was for Ludwig Beck, Erwin von Witzleben and Friedrich Fromm to take control of the German Army. The coup failed in part because they delayed implementing the plan until official confirmation of Hitler's death could be received. When they learned that Hitler had survived, Valkyrie was not put in effect.

Over the next few months most of the group, including Wilhelm Canaris, Carl Goerdeler, Julius Leber, Ulrich Hassell, Hans Oster, Peter von Wartenburg, Henning von Tresckow, Ludwig Beck, Erwin von Witzleben and Friedrich Fromm, were either executed or committed suicide. Ninety of the supposed conspirators were executied between August 1944 and April 1945 at the Plotzensee Prison.

In March 2013, the last surviving member of the plot - Ewald-Heinrich von Kleist-Schmenzin - died in Munich.

-------------------------------

List of Germans Who Resisted Nazism

This list contains the names of individuals involved in the German Resistance against Nazism, but is not a complete list. Most of those on the list worked with others; their affiliated resistance group or groups are listed. Where no group is mentioned, the individual acted alone. Wikipedia List w/ live links to bios

A

  • Anton Ackermann (real name: Eugen Hanisch, 25 December 1905 Thalheim, Saxony - 4 May 1973 East Berlin) was an East German
  • • Wilhelm Abegg (1876–1951) Deutsche Demokratische Partei (DDP), National Committee for a Free Germany in Switzerland
  • Wolfgang Abendroth (1906–1985) KPO, Neu Beginnen, ELAS
  • • Friedrich Ablass (1894–1949) DDP
  • Robert Abshagen (1911–1944), KPD
  • • Alexander Abusch (1902–1982), KPD
  • • Anton Ackermann (1905–1973), KPD
  • • Frieda Adam (1918-2013)
  • • Adolf Althoff (1913-1998)
  • • Maria Althoff
  • • Alfred Althus (1888–1943), SPD, supporter of Polish resistance group organized by Ignaz Hulka
  • • Günter Ammon (1918–1995), White Rose
  • • Etkar André (1894–1936), KPD [1]
  • • Victor Andersen (1908–1995), SPD
  • • Willy Anker (1885–1960), SPD
  • • Rosa Aschenbrenner (1885–1967), Rote Hilfe Deutschlands
  • • Judith Auer (1905–1944), Saefkow-Jacob-Bästlein Organization
  • • Walter Auerbach (1905–1975) SPD, International Transport Workers' Federation
  • • Hermann Axen (1916–1992), KPD

