This is the Portal or Master Project for Jamaica: Jamaican Portal: "Out Of Many, One People" : you will find links to online civil records across Jamaica that may be very helpful in your quest).
What can you do here?
- Ask questions.
- Collaborate on your research.
- Share knowledge you have gained as you've done your own research in a specific area.
- Problem finding an ancestors , open a discussion here and we all try to help
- Start your own related project.
- Add your profiles.
- Start or take part in a discussion
For instructions on how to use Geni, refer to the Geni Help Portal
How to Contribute
- Please click the "Join Project" button on the upper right of the project page.
- After getting yourself added as a collaborator for the surname, select the profile of the prominent Filipino you wish to add.
- Navigate to the profile. Under the "More Actions" link, choose "Add to Project" and select sub-project to which your ancestor should be included in.
- Include in the "About Me" section a brief biographical sketch, summarizing the person's significant contributions and accomplishments. (Required)
- Include a photograph, if one exists.
- Mark the profile as "public" and not "private". (Required)
Related Geni projects
Changes are coming to this Portal
All these ethnic groups will be moved to a new Jamaican Ethnic Groups Portal soon
Some of these projects have already been created, including:
- German Jamaicans
- Lebanese Jamaicans
- Irish of Jamaica
The Jamaican Surnames project will be a sub-project of the Ethnic Groups Portal.
For those tracing roots from Africa or the Maroons of Jamaica:
- Out Of Many Cultures: The People Who Came: The Arrival Of The Africans
- Maroon Archaeology
- Review of Slavery, Atlantic Trade and the British Economy, 1660-1800, by Kenneth Morgan
- Ashanti Maroon(ed) in jamaica
- ASHANTI CULTURAL INFLUENCE IN JAMAICA
- Maroons of Jamaica
- WRITING IN NDYUKATONGO - A CREOLE LANGUAGE IN SOUTH AMERICA
- Maroon Societies and Creole Languages
- The Mother of Us All: A History of Queen Nanny, Chapter 1: Introduction, by Karla Gottlieb
- Nanny of the Maroons
- Jamaican Maroons
- Igbo people in Jamaica
For those tracing roots from Spain and Portugal or are Sephardim:
- Portuguese-Spanish Jewish Journey to Jamaica
- Spanish International Portal
- FamilySearch.org - Search Results - Spain
- MedLands - Iberia
- Cyndi's List - Spain & the Basque Country / España y El País Vasco
- FamilySearch.org - Research Guidance: Spanish - Genealogical Word List
- Sephardic Families
- Jewish Immigrants to the Caribbean
For those tracing roots from the Britain and Ireland:
- Scots in the West Indies, 1707-1857. Vol I and Vol II
- Scots Prisoners and their relocation to the colonies 1650 - 1654
- Out Of Many Cultures: The People Who Came: The Arrival Of The Irish
For those tracing roots from Native American groups:
For those tracing Chinese roots:
For those tracing East Indian roots:
For those tracing Lebanese and Syrian roots:
For those tracing German roots:
- Out Of Many Cultures: The People Who Came: The Arrival Of The GERMANS
- Jamaicans of German Descent (Genealogy) (Facebook)
Today some 160 people of German descent remain in Seaford Town, but family names like Dusterdick, Eisinger, Sleifer, Volker and Zwinkman, present 100 years ago, have disappeared. Inbreeding, along with some integration with Jamaicans of African and Asian descent occurred leading to the creation of "Germaicans," as stated by one resident of Seaford Town.
German influence such as Manhertz Gap, Charlotten-burgh, Mount Holstein, Bremen Valley, New Brunswick and Hessen Castle, among others.
I want to help start family trees for the Germaicans on Geni.com, I'll need a couple of people to help me, of course.--kkw, 3-5-15.
Planters and Plantation owners:
Jamaicans in Canada:
Jamaicans in the United States:
- Re: BWI regiment sent to New Brunswick
- Re: H. McLean 2nd West India Regiment--1873-74
- H. McLean 2nd West India Regiment--1873-74
- West India Regiment
- West India Regiment - Wikipedia
- WIR Photo Center
- Lists of British Regiments Serving in Jamaica
There are several members and a curator on Geni that specialize in Jamaican and West Indian genealogy.
They and are more than willing to help answer any question you might have.
