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Huguenots of the Carolinas

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  • Benjamin Villepountoux (1735 - 1792)
    Captain/paymaster, Fourth South Carolina Regiment. During Revolutionary War, fought at Battle of Jacksonborough, SC, taken prisoner at Charleston, 12 May 1780.
  • David Fonvielle (c.1706 - 1777)
  • Isaac Fonvielle (c.1708 - c.1777)
  • Caleb Avant (1700 - 1743)
    Caleb Avant was listed as a French Protestant with 19 slaves and extensive property at death.He helped organize the Prince Frederick Church In the index of Parish Prince Frederick Winyaw register . Wi...

Scope of Project

We will create documented and accurate Geni Master Profiles for the 45 families of Huguenot settlers in the Carolinas during the Colonial American period (migrations: 1690-1730) and ensure their ancestral and descendent lines are unduplicated and well represented.


The Huguenots were members of the Protestantism|Protestant Reformed Church of France|Reformed Church of France (or French Calvinism|Calvinists) from the sixteenth to the seventeenth centuries. Protestants in France were inspired by the writings of John Calvin in the 1530s and the name Huguenots was already in use by the 1560s. By the end of the 17th century, roughly 200,000 Huguenots had been driven from France during a series of religious persecutions. They relocated primarily in England, Switzerland, Holland, the German Palatinate, and elsewhere in Northern Europe, as well as to what is now South Africa and to North America.

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More Roberts history

Contributions welcome.



  • Francis Marion, American Revolutionary War guerilla fighter in South Carolina, was of predominantly Huguenot heritage.
  • Henry Laurens signed the Declaration of Independence for South Carolina.
  • Jack Jouett made the ride from Cuckoo Tavern to warn Thomas Jefferson and others that Tarleton and his men were on their way to arrest him for crimes against the king.
  • Eleuthère Irénée du Pont|E.I. du Pont established the Brandywine gunpowder mills, which produced material for the American Revolutionary War.
  • Edward Brickell White, also known as E. B. White, was an American architect known for his Gothic Revival architecture and his use of Roman and Greek designs.
  • Marguerite d'Angoulême, was the queen consort of King Henry II of Navarre. Her brother became king of France, as Francis I and the two siblings were responsible for the celebrated intellectual and cultural court and salons of their day in France. Samuel Putnam called her "The First Modern Woman".
  • Gaspard de Coligny
  • Reverend Elie Prioleau

Huguenot Symbol

The Huguenot cross is the distinctive emblem of the Huguenots (croix huguenote). :fr:Croix huguenote|croix huguenote It is now an official symbol of the Eglise des Protestants reformé (French Protestant church). Huguenot descendants sometimes display this symbol as a sign of reconnaissance (recognition) between them.

Huguenot History

from Hugenot Society of America:

The tide of the Reformation reached France early in the sixteenth century and was part of the religious and political fomentation of the times. It was quickly embraced by members of the nobility, by the intellectual elite, and by professionals in trades, medicine, and crafts. It was a respectable movement involving the most responsible and accomplished people of France. It signified their desire for greater freedom religiously and politically. The names of Huguenot leaders at that time included the royal houses of Navarre, Valois, and Condé; Admiral Coligny, and hundreds of other officers in the military. Marguerite d'Angoulême, whom scholars have called "the first modern woman," was an early supporter of reform in the Catholic Church. She influenced her brother, Francis I, to be lenient with the Huguenots.

The Huguenot Church grew rapidly. At its first synod in 1559, fifteen churches were represented. Over two thousand churches sent representatives to the synod in 1561. In the beginning, the Huguenots were greatly favored by Francis I because of their stature and their abilities as well as their economic contribution to the country's finances. However, ninety percent of France was Roman Catholic, and the Catholic Church was determined to remain the controlling power.