B


  • • Bruno Bachler, Edelweißpiraten
  • • Kurt Bachmann (1909–1997), KPD
  • • Lagi Gräfin von Ballestrem (1909–1955), Solf Circle
  • • Herbert Balzer (1897–1945), KPD
  • • Karl Baier (1887–1973), Rote Hilfe
  • • Erich Baron (1881–1931), KPD
  • • Karl Barth (1886–1968), theologian, Confessing Church
  • • Heinz Bartsch (1906–1944), KPD
  • • Bernhard Bästlein (1894–1944), Bästlein-Jacob-Abshagen Group and Saefkow-Jacob-Bästlein Organization
  • • Albert Battel (1891-1952), Wehrmacht
  • Herbert Baum (1912–1942), KJVD, Herbert Baum Group
  • Marianne Baum (1912–1942), Herbert Baum Group
  • • Erwin Beck (1911–1988), SPD-RK
  • • Artur Becker (1905–1938), KPD
  • Cato Bontjes van Beek Die Rote Kapelle
  • • Arno Behrisch (1913–1989), Socialist Workers' Party of Germany, ITF
  • • Alfons Beil (1896–1997), Catholic church
  • • Hans Beimler (Communist) (1895–1936), KPD
  • • Walter Beling (1899–1988), Résistance
  • • Georg Benjamin (1895–1942), KPD
  • • Helene Berg (1906-2006)
  • • Gunther Dietrich Wilhelm Baron von Berg (1898-1981) Assisted many Jews to escape Germany. <Jornal Novo Hamburgo 8th August 1981>
  • • Hans Berger (1916–1943), IKD
  • • Hilde Berger (b. 1914), IKD, secretary of Oskar Schindler
  • • Josef Bergmann (1913–2005) KPO
  • • Georg Berthelé (1877–1949), Rote Hilfe
  • • Gustav Bermel (1927–1944), Ehrenfeld Group
  • • Wilhelm Beuttel (1901–1945), Rote Hilfe
  • • Karl Biedermann (resistance fighter) (1890–1945), Wehrmacht, Operation Radetzky
  • • Dagobert Biermann (1904–1943), KPD [1]
  • • Charlotte Bischoff (1901–1994), KPD, Red Orchestra
  • • Peter Blachstein (1911–1977), Socialist Workers' Party of Germany, SJVD, Neuer Weg Group
  • • Conrad Blenkle (1901–1943), KPD
  • • Willi Bleicher (1907–1981), KPD, unionist
  • • Werner Blumenberg (1900–1965), Socialist Front
  • • Franz Bobzien (1906–1941), Socialist Workers' Party of Germany, SJVD [1]
  • • Herbert Bochow (1906–1942), KPD
  • • Hermann Böse (1870–1943), Communist resistance
  • • Walter Bohne (1903–1944), Bästlein-Jacob-Abshagen Group
  • • Wilhelm Boller (1904–1943), Rote Hilfe
  • • Eugen Bolz (1881–1945), Zentrumspartei
  • Dietrich Bonhoeffer (1906–1945), Confessing Church
  • Klaus Bonhoeffer (1901–1945), Confessing Church
  • • Jakob Boulanger (1897–1968), KPD
  • Willy Brandt (1913–1992), Socialist Workers' Party of Germany
  • • Max Braun (1892–1945) SPD, Saarkämpferbund
  • • Otto Brass (1875–1950), Deutsche Volksfront
  • • Willi Bredel (1901–1964), KPD
  • • Rudolf Breitscheid (1874–1944), SPD
  • • Otto Brenner (1911–1972), Socialist Workers' Party of Germany
  • • Hein Brettschneider (d. 1944), KPD [1]
  • • Hermann Brill (1895–1959), Neu Beginnen, Deutsche Volksfront, Buchenwald Popular Front Committee
  • • Karl Bröger (1886–1944), SPD
  • • Paul Bromme (1906–1975), Sopade, RSD
  • • Arnolt Bronnen (1895–1959), Willy Fred
  • • Elisabeth Bruhn (1893–1944), KPD, Bästlein-Jacob-Abshagen Group [1]
  • • Gustav Bruhn (1889–1944), KPD, Bästlein-Jacob-Abshagen Group [1]
  • • Eberhard Brünen (1906–1980), Socialist Workers' Party of Germany
  • • Karl Brunner (resistance fighter) (1889–1964), Heimwehr
  • • Adolf Buchholz „Appel“ (1912–1978), KPD
  • • Franz Xaver Büchs (1889–1940), KPO
  • • Klaus Bücking (1908–1980), Rote Hilfe
  • • Willi Budich (1890–1938), Rote Hilfe
  • • Carl Burmester (KPD) (1901–1934) KPD
  • • Carl Burmester (SPD) (b. 1905) SPD
  • • Ernst Busch (actor) (1900–1980), actor, KPD
  • • Wilhelm Busch (pastor) (1897–1966), Confessing Church

C

  • • Walter Caldonazzi (1916–1945), Maier Messner Caldonazzi
  • • Wilhelm Canaris (1887–1945),
  • • Emil Carlebach (1914–2001), KPD
  • • Walter Caro (1909–1988), KPD
  • • Rudolf Claus (1893–1935), Rote Hilfe
  • • Hermann Cornelius (1898–1945), Bästlein-Jacob-Abshagen Group
  • • Hans Christoffers (d. 1942), KPD [1]
  • • Heinrich Czerkus (1894–1945), KPD
  • • Franz Czeminski (1876–1945), SPD

D

  • • Hermann Danz (1906–1945), Saefkow-Jacob-Bästlein Organization
  • • Jakob Dautzenberg (1897–1979), KPD
  • • Alfred Delp (1907–1945), Catholic church
  • • Ria Deeg (1907–2000), Rote Hilfe
  • Justus-Delbrück July 20th Plot
  • • Anton Dey (1892–1973), SPD
  • • Max Diamant (1908–1992), Socialist Workers' Party of Germany
  • • Willi Dickhut (1904–1992), KPD
  • • Kurt Karl Doberer (1904–1993), SPD
  • Hans von Dohnanyi (1902–1945), Confessing Church
  • • Leo Drabent (1899–1944), Bästlein-Jacob-Abshagen Group
  • • Fritz Dressel (1896–1933), KPD
  • • Joseph E. Drexel (1896–1976), Ernst Niekisch resistance movement
  • • Hugo Dworznik (1906–1977) KPD, group with Ernst Schneller in Sachsenhausen
  • • Klara Dworznik (1910–1991), KPD, Bästlein-Jacob-Abshagen Group

E

  • • Fritz Eberhard (1896–1982), ISK
  • • Erwin Eckert (1893–1972), BRSD, KPD
  • • Ernst Eckstein (1897–1933), Socialist Workers' Party of Germany
  • • Hans Ehrenberg (1883–1958), Lutheran theologian, a founder of the Confessing Church
  • • Willi Eichler (1896–1971), ISK
  • • Elvira Eisenschneider (1924–1944), NKFD
  • • Paul Eisenschneider (1901–1944), KPD
  • • Georg Elser (1903–1945), acted alone
  • • Arthur Emmerlich (1907–1942), KPD
  • • August Enderle (1887–1959), Socialist Workers' Party of Germany
  • • Ernst Enge (1893–1944), KPD
  • • Otto Engert (1895–1945), KPD
  • • Leopold Engleitner (1905–2013), Jehovah's Witness
  • • Fritz Erler (1913–1967), Neu Beginnen
  • • Anna Essinger (1897–1960), Landschulheim Herrlingen[4]
  • • Erika Etter (d. 1945), KJVD [1]