Jamaican Government Information Websites
- Jamaican Family Search Genealogy Resource Library
- Caribbean Archives on Roots Web
- How To Research Your Jamaica Family History
List of Jamaican slave manumissions between 1820 and 1825 with a few even earlier are found in the British Public Record Office at Kew (Ruskin Ave Richmond, TW9 4DU, 0181-876-3444) Their catalogue can be found on the web at www.pro.gov.uk. This document is filed at CO137/162. The CO stands for Colonial Office papers. This is a large bound volume of Colonial Office correspondence.
- Michael Craton (Craton, Michael) on Bookfinder.com
- Slave Rebellion
- Genealogical Resources
- Caribbean Roots
- GenForum: Countries
- Jamaican Family Search
- Talks at the London Family History Centre
- WHO DO YOU THINK YOU ARE? LIVE 2011
- Jamaica Handbook of 1900: JUDICIAL AND LEGAL: 1900 HANDBOOK OF JAMAICA
- Jamaica journal. May-June 1985
- Sally Jones' Sources of Jamaican Genealogy and Where to find them
- History Group
- Caribbean Roots
- London History Talks Center
British Afro Carib Community
- Article on British born in Jamaica
- Arrival of black immigrants in London
- British African Caribbean community
Family search International
Romani 1603 And Gypsies in Jamaica
Genealogy of Jamaica, 2nd edition, on CD by Donald Lindo
GENEALOGY OF JAMAICA
This is an Aid to Research on Jamaican Families and contains 50,000 names, more than 20,000 marriages and 1000 pictures plus more than 100 text files (all with Jamaican connections). The purpose of this exercise is to assist persons researching Jamaican families. As in the 1st edition the CD-ROM has the latest version of the genealogy program 'Brother's Keeper' to enable you to access the data, print charts, also to extract what you need, add more data or correct it. If you wish to order direct it is available POST FREE at the following prices: U.S. Residents - $35.00 (US) Canadian Residents - $50.00 (Canadian) U. K. Residents - £25.00 (UK Sterling) Australia - $40.00 (US)
Remittances can be made by money order, bank draft, Moneygram, Western Union, or personal cheque payable to Donald Lindo.
You can also order by credit card through the Go-Jamaica Web Site www.jamaica-gleaner.com Click on "Go Shopping" when you log in.
Additions and corrections welcome. E-Mail Donald Lindo at firstname.lastname@example.org
- Donald Lindo - P. O. Box 493 - Halfway Tree *
- Kingston 10 - JAMAICA *
- Ph: (876)-926-5655 *
- Email: email@example.com and firstname.lastname@example.org
Caribbean WW I Casualities--Black and Asian War Hero
World War I and II http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/533
Reflections on World War II http://jamaica-gleaner.com/pages/history/story0047.htm
The First Campbell's in Jamaica
First Jamaicans in the USA
The documented history of black emigration from Jamaica and other Caribbean islands into the United States dates back to 1619 when 20 voluntary indentured workers arrived in Jamestown, Virginia, on a Dutch frigate. They lived and worked as "free persons" even when a Portuguese vessel arrived with the first shipload of blacks enslaved in 1629. Since Jamaica was a major way station and clearing house for slaves en route to North America, the history of Jamaican immigration in the United States is inseparably tied to slavery and post-emancipation migration.
Read more: Jamaican Americans - History, Modern era, The first jamaicans in america, Significant immigration waves, Reasons for migrating http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Ha-La/Jamaican-Americans.html#ixzz1QDJJ8BZ4
The first East Indian indentured laborers arrived in Jamaica 1845 aboard the Blundell Hunter.   Approximately 700 ships from China carrying immigrants arrived in Latin America and the Caribbean between 1847-1884. Two ships from Panama carrying Chinese immigrants arrived in Jamaica in 1854 sw 36,412 East Indians were reported to have immigrated to Jamaica as indentured laborers between 1845-1917.  1,152 Chinese immigrants arrived in Jamaica between 1834-1918.  Asians who came to Jamaica as indentured laborers generally worked on estates or (sugar) plantations migration
Book Discussion: Whats wrong with Being Black--
? http://www.mgtrust.org/car1.htm National Archives War Records
The organisation of the Jamaican family structure is complex. That is highlighted by the inherent system of historical circumstances both prior to and post slavery. This has resulted in several patterns of family organisation of which is considered normal within the context of the Jamaican society.