The Huguenots alternated between high favor and outrageous persecution. Inevitably, there were clashes between Roman Catholics and Huguenots, many erupting into the shedding of blood. During the 1560s, the clashes worsened. Finally, Catherine de' Medici and the Guise factions, together representing the Crown and the Church, organized a deadly act. Thousands of Huguenots were in Paris celebrating the marriage of Henry of Navarre to Marguerite de Valois on Saint Bartholomew's Day, August 24, 1572. On that day, soldiers and organized mobs fell upon the Huguenots, and thousands of them were slaughtered. Gaspard de Coligny was among the first to fall at the hands of a servant of the Duke de Guise and was chopped to pieces. Pope Gregory XIII had a medal struck off in honor of the event and sent to Catherine and all Catholic prelates.

Civil wars followed. On March 4, 1590, Prince Henry of Navarre led Huguenot forces against the Catholic League at the Battle of Ivry in Normandy, resulting in a decisive victory. Then, on April 13, 1598, as the newly crowned Henry IV, he issued the Edict of Nantes, which granted to the Huguenots toleration and liberty to worship in their own way. For a time, at least, there was more freedom for the Huguenots. However, about one hundred years later, on October 18, 1685, Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes. Practice of the "heretical" religion was forbidden. Huguenots were ordered to renounce their faith and join the Catholic Church. They were denied exit from France under pain of death. And, Louis XIV hired 300,000 troops to hunt the heretics down and confiscate their property.

This revocation caused France to lose half a million of its best citizens. It was not until November 28, 1787, after the United States of America had gained its independence from England, that the Marquis de Lafayette, who was impressed by the fact that so many of the American leaders were of Huguenot descent, persuaded Louis XVI and the French Council to adopt an Edict of Toleration guaranteeing religious freedom to all in France.

During the entire period between the early part of the sixteenth century to 1787, thousands of Huguenots left their homes in France for other countries because of recurring waves of persecution. As Esther Forbes, wrote in Paul Revere and the World He Lived In (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1942):

France had opened her own veins and spilt her best blood when she drained herself of her Huguenots, and everywhere, in every country that would receive them, this amazing strain acted as a yeast.

Huguenot settlers immigrated to the American colonies directly from France and indirectly from the Protestant countries of Europe, including the Netherlands, England, Germany, and Switzerland (the Huguenot haven of Geneva is pictured below). Although the Huguenots settled along almost the entire eastern coast of North America, they showed a preference for what are now the states of Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and South Carolina.

Just as France suffered a notable loss though the emigration of these intelligent, capable people, so the American colonies gained. The colonists became farmers, laborers, ministers, soldiers, sailors, and people who engaged in government. The Huguenots supplied the colonies with excellent physicians and expert artisans and craftsmen. For example, Irénée du Pont brought his expertise for making gunpowder learned from the eminent Lavoisier; and Apollo Rivoire, a goldsmith, was the father of Paul Revere, master silversmith and renowned patriot. George Washington, himself, was the grandson of a Huguenot on his mother's side. The Huguenots adapted themselves readily to the New World. Their descendants increased rapidly and spread quickly. Today, people of Huguenot origin are found in all parts of our country.