F

  • • Walter Fabian (1902–1995) Socialist Workers' Party of Germany
  • • Marianne Feldhammer (1909–1996), Willy Fred
  • • Werner Fischer (antifascist) (1913–1945) KPD
  • • Hermann Fischer (1912–1984), Rote Hilfe and Brümmer Kleine resistance group
  • • Oskar Fischer (1892–1955) European Union (resistance group)
  • • Herbert Frahm see Willy Brandt
  • • Egon Franke (politician) (1913–1995), SPD
  • • David Frankfurter (1909–1982), acted alone
  • • Hermann Frieb (1890–1943), Neu Beginnen
  • • Georg Fritze (1874–1939), BRSD
  • • August Froehlich (1891–1942), Catholic church
  • • Paul Frölich (1884–1953), Socialist Workers' Party of Germany
  • • Emil Fuchs (1874–1971), BRSD
  • • Albert Funk (1894–1933), KPD
  • • Max Fürst (1905–1978), author
  • • Franz Josef Furtwängler (1894–1965), SPD

G

  • • Johann Gahr (1880–1939), acted alone[5]
  • • Albrecht Gaiswinkler (1905–1979), Special Operations Executive spy
  • • Clemens August Graf von Galen (1878–1946), Catholic church
  • • Willi Gall (1908–1941), KPD
  • • Jakob Gapp (1897–1943), Catholic church
  • • Martin Gauger (1905–1941), Confessing Church, Kreisau Circle
  • • Lisa Gavric (1907–1974), Résistance
  • • Herta Geffke (1893–1973), Rote Hilfe
  • • Ludwig Gehm (1905–2002), ISK, ELAS
  • • Johann Gerdes (1896–1933), KPD
  • • Kurt Gerstein (1905–1945), Waffen-SS, Gerstein Report author
  • • Eugen Gerstenmaier (1906–1986), Confessing Church
  • • Johann Geusendam (1866–1945), Rote Hilfe
  • • Etty Gingold (1916–2001), KPD
  • • Peter Gingold (1916–2006), KPD
  • • Karl Gitzoller (1905–2002), Willy-Fred
  • • Helene Glatzer (1902–1935), KPD
  • • Gerhard Gleißberg (1905–1973), SPD
  • • Paul Gmeiner (1892–1944), KPD
  • • Erich Gniffke (1895–1964) SPD
  • • Joseph Götz (1895–1933), KPD
  • • Rudi Goguel (1908–1976), KPD
  • • Kurt Julius Goldstein (1914–2007) KPD
  • • Albert Göring (1895–1966) businessman and younger brother of Nazi-leader Hermann
  • • Bernhard Göring (1897–1949), AfA-Bund, Neu Beginnen, Covenant of Religious Socialists of Germany
  • • Herta Gotthelf (1902–1963), SPD
  • • Hugo Gräf (1892–1958), Rote Hilfe
  • • Willi Graf (1918–1943), White Rose
  • • Josef Grafl (1921–2008), Special Operations Executive spy
  • • Kurt Gregor (1907–1990), Rote Hilfe
  • • Karl Grönsfelder (1882–1964), KPD
  • • Maria Grollmuß (1896–1944), SPD
  • • Anneliese Groscurth (1910–1996), European Union (resistance group)
  • • Georg Groscurth (1904–1944), European Union (resistance group)
  • • Rudolf Grosse (1905–1942), KPD
  • • Otto Grotewohl (1894–1964), SPD
  • • Karl Gruber (1909–1995), "Rosengarten"/O5
  • • Kurt Gruber (Nazi resister) (1913–1945), KPD, London "Free Germans" of the OSS (precursor to the CIA)
  • • Hanno Günther (1921–1942), Rote Pfadfinder
  • • Gustav Gundelach (1888–1962), KPD
  • • Gustav Gundelach (1888–1962), KPD
  • • Rudolf Gyptner (1925–1944), KPD