Many beliefs and practices followed today, the influences are of African origin. While the majority of Jamaican population is of African ancestry, other influences can be found from groups such as European, Chinese, Indian and Lebanese. Many Jamaican families comprise a mixture of ethnicities. -- from Jamaican Family
Geni Jamaican Family Projects
- Connecting the Decendants of Gilbert and Adina Powell- Williams, Swaby, Jones, Cassells, Blagrove, morants of Jamaica West Indies
- DePass family
- Eliza Campbel Family Of Jamaica West Indies
- Forrest Family of Jamaica
- Foster Family of Jamaica
- Melville Family of Jamaica
- Messam Family, Are We Related?
- Rowe Family of Jamaica
- Rutty Family of Jamaica
- Tracey / Tracy Family of Jamaica
- Powell Family of Jamaica
- Welsh/Welch/Walsh Family of Jamaica
- The Williams Family of Jamaica
- Levien/Levine/Levene of Jamaica
Jamaica surname Family Trees
searching for family URGENT INFORMATION NEEDED RE. DESCENDANTS OF THE JAMAICAN FAMILY OF THE MARSDENS; THE HERON-MARSDENS; THE WILSONS; AND THE HERON-WILSONS OF SOUTH MANCHESTER, JAMAICA
The Negro X http://www.sacred-texts.com/afr/dbn/dbn12.htm
They still practised a form of Judaism.
Gale Morant Papers
Powell history America http://familytreemaker.genealogy.com/users/s/e/e/Sylvia-See-AB/FILE/0075page.html
Doc on the slave trade ships etc
Location: 3308 Sewell Social Science Building 1180 Observatory Drive Madison, WI 53706
Contact: Phone (608) 262-0750 Fax (608) 262-9711 Email email@example.com
very good overview of jamaica pas and present By Veront Satchell, Africana.com, 1999 --
'The Morant Bay Rebellion
Settlements of Jamaica--
Jamaica is an island nation of the Greater Antilles. It is situated in the Caribbean Sea, about 145 kilometres (90 mi) south of Cuba, and 191 kilometres (119 mi) west of Hispaniola, the island harboring the nation-states Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Its indigenous Arawakan-speaking Taíno inhabitants named the island Xaymaca, meaning the “Land of Wood and Water“, or the “Land of Springs“.
Motto: “Out of Many, One People.”
Anthem: Jamaica, Land We Love
Royal Anthem: God Save the Queen
Official Language: English
National Language: Patois
Ethnic Groups: 91.2% Black, 6.2% mixed, 2.6% other.
Jamaica is divided into 14 parishes which are grouped into three counties .
Cornwall County in Jamaica
- St. Elizabeth, Jamaica
- Saint Elizabeth Jamaica Genealogy
- Ballard's Valley People
- ALL PEOPLE FROM ST ELIZABETH, JAMAICA
Middlesex County Jamaica
Surrey County Jamaica: Kingston,
Manchester was created in 1814 out of both the parishes of St Elizabeth and Clarendon. Last names of the earliest known arrivals that settled in Manchester after 1814 are displayed in the table below. Some of these settlers resided in either Clarendon or St Elizabeth prior to the creation of Manchester.
Present day info on Birth Death Marriage --
The mother of the first registered birth at the Cornwall Regional Hospital in Montego Bay on January 1, Dawnesha Bowell, was presented with a free birth certificate for her child by the Registrar General's Department (RGD) on the same day.
In The Past --
Registration parishes and districts in Jamaica
Civil registration began in Jamaica in 1878. It became law that records of vital events were to be administered by the Jamaican government.
Prior to 1878 records for baptisms, marriages and burials were centralised at '''Island Secretary Office in Spanish Town'''. Since 1st April records were in the custody of '''Register General''' which were then deposited into''' General Record''' Office, Spanish Town. Commencement of Civil registration arose as one of the consequences of discussions regarding one of the decisions to re -structure the organisation of the church. As of the 1st April 1878 each parish was divided in registration districts each with appointed registrar.
Prior to 1878, records of vital events were organised and held by churches such as Church of England and dissenter churches of the following denominations: Wesleyan, Jewish, Methodist, Baptist, Moravian, United Brethren, Quakers, London Mission Society and Roman Catholic. Presently Jamaica is made up of fourteen parishes of which each is assigned a code that identifies the administration of registration records that pertains to births, marriages and burials.