Religious beliefs

_________________________________________________________________________ from:

Huguenot predecessors included the pro-reform and Gallican Catholics, like Jacques Lefevre. Later, Huguenots followed the Lutheran movement, and finally, Calvinism. They shared John Calvin's fierce reformation beliefs which decried the priesthood, sacraments and doctrines of the Catholic Church. They believed in salvation as an act of God as much as in creation as an act of God, and thus that only God's predestined mercy toward the elect made them fit for salvation. Some see this dual emphasis on creation and on salvation, and God's sovereignty over both, as a cornerstone principle for Huguenot developments in architecture, textiles and other merchandise. Above all, Huguenots became known for their fiery criticisms of worship as performed in the Roman Catholic Church. They believed the ritual, images, saints, pilgrimages, prayers, and hierarchy of the Catholic Church did not help anyone toward redemption. They saw the Christian faith as something to live out in a strict and godly life, in obedience to biblical laws, out of gratitude for God's mercy - not as performing rituals and as obsession with death and the dead. As other Protestants also believed at the time, they thought that the Roman church needed radical cleansing of its impurities, and that the pope represented a worldly kingdom which sat in mocking tyranny over the things of God, and was ultimately doomed. Rhetoric like this became more fierce as events unfolded, and stirred up the hostility of the Catholic establishment. Huguenots faced periodic persecution from the outset of the Reformation; but Francis I (reigned 1515 - 1547) initially protected them from Parlementary measures designed for their extermination. The Affair of the Placards of 1534, changed the king's posture toward them: he stepped away from restraining persecution of the movement . Still, Huguenot numbers grew rapidly between 1555 and 1562, chiefly amongst the nobles and city-dwellers. During this time their opponents first dubbed the Protestants Huguenots; but they called themselves reformés, "Reformed". They organized their first national synod in 1558, in Paris. By 1562 they had a total membership estimated at at least a million, especially numerous in the south and central parts of the country. The Huguenots in France never numbered more than just over two million, compared to approximately sixteen million Catholics during the same period. Violently opposed to the Catholic Church, the Huguenots attacked images, monasticism, and church buildings. Most of the cities in which the Huguenots gained a hold saw iconoclast attacks, in which altars and images in churches, and sometimes the buildings themselves were torn apart. Bourges, Montauban and Orleans suffered particularly.

Membership in Hugenot Society of America


"Any person above the age of eighteen years, whose religion is consonant with that of the Huguenots, shall be eligible for regular membership, provided he or she is a lineal descendant in the male or female line of a Huguenot who emigrated from France, and that such Huguenot émigré or one of his or her descendants in the same line either settled in what is now the United States of America or left France for countries other than America prior to the promulgation of the Edict of Toleration on November 28, 1787."

History of South Carolina


The colony of Carolina was settled by English people|English settlers, mostly from Barbados, sent by the Lords Proprietors in 1663, followed by Huguenot|French Huguenots. The original Carolina proprietors were aware of the threat posed by the French and Spanish colonies to the south, whose Roman Catholic monarchies were enemies of England and English Protestant values. They needed to act swiftly to attract settlers. Therefore, they were one of the first colonies to grant liberty of religious practice to attract settlers who were Baptists, Quakers, Huguenots and Presbyterians.

Jewish immigration was specifically encouraged in the Fundamental Constitutions, since Jews were seen as reliable citizens. The Jewish immigrants were fleeing the Spanish Inquisition, which was also carried out in the Spanish colonies in the New World.<ref name="autogenerated32"/> During the colonial period, Africans were the largest group, with a minority transported as indentured servants and the majority transported in the Middle Passage to be slaves. They constituted a majority of the colony's population throughout the period. The Carolina upcountry was settled largely by English Americans|English and Scots-Irish Americans|Scots-Irish immigrants|migrants from Pennsylvania and Virginia, who followed the Great Wagon Road into the South.

From 1670–1717, English and British traders spurred the economy in South Carolina by conducting a booming trade in Indigenous peoples of the Americas|Indian slaves. The slave trade affected the entire southeast region. They bought or traded for slaves from Indigenous people of the Americas|American Indian tribes south of the Tennessee River|Tennessee and east of the Mississippi River|Mississippi rivers. Indians competed for European trade goods, including cloth and guns.<ref name="">{{cite web|url= |title=Joseph Hall, "The Great Indian Slave Caper", review of Alan Gallay, ''The Indian Slave Trade: The Rise of the English Empire in the American South, 1670–1717'', New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002,, vol. 3, no. 1, October 2002, accessed 4 Nov 2009 | |date= |accessdate=2010-07-31}}

Historian Alan Gallay estimates that Carolinians exported 24,000-51,000 Indian slaves during this period.<ref name=""/> Oppressed by the slave trade, an alliance among the tribes developed, and they attacked the settlers in the Province of South Carolina in the Yamasee War (1715–1717). Its casualty rate was among the highest of the Indian Wars; for more than a year, the Indians seriously threatened the continued existence of the colony.