H

  • • Auguste Haase (1899–1945), Saefkow-Jacob-Bästlein Organization
  • • Georg Häfner (1900–1942), Catholic church
  • • Kurt Hälker (1922-1910), Résistance
  • • Otto Halle (1903–1987), KPD
  • • Elise Hampel (1903–1943), acted alone with husband Otto
  • • Otto Hampel, (1897–1943), acted alone with wife Elise
  • Arvid Harnack (1901-1942), Rote Kapelle
  • • Werner Hansen (1905–1972), ISK
  • • Rudolf Harlaß (1892–1944), KPD
  • • Elli Hatschek (1901–1944) European Union (resistance group)
  • • Paul Hatschek (1888–1944) European Union (resistance group)
  • • Theodor Haubach (1896–1945), SPD [1]
  • • Hans Hauschulz (1912–1951), Rote Hilfe
  • • Erich Hausen (1900–1973), KPO
  • • Ernst Hegewisch (1881–1952), Rote Hilfe
  • • Georg D. Heidingsfelder (1899–1967), Catholic church
  • • Rudolf-Ernst Heiland (1910–1965), IKD
  • • Ernst Heilmann (1881–1940), SPD
  • • Karl Heinrich (SPD) (1890–1946), SPD, Reichsbanner
  • • Willi Heinze (1910–1944), KPD, Robert Uhrig Group
  • • Bernhard Heinzmann (1903–1942), Catholic church
  • • Walter Held (1910–1942), IKD
  • • Georg Henke (1908–1986), KPD
  • • Albert Hensel (1895–1942), KPD
  • • Liselotte Herrmann (1906–1938), KPD
  • • Theo Hespers (1903–1943)
  • • Karl Hetz (b. 1906), National Committee for a Free Germany
  • • Heinz Heydrich (1905-1944), younger brother of Reinhard Heydrich ("The Butcher of Prague")
  • • Friedrich Hielscher (1902–1990), Konservative Revolution
  • • Rainer Hildebrandt (1914–2004), Haushofer-Kreis
  • • Else Himmelheber (1905–1944), resistance group in Schlotterbeck aus Luginsland
  • • Oskar Hippe (1900–1990), Trotzkyist
  • • Else Hirsch (1889-1942 or 1943), schoolteacher, organized 10 children's transports out of Germany
  • • Michael Hirschberg (1889–1937), SPD
  • • Walter Hochmuth (1904–1979), KPD
  • • Clemens Högg (1880–1945), SPD
  • • Josef Höhn (1902–1945), Saefkow-Jacob-Bästlein Organization
  • • Arthur Hoffmann (1900–1945), KPD, National Committee for a Free Germany
  • • Erich Honecker (1912–1994), KPD
  • • Hans Hornberger (d. 1944), KPD [1]
  • • Kurt Huber (1893–1943), White Rose
  • • Rupert Huber (1896–1945), Antinazistische Deutsche Volksfront
  • • Helmuth Hübener (1925–1942), Hamburg Vierergruppe (German Resistance)
  • • Walter Huder (1921–2002)
  • • Alois Hundhammer (1900–1974), at the time, the youngest member of the Bavarian Landtag
  • • Peter Hüppeler (1913–1944), Ehrenfeld Group

I

  • • Karl Ibach (1915–1990), KPD
  • • Friedrich Illies (1896–1962), Stahlhelm, leader of a conservative resistance group in Grafschaft Bentheim
  • • Hans Ils (1906–1988), Socialist Workers' Party of Germany
  • • Max Ingberg (1904–1983), SPD, party chairman of Sopade, Belgium

J

  • • Franz Jacob (1906–1944), KPD, Bästlein-Jacob-Abshagen Group, Saefkow-Jacob-Bästlein Organization
  • • Katharina Jacob (1907–1989), KPD, Bästlein-Jacob-Abshagen Group
  • • Artur Jacobs (30 March 1880 in Elberfeld (today part of Wuppertal) - 23. January 1968 in Essen), Leader of the Bund, a communitarian group of Jews and Gentiles in Germany.
  • • Matthias Jacobs (1885–1935), elected legislator from Prussia SPD
  • • Rudolf Jacobs (1914–1944), (in Italy, naval officer, partisan in Italy with "Ugo Muccini" Garibaldi brigade)
  • • Hildegard Jadamowitz (1916–1942), KPD, Herbert Baum Group
  • • Franz Jägerstätter (1907–1943), acted alone, Catholic church
  • • Frieda (Friedel) and Rudolf Jahn (d. 1951), Covenant of Religious Socialists of Germany
  • • Hans Jahn (1885–1960), International Transport Workers' Federation
  • • Julius von Jan (1897–1964), Confessing Church
  • • Hans Jendretzky (1897–1992), KPD
  • • Marianne Joachim (1921–1943), Herbert Baum Group
  • • Anton Joos (1900–1999), KPD
  • • Alfred Jung (1908–1944), KPD
  • • Franz Jung (1888–1963), KAPD and Rote Kämpfer
  • • Karl Jungbluth (1903–1945), KPD
  • • Georg Jungclas (1902–1975), IKD