Parish registration codes assigned:
St Andrew: B
St Thomas: C
St Elizabeth: K
St Catherine: E
St Mary: F
St James: N
St Ann: G
An example of a birth registration'
Birth certificates were introduced 1878. Please note that the following refers to a fictional case, however it represents the example of the administrative details found on a birth certificate.
Birth of Mary Brown was registered as HT114 on 12th March 1897 to parents Albert and May Brown.
•H refers to parish of Clarendon
•T refers to the local district of Spalding in Clarendon – a local district register office.
•114 usually refers to the 114th person who registered the birth after the creation of the local district register office.
Music and dance in the Jamaican culture give illustration to ancestral heritage. Mento, the earliest of Jamaica's original music forms, had its rise to fame during the plantation period and dwelled there until the 1950’s. Stemming from African and British influences, Mento was practiced to focus on endeavors of life considered to be taboo. Reggae is the latest form of music to arise with Bob Marley being awarded the Order of Merit, earning his title of the Honorable Robert Nesta Marley,
The quadrille is a dance artistically expressing the joys, sorrows, and triumphs of the Jamaican family. The Dinki Mini dance is associated with death, but comforts family and friends with lively music.
Pantomimes are musical-comedy theatrical productions traditionally performed at Christmas. Consisting of Jamaican folklore intertwined with English folklore, this style of drama using facial expressions started in the 1940’s. The “roots” theatre came along during the 1960’s and 1970’s. Still a favorite today, root plays are tales full of jokes on controversial matters usually held in outdoor theatres.
The most festive season in Jamaica is Christmas. It is the largest family occasion of the year. Christmas carols are performed in a Reggae version. Santa Claus still makes a visit even though houses on the island are built without chimneys. The feast eaten on Christmas day consists of rice and gungo peas, which ripen in December and are considered a specialty, chicken, oxtail, roast beef, and roast ham.
Jonkanoo is a traditional Christmas parade with individuals dressed in intriguing masquerades. The bizarre characters include the horned Cow Head, the Horse Head, the Devil, the Belly-Women, Pitchy-Patchy, and House Head, an illustration of a house carried on the head of a performer.
On the weekend before Christmas Eve, the Grand Market takes place in Jamaica. The Grand Market is a neighborhood fair fused with food, drink, music, dancing, and crafts. Jamaicans wear their most elegant clothing to celebrate throughout the day and night. Venders set up shops selling firecrackers, petite toys, balloons, and sugary sweets of all kinds -Angela brown
There are always plenty of reasons to visit Jamaica; a full list of festivals gives couples even more excuses. One of the biggest is February's .
'''the Sugar Cane Ball'''
One of the most elegant events:held in February at Round Hill Hotel in Montego Bay. For over two decades, this formal ball has raised money for local charities.
Red Stripe Horse Show and Gymkhana gym·kha·na
April, Ocho Rios and Montego Bay celebrate with Carnival. Horse lovers can enjoy 1. Any of various meets at which contests are held to test the skill of the competitors, as in equestrianship, gymnastics, or sports car racing.
2. The place where such an event is held. at Chukka chukka, chukker a term used in polo; a polo match is divided into six chukkas of 7 minutes each. Cove in Ocho Rios, an annual event that brings in top riders from Jamaica, Europe, and the US.
Negril celebrates Carnival in May, adding further festivity to this already fun-loving town.
'''Ocho Rios Jazz Festival'''
1. jazz festival - a festival that features performances by jazz artists festival, fete - an organized series of acts and performances (usually in one place); "a drama festival" in June, with a week of international performers from the US, England, France, Holland, Japan, and the Caribbean. Jazz events take place in Ocho Rios as well as Montego Bay, with jazz teas, festivals on the river, barbecues, and more.
Reggae Sunsplash and '''Bob Marley''' Week
Reggae Sunsplash is a reggae music festival that started in the 1970s in the northern part of Jamaica. In the 1980s and 1990s it became a touring festival which played at venues throughout the United States. . The memory of the reggae great is remembered with a week of activities recognized around the globe as the top event for reggae buffs. Now held at Chukka Cove, the two decades-old event features performances by the top names in the world of reggae.
Reggae Sumfest is the largest concert festival in Jamaica, taking place each year in mid-July in Montego Bay. Sumfest, started in 1992, is officially sponsored by Red Stripe. is held in Montego Bay, also featuring top performers.