Many settlers were dissatisfied with the Proprietors who governed the colony. As a result, Carolina was split, and South Carolina became a royal colony in 1729. The emerging planter class had been using revenues from the sale of Indian slaves to finance the purchase of enslaved Africans; after the Yamasee War, South Carolina colonists turned to using exclusively African slaves for labor for their new commodity crops of rice and indigo. The Africans provided critical technical knowledge and skills for the cultivation and processing of both crops.<ref name=""/>

Charleston, South Carolina


Charleston is the oldest city in the United States|U.S. state of South Carolina and is currently the second largest city in the state. It was made the county seat of Charleston County in 1901 when Charleston County was created.GR6 The city's original name was Charles Towne in 1670, and it moved to its present location (Oyster Point) from a location on the west bank of the Ashley River (Albemarle Point) in 1680 ; it adopted its present name in 1783. In 1690, Charleston was the fifth largest city in North America,and remained among the ten largest cities in the United States through the 1840 census.<

Charleston is known as The Holy City due to the prominence of churches on the low-rise cityscape, particularly the numerous steeples which dot the city's skyline, and for the fact that it was one of the few cities in the original Thirteen Colonies|thirteen colonies to provide religious tolerance, albeit restricted to non-Catholics. Many Huguenots found their way to Charleston.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=History of the Huguenot Society}}</ref> Charleston was also one of the first colonial cities to allow Jews to practice their faith without restriction.

The city of Charleston is located just south of the mid-point of South Carolina's coastline, at the confluence of the Ashley River (South Carolina)|Ashley and Cooper River (South Carolina)|Cooper rivers. Charleston Harbor lies between downtown Charleston and the Atlantic Ocean. Charleston's name is derived from Charles Towne, named after King Charles II of England.

America's most-published etiquette expert, Marjabelle Young Stewart, recognized Charleston 1995 as the "best-mannered" city in the U.S,<ref>"Charleston best-mannered city",, January 17, 2004. Accessed May 9, 2007.</ref> a claim lent credibility by the fact that it has the first established Livability Court in the country.

Huguenots of the Carolinas


In the early years, many Huguenots settled in the area of present-day Charleston, South Carolina|Charleston, South Carolina. In 1685, Rev. Elie Prioleau from the town of Pons in France was among the first to settle there. He became pastor of the first Huguenot church in North America in that city. The French Huguenot Church of Charleston, which remains independent, is the oldest continuously active Huguenot congregation in the United States. It is the last active Huguenot congregation in North America.

The Huguenots adapted quickly and often began to marry outside their immediate French communities fairly rapidly, which led to their assimilation. Their descendants in many families continued to use French first and surnames for their children well into the nineteenth century, as they tried to keep some connection to their heritage. Assimilated, the French made numerous contributions to United States economic life, especially as merchants and artisans in the late Colonial and early Federal periods.

Carolina Huguenots, 1690-1700



Hewitt, in his History of South Carolina, says: "In 1690 King William sent a large body of Huguenots to Virginia. Lands were allotted them on the James river, which by their diligence and industry, they soon improved into excellent estates. Others purchased land from the Proprietors of Carolina, transported themselves and families to that quarter, and settled a colony on the Santee river. Others, who were merchants and mechanics, took up their residence in Charleston, and followed their different occupations.

At this period these new settlers were a great acquisition to Carolina. They had taken the oath of allegince to the king, and promised fidelity to the Proprietors. They were disposed to look on the settlers, whom they had joined, in the favorable light of bretheren and fellow adventurers, and though they understood not the English language, yet they were desirous of living in peace and harmony with their neighbors, and willing to stand forth on all occasions of danger with them for the common safety and defense.

Judge James, in his Life of Marion, says: About seventeen years after the first settlement of Carolina, in 1690, and a short time subsequently, between seventy and eighty French families, fleeing from the bloody persecutions exerted against them in their mother country, settled on the banks of the Santee. These extended themselves at first only from the lower ferry at South Santee - Mazyck's Ferry - about two miles below Wambaw Creek, in St. James Parish, to within a few miles of Lenud's Ferry and back from the river into the Parish of St. Denis, called the Orange Quarter.