K

  • • Otto Kahn-Freund (1900–1979) Jurist
  • • Jakob Kaiser (1888–1961) Zentrumspartei
  • • Hellmut Kalbitzer (1913–2006), ISK
  • • Heinz Kapelle (1913–1941), KPD
  • • Josef Kappius (1907–1967), ISK and Independent Socialist Union
  • • Friedrich Kellner (1885–1970), SPD
  • • Kilian Kirchhoff (1892–1944), Catholic church
  • • Johanna Kirchner (1884–1944), SPD, Rote Hilfe
  • • Ernst Kirchweger (1898–1965), KPÖ
  • • Heinz Kiwitz (1910–1938), ASSO
  • • Erich Klausener (1885–1934), Zentrumspartei, Catholic church
  • • Reinhold Kleinlein (1883–1944), KPD
  • • Walter Klingenbeck (1924–1943), Munich Vierergruppe (German Resistance)
  • • Heinrich Kloppers (1891–1944), Reichsbanner Schwarz-Rot-Gold and Protestant teenagers' group
  • • Rudolf Klug (d. 1944), KPD [1]
  • • Wilhelm Knöchel (1899–1944), KPD
  • • Waldemar von Knoeringen (1906–1971), SPD, Neu Beginnen
  • • Ferdinand Kobitzki (1893–1944), KPD
  • • Gertrud Koch (b. 1924), Edelweißpiraten
  • • Hans Koch (1893–1945), Jurist, Confessing Church
  • • Ludwig Koch (Nazi resister) (1909–2002), ISK
  • • Bernard Koenen (1889–1964), Rote Hilfe and National Committee for a Free Germany
  • • Otto Kohlhofer (1915–1988), Rote Hilfe
  • • Olga Körner (1887–1969), KPD
  • • Fritz Kolbe (1900–1971), acted alone
  • • Otto Korfes (1889–1964), National Committee for a Free Germany
  • • Werner Kowalski (1901–1943), KPD
  • • Walter Kramer (1892–1941), KPD
  • • Heinrich Kratina (1906–1944), Ehrenfeld Group
  • • Wilhelm Kratz (1902–1944), Ehrenfeld Group
  • • Gerhard Krause (Pastor) (1887–1950)
  • • Johann Krausen (1887–1944), Ehrenfeld Group
  • • Willi Kreikemeyer (1894–1950), KPD
  • • Felix Kreissler (1917–2004), Résistance
  • • Lothar Kreyssig (1898–1986), Jurist (only judge to intervene in Aktion T4 euthanasia operation), Confessing Church
  • • Otto Kropp (1907–1937), KPD
  • • Maria Krüger (1907–1987), Rote Hilfe
  • • Alfred Kubel (1909–1999), ISK
  • • Adam Kuckhoff (1887–1943), Red Orchestra
  • • Greta Kuckhoff (1902–1981), Red Orchestra
  • • Heinz Kühn (1912–1992), SPD
  • • Otto Kühne (1893–1955), KPD und Résistance
  • • Karl Kunger (1901–1943), KPD
  • • Franz Künstler (1888–1942), SPD
  • • Erich Kürschner (1889–1966), Neu Beginnen, Covenant of Religious Socialists of Germany
  • • Albert Kuntz (1896–1945), KPD
  • • Erich Kurz (1895–1944), KPD
  • • Erich Kuttner (1887–1942), RSD

L

  • • Eduard Bruno Lindner (1884–1941) Died Dachau. Anti-Hitler underground press, arrested in 1934. Documents available.[citation needed]
  • • Max Lackmann (1910–2000), Evangelical Church in Germany
  • • Karl Ladé (1909–1944) KPD
  • • Erwin von Lahousen-Vivremont (1897–1955) military resistance
  • • Josef Landgraf (b. 1924), Vienna Vierergruppe (German Resistance)
  • • Josef Lang (1902–1973), Socialist Workers' Party of Germany
  • • Fritz Lange (1898–1981), Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany, KPD, Rotfrontkämpferbund
  • • Käthe Latzke (d. 1945), KPD [1]
  • • Julius Leber (1891–1945), SPD
  • • Heinz Leidersdorf (1906–1943), IKD
  • • Hans Leipert (d. 1945), White Rose [1]
  • • Hans Lehnert (1899–1942), ISK
  • • Josef Lenzel (1890–1942), Catholic church
  • • Theodor Lessing (1872–1933), acted alone
  • • Bruno Max Leuschner (1910–1965), KPD
  • • Wilhelm Leuschner (1890–1944), SPD
  • • Bernhard Lichtenberg (1875–1943), Catholic church
  • • Simone Arnold Liebster (1930), Jehovah's Witness
  • • Franz-Maria Liedig (1900–1967)
  • • Max Liedtke (1894-1955) Wehrmacht
  • • Hertha Lindner (1920–1943), KJVD
  • • Ludwig Linsert (1907–1981), ISK
  • • Eva Lippold (1909–1994), Rote Hilfe and Saefkow-Jacob-Bästlein Organization
  • • Hans Litten (1903–1938)
  • • Paul Löbe (1875–1967), SPD
  • • Ferdinand Löwenberg (1924–2004)
  • • Martin Löwenberg (1925)
  • • Ernst Loewenheim (1898–1984), Neu Beginnen
  • • Walter Loewenheim (1896–1977), Neu Beginnen
  • • Roland Lorent (1920–1944), Ehrenfeld Group
  • • Ludwig Philipp Lude (1895–1961), SPD
  • • Erna Lugebiel (1898–1984)
  • • Rudolf Lunau (1906–1943 missing), KPD