Some travel writers claim that after a few days you'll understand the local patois pat·ois
1. The special jargon of a group; cant. . Forget it. Who would know that a bendung maaket is a sidewalk market, a place where you bend down or "bendung" to shop. Nyameat, an all-purpose word, can mean a person's posterior, a term of endearment. An expression of affection, such as a caress.
Here are a few other Jamaican patois terms:
a go foreign-- to leave Jamaica
boonoonunus-- wonderful, beautiful
irie (eye-ree) -- all's well, good
mash up, winji- - sickly, tired
wagga wagga-- bountiful
Jamaica's diversity comes from its visitors as well, guests from around the globe that make this tropical island home for a short while. Some of those visitors became residents, most notably '
Noel Coward -
'''Chris Blackwell''' --
''Errol Flynn, ''--
Flynn came to the island in the 1940s and remained until his death in 1960, but not before he hit upon the idea of putting tourists on bamboo rafts on the Rio GrandeRio Grande, city, Brazil Rio Grande (rē
grändĭ), city (1991 pop. . Today, this remains one of the most romantic rides in the Caribbean. Fleming, creator of the James Bond series, wrote from his home named "Goldeneye," located in Oracabessa near Ocho Rios. Today the home is owned by Chris Blackwell
With such a group of stellar residents, it's not surprising that the island has always been a favorite with Hollywood movie producers. Some films produced here include 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea, Dr. No, Live and Let Die, Cocktail, and, of course, Cool Runnings, the story of Jamaica's legendary Olympic bobsled team.
Jamaica is also a patchwork of communities. The capital city is Kingston on the south shore, a metropolitan area that's visited primarily for business rather than pleasure. The resort communities lie on the north shore. Quiet Port Antonio Port Antonio is the capital of the parish of Portland on the northeastern coast of Jamaica, about 100 km from Kingston. It had a population of 12,285 in 1982 and 13,246 in 1991. , once a hideaway for Hollywood stars, lies to the east. Heading west, the garden city of Ocho Rios is a favorite with couples. Montego Bay, or "Mo Bay," is the first taste most visitors have of the island, as it's home to the north shore airport. To the far west, Negril, once a hippie haven, is today the preferred vacation spot for anyone to enjoy its laid-back atmosphere and unbeatable sunset views.
Top ten most populars song
1.My Boy Lollipop – Millie Small
2.Eastern Standard Time – The Skatalites
3.Blood and Fire – Niney Holness
4.Duppy Conqueror – The Wailers
5.Satta Masa Gana – The Abyssinians
6.The Harder They Come – Jimmy Cliff
7.Get Up Stand Up – The Wailers
8.One Love – Bob Marley and The Wailers
9.Sleng Teng – Wayne Smith
10.Untold Stories – Buju Banton
family surname meaning
Spanish towm website--
Maps'Jamaica Maps thru the years
The Antiquarian & Trading Company Limited 30 Hope Road, Kingston -
Antiques et Objects d'Art 57 Dumbarton Avenue (10), Kingston (876) 960-3880
Bolivar Bookshop & Gallery1D Grove Road (10), Kingston- (876) 926-8799
Muir Patrick 8 Salvia ,Kingston- (876) 969-6790
Relics Antique Shop 120 Barbican Road,Kingston - (876) 927-6575
Article of interest--
The Taino People--
A slave ship speaks--
Captain John Campbell
Treasures of Christopher Columbus--
Buccaneer in the W I XVII-- http://www.thepirateking.com/books/books_buccaneersintewestindies_ch01.htm
The History of Jamaica and Christopher Columbus invasion of the Island:
Mixed race studies--
Story of Thanksgiving--
The Folly of Forgiveness
The Tribes Of Jamaica
There are mainly eight tribes that are indigenous to the Caribbean. They are: the Arawak, the Carib, the Ciboney, the Galibi, the Garifuna, the Igneri, the Lucayan and the Taino. The Arawak are the first natives of the Caribbean islands encountered by Christopher Columbus and the Spanish explorers when they arrived on the islands. They are Amerindians and include such tribes as the Taino, the Lucayan, the Bimini, the Nepoya, the Suppoyo, the Igneri and the Lokono.