From this point, says Simms, they gradually spread themselves out so as to embrace in partial settlement the spacious tract of country stretching to the Winyaw on the one hand and the sources of Cooper river on the other, then extending upwards into the interior, following the course of the Santee nearly to the point where it loses its identity in receiving the descending streams of the Wateree and Congaree.

Oldmixon, in his history of Carolina, published in 1708, remarks of Craven County, that it is pretty well inhabited by English and French. Of the latter there is a settlement on the Santee river. The English settlement embraced within the Parish of St. Stephens, was designated as English Santee, while that below, composed of Huguenots in the Parish of St. James, was called French Santee.

A French dancing master, settling in Craven County, says Oldmixon taught the Indians country dances, and to play on the flute and hautbois - thus raising himself to a good estate. It seems that the barbarians encouraged him with the same extravagance as we do the dancers, singers and fiddlers - his countrymen.

Project Notables

Reverend Pierre Robert

An account states that “Rev. Pierre Robert was the first Huguenot preacher to set foot on the shores of the New World. He was of sturdy stock, whose fearless spirit, neither the cruelty of religious persecution nor the dangers of the ocean and fear of the savage could intimidate or subdue.”

Marguerite d'Angoulême

In 1521 she began a correspondance with Guillaume Briçonnet, bishop of Meaux, who introduced her to the evangelist movement and the call for reform within the Catholic Church and a return to the original purity of the Scriptures. Briçonnet, along with Jacques Lefèvre d'Etaples, shaped Marguerite's religious beliefs, and she in turn encouraged reform within the church and the need to reinterpret the Scriptures and translate them into French. She herself habitually retired to meditate and pray, and composed numerous works of devotional poetry, including those published in the Marguerites de la Marguerite des princesses (1547). Her Miroir de l'âme pecheresse, first published in 1531, then again as the first poem in the Marguerites (1547), provoked the censure of the Sorbonne theologians for its expression of ideas associated with the religious reform movement.

Edward Brickell White

Edward Brickell White was born on January 29, 1806 on the Chapel Hill Plantation of St. John's Berkeley Parish, South Carolina. His father was the planter and artist, John Blake White, and his mother was Elizabeth Allston White.

He was the architect of many churches including the Gothic Revival Huguenot Church{{cite web | last = | first = | authorlink = | coauthors = | title = Huguenot Church | work = National Register of Historic Places Inventory - Nomination Form | publisher =National Park Service | year = 1973 | url = | format = pdf | doi = | accessdate = 17 March 2009}}</ref> (NHL) in Charleston.

List of Immigrent Families aboard Ship

Transactions of the Huguenot Society of South Carolina
No. 5. pp 20, Charleston, South Carolina, 1897. Press of Walker, Evans & Cogswell Co. 20.

LISTE Des François et Suisses Refugiez en Caroline qui souhaittent d' être naturalizés Anglois.