M

  • • Johann Maier (1906–1945) preacher, Regensburger Dom
  • • Heinrich Maier (1908–1945), theologian Maier Messner Caldonazzi
  • • Adolf Maislinger (1903–1985), KPD
  • • Maria von Maltzan (1909–1997), Solf Circle
  • • Maria Restituta (née Helene Kafka) (1894–1943) Franciscan
  • • Hilde Meisel (Hilda Monte) (1914–1945), ISK
  • • Ernst Melis (1909–2007), KPD, Résistance
  • • August Merges (1870–1945), Kommunistische Räte-Union
  • • Franz Josef Messner (1896–1945), Maier Messner Caldonazzi
  • • Max Josef Metzger (1887–1944), Catholic church
  • • Herbert Michaelis (1898–1939), lawyer, KPD, Michaelis Group
  • • Carlo Mierendorff (1897–1943), SPD
  • • Josef Miller (1883–1964), KPD, Rote Hilfe
  • • Josef Moll (1903–1944), Ehrenfeld Group
  • Helmuth James Graf von Moltke (1907–1945), founding member, Kreisau Circle
  • • Mentona Moser (1874–1971), Rote Hilfe
  • • Erich Mühsam (1878–1934)
  • • Franz Josef Müller (b. 1924), Ulm abitur group of the White Rose
  • • Johann Müller (resistance fighter) (1928–1944), Ehrenfeld Group
  • • Josef Müller (CSU politician) (1898–1979), Bavarian People's Party, Catholic resistance
  • • Oskar Müller (1896–1970), KPD
  • • Herbert Mumm von Schwarzenstein (1898–1945), Legation councilor a.G.
  • • Emil Meier (1911-2014)

N

  • • Harry Naujoks (1901–1983), KPD
  • • Theodor Neubauer (1890–1945), KPD
  • • Gertrud Neuhof (1901–1987), Saefkow-Jacob-Bästlein Organization
  • • Karl Neuhof (1891–1943), Rote Hilfe
  • • Johanna Niederhellmann, SPD
  • • Ernst Niekisch (1889–1967), publisher of Widerstand, Magazine for national revolutionary Politics
  • • Katja Niederkirchner (1909–1944), KPD
  • • Martin Niemöller (1892–1984), Confessing Church
  • • Erik Nölting (1892–1953), SPD
  • • Karl Nord (1912–2003) Socialist Workers' Party of Germany

O

  • • Aloys Odenthal (1912–2003)
  • • Max Opitz (1890–1982), KPD
  • • Rudi Opitz (1908–1939), KPD
  • • Friedrich Carl Freiherr von Oppenheim (1900–1978), acted alone
  • • Carl von Ossietzky (1889–1938)
  • • Hans Oster (1887–1945)

P

  • • Wilhelm Peetz (1892–1935)
  • • Resi Pesendorfer (1902–1989) Willy Fred
  • • Toni Pfülf (1877–1933)
  • • Emil Phillip (1887–1965), Confessing Church
  • • Kurt Piehl (1928–2001), Edelweißpiraten
  • • Hans Pink (1906–1974), Rote Hilfe
  • • Menachem Pinkhof (1920–1969), Gruppe Westerweel
  • • Gertrud Piter (1899–1933), KPD
  • • Hartmut Plaas (d. 1944), SS-Obersturmbannführer with contact with Wilhelm Canaris
  • • Karl Plagge (1897–1957), Wehrmacht officer, acted alone
  • • Philipp Pless (1906–1973), Communist Party Opposition
  • • Sepp Plieseis (1913–1966), KPÖ, Willy Fred
  • • Felix Plewa (d, 1943), KPD [1]
  • • Harald Poelchau (1903–1972), Onkel Emil Group, Confessing Church, BRSD
  • • Johannes Popitz (1884–1945),
  • • Magnus Poser (1907–1945), KPD
  • • Folkert Potrykus (1900–1971), KPD
  • • Bernard Povel (called Ben Povel) (1897–1952), Catholic textile manufacturer, Zentrumspartei
  • • Olga Benario-Prestes (1908–1942), KPD
  • • Konrad von Preysing (1880–1950), Catholic church
  • Christoph Probst (1919–1943), White Rose
  • • Fritz Pröll (1915–1944), Rote Hilfe
  • • Elisabeth Pungs (1896–1945), Rote Hilfe

