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European Resistance Movements

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  • Virginia D'Albert-Lake (1910 - 1997)
    Virginia d'Albert-Lake was notable for her work as a member of the anti-Nazi French Resistance during World War II. AN AMERICAN HEROINE Médaille du roi Léopold II (Belgium) Croix de guerre (B...
  • Frederik Peltzer (1889 - 1943)
    Member of the Secret Army. Arrested by the SD on may 27, 1943 for illegal bearing of arms. Executed in Edegem, Belgium. Body found in 1945 in a mass grave. Last residence: Lier, Lisperstraat 197. A p...
  • Jules De Wachter (1924 - 2010)
    Wonende te Boom, Tuyaertsstraat 49. Lid van de verzetsgroep De Zwarte Hand Aangehouden op 27 oktober 1941 Bevrijd uit Nordhausen op 11 april 1945 English Resident of Boom, Belgium. Member o...
  • Toon De Wachter (1922 - 2010)
    Gewapende weerstander, lid van De Zwarte Hand - Oorlogsinvalide Aangehouden op 27 oktober 1941 Bevrijd uit Theresiënstadt op 8 mei 1945 Gewezen schepen van de gemeente Merksem English Mem...
  • Frans Aerts (1913 - 1945)
    Lid van de verzetsbeweging De Zwarte Hand Aangehouden op 27 oktober 1941 Gestorven in gevangenschap op 24 maart 1945 English Member of the Belgian resistance movement De Zwarte Hand (The Bl...

The main information and outline is from The Military History of World War II: Volume 15: European Resistance Movements, by Trevor Nevitt Dupuy, Col., U.S. Army, Ret., Franklin Watts, Inc., New York, c. 1965. Book

The Unknown War.

The Land of Lidice: Czechoslovakia.

They Did Not Scare Us: Poland.

Caged - A Story of Jewish Resistance - David J. Landau

The Holocaust, the Jewish Tragedy - Martin Gilbert

The North Countries: Denmark and Norway.

The Low Countries: The Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg.

Rebirth of Glory: France.

Who is This Enemy?: Yugoslavia.

The Cradle of Liberty: Greece.

A Tragic Choice of Evils: The Soviety Union and the Baltic States.


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Resistance Fighters

(Alphabetically - for an overview of all members of The Black Hand: see related project)




  • Marek Edelman -Jewish Political Activist and cardiologist. Founded the Jewish Combat Organisation, fought in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising and was its last surviving leader. Wrote many books on the resistance movements against the Nazis, one of which is Shielding the Flame.





  • Hugh O'Flaherty - Irish Priest, from resistance group saved some 4,000 Italian Jews and prisoners of war from deportation. Once a Vatican ambassador to Egypt, Haiti, Santo Domingo and Czechoslovakia, he used his political connections to secure sanctury for dispossessed Jews.


  • Peltzer Frederik, Belgian Secret Army
  • Giovanni Palatucci -Italian chief of Foreigners Office forged documents and visas to Jews threatened by deportation. He destroyed documants of Jews replacing them with false papers. Arrested in 1944, sentenced to death, later commuted to deportation to Dachau, where he died.
  • Giorgio Perlasca - under guise of Spanish ambassador in Budapest, protected thousands of Jews and non-Jews destined for concentration camps.
  • Witold Pilecki - only person to volunteer for imprisonment in Auschwitz. A founder of the Secret Polish Army Resistance, he enabled the Polish Government in Exile to convince the Allies that the Holocaust was taking place.


  • Angelo Guiseppe Roncalli - future Pope XX111, assisted many Jews and non-Jews to escape by issuing 'transit visas' from the Apostolic Delegation in Istanbul, Turkey, in 1944.


  • Oskar Schindler - 1908-1974. An ethnic German, born in Zwittau, Austria-Hungary, now Moravia, in the Czech Republic. He marched into Poland on the heels of the German SS, making friends with the Gestapo bigwigs through black market and underworld deals. These connections helped him acquire a factory producing enamel goods and munitions to supply the German front, which he ran with the cheapest Jewish labour. Schindler was making money, paying off the Nazis to allow the Jews to continue working for him in Krakow, instead of being shipped to the death camps. As the brutality of the holocaust escalated, Schindler's protection of the Jewish workers increased. His factory became an oasis of humanity amongst the desert of moral torpor. After the liquidation of the Krakow ghetto and the transfer of many Jews to the Plaszow concentration camp, Schindler used his influence to set up a branch of the camp for 900 Jewish workers in his factory compound, making defective bullets for German guns. This made up his list of workers he would need for its continued operation, saving the lives of 900 people.

  • Sieswerda Cornelis, Dutch Resistance
  • Chiune Sempo Sugihara - Japanese Consul-General in Kaunas, Lithuania.
  • Hannah Senesh - a native of Hungary, Hannah Senesh is one of Israel's greatest national heroines, joining the elite parachute corps formed by the British. She was dropped behind Nazi lines in Yugoslavia, to join the partisans and make her way across the border to warn the Jewish people of their impending fate. She was captured, brutally tortured and executed in 1944 at age 23.

Hannah Senesh, Her Life and Diary - translated by Marta Conn



  • Henryk Wolinski - Operational Command of AK Information, centralised contacts between Polish and Jewish military organisations, including formation of Jewish Resistance under Nazi rule.


  • Yitzhak Zuckerman - Polish activist, Jewish Fighting Organisation. Wrote book : A Surplus of Memory.

External Links and References