  • 1. *ELIAS PRIOLEAU, fils de Samuel Prioleau, et de Jeanne Merlat, né à en Xaintonge en France. Jeanne Burgeaud, sa femme, né en L'isle de Ré. Jeanne, leur fille, née à St. Jean D' Angely. Sameul, Marie, et Marie Ester, leurs enfans néz en Caroline.
  • 2. LAURENT PHILIPPE TROUILLART, né à la fette Regnault Roidam, fils de Pierre Trouillart et de Marie. Madeleine Maslet, sa femme née à cet. Élizabet et Madeleine leurs filles néz en Caroline.
  • 3. JACQUES BOYD. Jean Boyd, Gabriel Boyd, frères néz à Bourdeaux, et fils de Jean Boyd et de Jeanne. Jeanne Berchaud, femme du dit Jean Boyd. Jeanne Élizabet Boyd, Jacques Boyd, Jean Auguste Boyd, enfans du dit Jean Boyd, et de la dite Jeanne Berchaud, néz en Caroline.
  • 4. PAUL BRUNEAU DE RIUEDOUX, Escuyer, fils de Arnaud Bruneau, et de né à la Rochelle. Henri Bruneau, est fils de Henri Bruneau, et de Marie, né à la Rochelle.
  • 5. JACQUES LE SERURIER, né à St. Quantin en Picardie fils de Jacques Le Serurier, et de Marie Le Comte. Élizabet Leger, sa femme.
  • 6. PIERRE DE ST. JULIEN, Malacare, né à Vitre en Bretagne, fils de Pierre St. Julien, Malacare, et de Jeanne Le Febure, Damaris Élizabet Le Serurier, sa femme. Pierre et Jacques, leurs enfans, néz en Caroline.
  • 7. ABRAHAM FLEURY, De la Pleine, né à Tours, fils de Charles Fleury, et de Madeleine Soupzmain. Marianne Fleury, sa fille, veuve de Jacques Dugué, née à Paris, et Marianne Dugué, fille du défunct Jacques Dugué, et du dit Marianne Fleury, née en Caroline.

8. DANIEL HUGER, né à Loudun, fils de Jean Huger, et Anne Rassin. Margueritte Perdriau, sa femme. Margueritte Huger, leur fille, née à Rochelle. Daniel et Madeleine Huger, leurs enfans, néz en Caroline.

That means 3 Kids - Margueritte, Daniel and Madeleine

  • 9. ISAAC CAILLABEUF, né à Ste. Soline, fils de Louis Caillabeuf et de marie Charuyer. Rachel, Fanton, sa femme. Isaac, Etienne et Anne Caillabeuf, leurs enfans, néz en Caroline.
  • 10. PIERRE LA SALLE, né à Bourdeaux, fils de Charles La Salle, et de Susanne Hugla. Élizabeth Messett, sa femme. Pierre et Élizabeth La Salle, leurs enfans néz en Caroline.
  • 11. FRANÇOIS DE ROUSSERIE, né à Monpelier, fils d'Alexandre DeRousserye, et de Marie Suranne.
  • 12. PIERRE BURETEL, né à la Rochelle, fils de Charles Buretel, et de Sara Bouhier. Élizabeth Chintrie, sa femme.
  • 13. DANIEL BONNEL, fils de Jean Bonnel, et de Marie Lalon. Marie Izambert, sa femme. Susanne Bonnell, leur fille, née en Caroline.
  • 14. JONAS BONHOSTE, né à Paris, fils de Pierre Bonhoste et de Marie Garlin. Catherine Allaire, sa femme. Jonas Bonhoste, leur fils né en Caroline.
  • 15. PIERRE DUGUÉ, Isaac Dugué, son frère, et Élizabeth Dugué, leur sæur, néz à Bésance en Bery, enfans de Jacques Dugué et d'Élizabet Dupuy.
  • 16. JACQUES DU BOSC, né à St. Ambroise en Languedoc, fils d' André Du Bosc, et de Marie Le Stoade. Marie Dugué, sa femme. Marie Du Bosc, leur fille née en Caroline.
  • 17. PHILIPE NORMAND, né à Germain en Poitou, fils de Philipe Normand, et de Jeanne Pineau. Élizabet Juin, sa femme,
  • 18. ANTHOINE BONNEAU, né à la Rochelle, fils de Jean Bonneau et de Catherine Roi. Catherine Du Bliss, sa femme. Anthoine Bonneau, Jean Henri Bonneau, leurs enfans néz en France, et Jacob Bonneau, leur fils né en Caroline.
  • 19. PIERRE COLLIN, né en L'isle de Ré, fils de Jean Collin, et de Judith Vasleau.
  • 20. PIERRE POINSET, l' aîné, né à Soubize, fils de Pierre Poinset, et Marie sa femme.
  • 21. PIERRE POINSET, le jeune, né à Soubize, fils du dit Pierre et Sara Fouchereau. Anne Gobard sa femme,

Suggested Reading

Baird, Charles W., D.D., History of the Huguenot Emigration to America; 2 vols., 1885. Reprint (2 vols. in 1), Baltimore: Regional Publishing Co., 1966. Reissued Baltimore, Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1991. Still a valuable resource.