R

  • • Josef Raab (1899–1971), KPD
  • • Arthur and Charlotte Rackwitz, Covenant of Religious Socialists of Germany
  • • Siegfried Rädel (1893–1943), KPD
  • • Adolf Reichwein 1898–1944, SPD
  • • Karl Reinthaler (1913–2000), SPÖ
  • • Franz Reinisch (1903–1942), Catholic church
  • • Oskar Reincke (1907–1944), Bästlein-Jacob-Abshagen Group
  • • Paul Rentsch (1898–1944), European Union (resistance group)
  • • Franz Rheinberger (1927–1944), Ehrenfeld Group
  • • Josef Rieck (1911–1970), Catholic church
  • • Fritz Riedel (1908–1944), Robert Uhrig Group
  • • Jakob Ritter (1886–1951), Socialist Workers' Party of Germany
  • • Kurt Ritter (1909–1944), Robert Uhrig Group
  • • Hans Robinsohn (1897–1981), DDP Robinsohn-Strassmann Group
  • • Fritz Rödel (1888–1945), KPD
  • • Theodor Roller (1915–2008), CVJM
  • • Beppo Römer (1892–1944), KPD
  • • Augustin Rösch (1893–1961), Kreisau Circle, Catholic church
  • • Liesbeth Rose (d. 1945), KJVD
  • • Joseph C. Rossaint (1902–1991), Catholic church
  • • Karl Rubner (1901–1988), SPD
  • • Anton Ruh (1912–1964), KPD
  • • Hermann Runge (1902–1975), SPD

S

  • • Anton Saefkow (1903–1944), Saefkow-Jacob-Bästlein Organization
  • • Herbert Sandberg (1908–1991), KPD, Association of Revolutionary Visual Artists
  • • Willi Sänger (1894–1944), KPD
  • • Marie-Louise Sarre (ca. 1904–1997), Solf Circle
  • • Karl Schapper (1879–1941), Catholic
  • • Werner Scharff (1912–1945), Gemeinschaft für Frieden und Aufbau
  • • John Schehr (1896–1934), KPD
  • • Johann Schellheimer (1899–1945), KPD
  • • Heinrich Scheuken (1902–1944), acted alone[6]
  • • Jack Schiefer (1898–1980), SPD
  • • Kurt Schill (1911–1944), KPD
  • • Franz Schleiter (1899–1988), Neu Beginnen
  • • Liselotte Schleiter (1897–1990), Neu Beginnen
  • • Emilie Schindler (1907–2001), acted alone
  • • Oskar Schindler (1908–1974), acted alone
  • • Bartholomäus (Barthel) Schink (1927–1944), Ehrenfeld Group
  • • Otto Josef Schlein (1895–1944), KPD
  • • Friedrich Schlotterbeck (1909–1979), KJD, KPD, Schlotterbeck Group
  • • Walter Schmedemann (1901–1976), SPD
  • • Anton Schmid (1900–1942), Wehrmacht
  • • Richard Schmid (1899–1986), counsel, Socialist Workers' Party of Germany (affiliated)
  • • Otto Schmirgal (1900–1944), KPD
  • • Elisabeth Schmitz (1893–1977), theologian, resistance fighter, Confessing Church
  • • Alexander Schmorell (1917–1943), White Rose
  • • Paul Schneider (1897–1939), pastor, Evangelical Church in Germany
  • • Ernst Schneller (1890–1944), KPD
  • • Erwin Schoettle (1899–1976), Sopade, Neu Beginnen
  • • Richarg Schönfeld (d. 1945) KPD
  • • Carlo Schönhaar (1924–42), Résistance
  • • Eugen Schönhaar (1898–1934), KPD
  • • Gustav Schönherr (1889–1933), KPD
  • Hans Scholl (1918–1943), White Rose
  • Sophie Scholl (1921–1943), White Rose
  • • Ernst Scholz (1913–1986), Rote Hilfe
  • • Roman Karl Scholz (1912–1944), Catholic church
  • • Fritz Schreiter (1892–1944), Communist Party Opposition
  • • Heinz Schröder (1910–1997), SPD
  • • Karl Schröder (1884–1950), Rote Kämpfer
  • • Jakob Schultheis (1891–1945), Speyer Kameradschaft
  • • Josef Schulz (1909?–1941), Wehrmacht (disputed)
  • • Fiete Schulze (1894–1935), KPD
  • • Fritz Schulze (1903–1942), KPD
  • • Eva Schulze-Knabe (1907–1976), KPD
  • • Elisabeth Schumacher (1904–1942) Red Orchestra
  • • Kurt Schumacher (sculptor) (1905–1942) Red Orchestra
  • • Georg Schumann (resistance fighter) (1886–1945), KPD
  • • Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky (1897–2000), KPÖ
  • • Adolf Schütz (1926–1944), Ehrenfeld Group
  • • Alexander Schwab (1887–1943), Rote Kämpfer
  • • Martin Schwantes (1904–1945), KPD, Saefkow-Jacob-Bästlein Organization
  • • Günther Schwarz (1928–1944), Ehrenfeld Group
  • • Rudolf Schwarz (resistance fighter) (1904–1934), KPD
  • • Werner Seelenbinder (1904–1944), KPD
  • • Willi Seng (1909–1944), KPD functionary
  • • Robert Siewert (1887–1973), KPO, Buchenwald Resistance
  • • Georg Singer (1898–1942), KPD
  • • Konrad Skrentny (1894–1955), KPD
  • • Hanna Solf (1884–1954), Solf Circle
  • • Richard Sorge (1895–1944), KPD spy for the Soviet Union
  • • Albert Speer (1905–1981), Minister of Armaments and War Production
  • • Ulrich Sporleder (1911–1944) Confessing Church
  • Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg The July 20th Plot to assassinate Hitler.
  • • Karl Stein (resistance fighter) (1902–1942), KPD
  • • Wilhelm Stein (d. 1944), KPD [1]
  • • Hans Steinbrück (1921–1944), Ehrenfeld Group
  • • Werner Steinbrink (1917–1942), Young Communist League of Germany, Herbert Baum Group
  • • Erich Steinfurth (1896–1934), Rote Hilfe
  • • Franz Stenzer (1900–1933), KPD
  • • Ernst Strassmann (1897–1958), DDP, Robinsohn-Strassmann Group
  • • Stefan Szende (1901–1985), Socialist Workers' Party of Germany
  • • Carl Szokoll (1915–2004), Wehrmacht, Operation Radetzky