Jamaica was then inhabited by a gentle race of people called the Arawaks or Tainos. They had probably come from the country now known as Guyana, where Arawak Indians are still to be found. They were short people, rather stout, with straight black hair and flattish noses; they were copper-coloured. They lived in huts shaped like those of the peasants of Jamaica. They slept in hammocks. They made rough seats of wood, and spears tipped with stone, or with the teeth of sharks. They did not have the bow and arrow. The men were skilful fishermen, and caught fish and turtle to eat. They made their cooking vessels out of clay, and burnt them in fire till they became hard. The women grew cassava, corn and sweet potatoes for food. Cotton grew wild in the island, and they twisted the fibre into cloth, strips of which they wore around their waists. They also wore strings of beads and shells.
British Baptist Offer apology for trans atlantic slave trade Nov 16 07
Trini Henry Sylvester williams--
jamaica parish reg records--Halls of Jamaica etc marriages births deaths nice listhttp://freepages.history.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~hallsofjamaica/APPENDIX%207%20Parish%20Register%20Extracts.htm
Olive tree Blogs--
Jamaica, West Indies: M 1796-1800 from The Columbian Magazine or Monthly Miscellany: in Caribbeana, vol. 4 [Microfiche] [WI/PER/17642]
Jamaica, West Indies: MIs [WI/M 7-7A]
Jamaica, West Indies: Jewish MIs 1663-1880 [WI/M 10]
Jamaica, West Indies: Monumental inscriptions of the British West Indies from the earliest date, with genealogical & historical annotations from original local & other sources illustrative of the histories & genealogies of the 17th century, the calendars of state papers, peerages & baronetages, with engravings of the arms of the principal families [WI/M 2]
A list of landholders in Jamaica 1750: Caribbeana, vol. 4, page 95 [WI/PER/17642]
Ford & Cundall’s handbook of Jamaica 1907 [WI/D 1907]
Abstracts of Jamaica wills, 1625-1792 in the British Museum (Add. MSS 34181) [Microfilm] [Mf 1101]
Alphabetical index to early wills of Jamaica, West Indies, 1655-1816 [compiled from] PCC wills 1655-1816 [& from the] Registrar General’s Office, Spanish Town 1662-1750 [WI/L 57]
Jamaica: a list of wills relating to this island proved in the PCC from 1655-1810: in Caribbeana, vol. 2 [Microfiche] [WI/PER/17640]
Jamaican inventories of probated estates (lists 1674-94 & 1699-1701): Caribbean Genealogical & Historical Journal, vol. 2, no. 2 [WI/PER]
A list of all testators whose wills are on record in the Office of the Island Secretary, Jamaica, from 1731-1750: Caribbeana, vol. 2 [Microfiche] [WI/PER/17640]
Names of persons whose wills are registered in Jamaica previous to 1700 [1663-99]: in Caribbeana, vol. 1 [Microfiche] [WI/PER/17639]
Scottish-Jamaican testaments (an index to wills in the Jamaican Record Office): The Scottish Genealogist, vol. 35, no. 1 [SC/PER]
The Society has material on the following and other places in the island of Jamaica. For details please click on the link to the on-line catalogue and do a Subject search for the place name.
Falmouth, Trelawney | Kingston | Lucea (Hanover parish church & churchyard) | Maroons Town St. James Flagstaff Cemetery | Montego Bay St. James | Port Royal | Spanish Town | St. Andrew | St. Catherine | St. James Barrett burial ground
Slave index stith and related family --
The Women Resistance See''' Pettioat Rebellion'''
women in slavery--
during-slavery-by-lucille-mathurin-mair-dennis-ranston.jsp Enslaved Jamaicans tended to come from the Akan, Bantu, Igbo, Fon and other Kongo people. There were also the Yoruba, Efik and "Moko" people. Field slaves fetched £25- £75
Pieces of the past whats in a name
Noel coward --http://blueharb.com/home/index.php?page=history
William Alexander Clarke was born in Blenheim, Hanover, in 1884 to an Irish planter, Robert Constantine Clarke and his coloured Jamaican wife, Mary Clarke
Shippig Slave --http://aliceamericanrevolution.blogspot.com/
Wars in Jamaica
Jewish Pirates I the Caribbean--by ed kritzler
not born but lived in jamaica
Jamaica genealogy inks
Jamaica kincaid story--http://motherjones.com/politics/1997/09/jamaica-kincaid-hates-happy-endings
The story of Porus
the Company of Royal Adventurers. England involment in slavery
involvement in-- http://hnn.us/articles/41431.html
very good info for ports etc-- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_slave_trade