Bonomi, Patricia U. Under the Cope of Heaven: Religion, Society, and Politics in Colonial America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986. Print.

Butler, Jon, The Huguenots in America, A Refugee People in New World Society; Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1983.

Currier-Briggs, Noel, and Royston Gambier, Huguenot Ancestry; Phillimore, 1985.

Durant, Will. The Reformation: A History of European Civilization from Wyclif to Calvin: 1300-1564. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1935. Print.

Edgar, Walter B. South Carolina: A History. Columbia, SC: Univ. of South Carolina Press, 1998. Print.

Gwynn, Robin D., Huguenot Heritage, The History and Contributions of the Huguenots in Britain; 2nd Revised Edition with enlarged plate section, Brighton, Sussex Academic Press, 2001.

Gwynn, Robin D., The Huguenots of London; United Kingdom, Sussex Academic Press, 1998.

Hayden, Horace E. Virginia Genealogies: A Genealogy of the Glassell Family of Scotland and Virginia : Also of the Families of Ball, Brown, Bryan, Conway, Daniel, Ewell, Holladay, Lewis, Littlepage, Moncure, Peyton, Robinson, Scott, Taylor, Wallace, and Others, of Virginia and Maryland. Wilkes-Barre, Penn'a: E.B. Yordy, printer, 1891. Print.

The Huguenot. [U.S.?]: The Huguenot Society, Founders of Manakin in the Colony of Virginia.

Lachenicht, Susanne. "Huguenot Immigrants and the Formation of National Identities, 1548-1787," Historical Journal 2007 50(2): 309-331,

Lart, Charles Edmund. Huguenot Pedigrees. Baltimore: Genealogical Pub. Co., 1973.

Lawton, Thomas O, and Stephen G. Hoffius. Upper St. Peter's Parish and Environs: A Collection of Writings. Garnett, S.C. (P.O. Box 68, Garnett 29922: Book orders to Thomas O. Lawton, 2001. Print.

McClain, Molly. "A Letter from Carolina, 1688: French Huguenots in the New World." William and Mary Quarterly. 3rd. ser., 64 (April 2007): 377-394.

Museum of London and the Huguenot Society of London, The Quiet Conquest: The Huguenots, 1685-1985; London, Museum of London, 1985. A “coffee table book” with many wonderful pictures.

Neil. Fortress of the Soul: Violence, Metaphysics, and Material Life in the Huguenots' New World, 1517-1751 Johns Hopkins U. Press, 2005. 1058 pp.

Ruymbeke, Bertrand Van. New Babylon to Eden: The Huguenots and Their Migration to Colonial South Carolina. U. of South Carolina Press, 2006. 396 pp

Stafford, George M. G. Three Pioneer Rapides Families: A Genealogy by George Mason Graham Stafford. New Orleans: Pelican Pub. Co, 1946. Print.

Van Ruymbeke, Bertrand, and Sparks, Randy J., editors, Memory and Identity: The Huguenots in France and the Atlantic Diaspora; Columbia, South Carolina, University of South Carolina Press, 2003.

Van Ruymbeke, Bertrand, From New Babylon to Eden: The Huguenots and Their Migration to Colonial South Carolina; Columbia, SC, University of South Carolina Press, 2006.

Virkus, Frederick A. Immigrant Ancestors: A List of 2,500 Immigrants to America Before 1750. Baltimore: Genealogical Pub. Co, 1964. Print. A thesis written for a Master of Arts Degree in History, this work explores the assimilation of the Huguenot refugee into, first, the British colonial society and, second, into the elite of the American "Deep South" culture prevalent before the Civil War. The author uses the family of Daniel Huger as his example.