T

  • • Elisabeth von Thadden (1890–1944), Solf Circle
  • • Bruno Tesch (antifascist) (1913–1933), KPD
  • • Ernst Thälmann (1886–1944), KPD
  • • Fritz Theilen, Ehrenfeld Group
  • • Matthias Theisen (1885–1933), KPD, SPD
  • • Paul Tillich (1886–1965), Christian Socialist, American Friends of German Freedom, Council for a Democratic Germany

U

  • • Max Urich (1890–1968), unionist resistance (DMV)
  • • Robert Uhrig (1903–1944), KPD

V

  • • Walter Veigel (1903–1985), member of Buchenwald Resistance, KPD
  • • Kurt Vieweg (1911–1976), KPD
  • • Franz Vogt (1899–1940), labour unionist, SPD, Reichsbanner Schwarz-Rot-Gold

W

  • • Maria Wachter (b. 1910), KPD
  • • Bebo Wager (1905–1943), SPD
  • • Karl Wagner (1891–1965), KPD
  • • Jacob Walcher (1887–1970), Socialist Workers' Party of Germany
  • • Rudolf Wascher (1904–1956), KPD
  • • Eduard Wald (1905–1978), Committee for Proletarian Unity
  • • Orli Wald (1914–1962), Young Communist League of Germany, "Angel of Auschwitz"
  • • Maria von Wedemeyer (1924–1977), Confessing Church
  • • Paul Wegmann (1889–1945), from SPD- and Socialist Workers' Party of Germany, member of existing resistance group in Zeitz
  • • Herbert Wehner (1906–1990), KPD
  • • Otto Weidt (1883–1947), anarchist resistance
  • • Franz Weiß (1892–1985), Catholic church
  • • Arthur Weisbrodt (1909–1944), Rote Hilfe
  • • Friedrich Weißler (1891–1937), Confessing Church
  • • Wilhelm Wester (1889–1960), Lutheran pastor
  • • Hans Westermann (1890–1935), Versöhnler, KPD
  • • Alexander Westermayer (1894–1944), European Union (resistance group)
  • • Max Westphal (1893–1942), SPD
  • • Ernst Wille (1894–1944), SPD
  • • Albert Willimsky (1890–1940), Catholic church
  • • Jürgen George Wittenstein, White Rose
  • • Josef Wirmer (1901–1944), Catholic church,
  • • Irmgard von Witzleben (1896–1944), artist, acted alone
  • • Hans Wölfel (1902–1944), Catholic church
  • • Edith Wolff (1904–1997), Zionist refugee helper in Berlin
  • • Lore Wolf (1900–1996), KPD, Rote Hilfe
  • • Rosi Wolfstein (1888–1987), Socialist Workers' Party of Germany

Z

  • • Gerhard Zadek (1919–2005), Hashomer Hatzair, Herbert Baum Group
  • • Hiltgunt Zassenhaus (1916–2004), wartime translator and interpreter[7]
  • • Johannes Zieger (1910–1981), KPD
  • • Karl Zimmet [8] (1895–1969) Antinazistische Deutsche Volksfront
  • • Karl Zink (1910–1940), KPD
  • • Johannes Zoschke (1910–1944), KPD, Robert Uhrig Group

Source

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