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Jewish families from Horažďovice, Bohemia, Czech Republic

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  • Walter Glauber (1899 - 1942)
    20 Glauber Karel 14.06.1937 Horažďovice Cd, 124, Klatovy, 26.11.1942 Ds, 2219, Terezín, 18.12.1943, Osvětim CZ 21 Glauber Valtr 07.06.1899 Horažďovice Cd, 122, Klatovy, 26.11.1942 Ds, 2220, Terezín, 1...
  • Viktor Furth (1893 - 1984)
    Noted architect who worked in Prague until forced to flee his home at the outbreak of World War II in 1939. He came to the United States where he became professor of architecture at Miami University a...
  • Amalie Popper (aft.1902 - aft.1943)
    Death record: Born 14. 02. 1902 Last residence before deportation: Bechyně Transport Bz, no. 260 (12. 11. 1942, Tábor -> Terezín) Transport Dm, no. 4634 (06. 09. 1943, Terezín -> Auschwitz)...
  • Franziska Löwy (1865 - 1944)
    Frumit Loewyova was born in Horazdovice in 1865 to Lozer. She was a housewife and married to Josef. Prior to WWII she lived in Horazdovice, Czechoslovakia. During the war she was in Horazdovice, Czecho...
  • Vilém Eisner (1900 - 1942)
    Marriage record: PRAHA 2722 O 1926 (i) (10/26)

This project seeks to collect all of the Jewish families from the town of Horažďovice in Bohemia, Czech Republic.

From The Lives of the Jews of Horažďovice published by Westminster Synagogue, 2012:


Horažd’ovice is a small town of fewer than 6000 inhabitants 100 km south-west of Prague in the historic region of Bohemia. A Jewish presence is believed to have existed from ancient times and the first written reference to the Jewish community is contained in the records of the Thirty Years War (1618 to 1648) which indicate that 10 Jewish families were present in 1618. The earliest surviving deed shows the purchaseof a house by the Jew Eliah Stastny from the widow Eliska Kovarová in 1629.

Archival evidence indicates that a Jewish cemetery existed in 1619. The first synagogue and Jewish school were founded in 1684. Officially banned from guilds, the early Jewish residents were farmers and traders. The earliest Jewish homes were concentrated in an area that is now called Prácheňská Street.

The Jews of Horažd’ovice were subject to orders and decrees that made life extraordinarily difficult throughout much of their entire history.

In the 17th century, the number of Jewish residents in Horažd’ovice was limited to 10 families, partially in an effort to discourage competition for local tradesmen. Renting homes to Jews was strictly prohibited:

"Because Adam Crabec unlawfully rented his house to the Jew for 16 guilders which he did against the ordinances, he is granted a place in the local manor jail"….Horažd’ovice Town Records, 14 June 1647

Town hall meetings illustrate how the ten-family limit was strictly enforced:

"They will write to his Excellency the Earl that they had heard another Jew was about to come to town and will ask him to keep the current number of Jewish inhabitants and not allow any others to come here."....Horažd’ovice Town Hall Meeting Minutes, 1710

The restrictions on Horažd’ovice Jews were all-embracing. In the late 17th century, an edict prohibited the Jews from allowing their cattle to graze with the communal herd. This imposed severe hardship and the Jewish community sent the following plea to the town:

"Our predecessors and we, until now, were allowed to pasture goats in the communal herd. Now unfortunately, we are denied that and the shepherd cannot accept them into the herd although we paid him for it. We meekly ask you to accept two pieces per family into the herd so that we are able to feed our children."….Horažd’ovice Town Archives, 1682

In 1687, Jews were targeted further with special taxes, prohibitions on carrying firearms and an even more foreboding edict:

"Jews were required to wear yellow cloth badges and if someone caught a Jew who did not have this sign he would take half of everything that the Jew had on him.”

The situation of the Horažd’ovice Jews at the end of the 17th century has been described as “terribly desolate” and the records show that the Jew Salamoun Konif abandoned his house and fled in desperation with his wife and children in 1692.

Jewish traders passing through the town were a constant focus of the non-Jewish residents because of perceived competition. According to an edict of 18th August 1713, the town had to look out for them because they were afraid “these Jews could bring plague infection with them”. Guards were hired to surround the town and the local Jews were ordered to pay the cost.

The most far-reaching restrictions were a series of measures known as the “Family Laws”, introduced by Austrian Emperor Charles VI in 1726 and designed to limit Jewish population numbers. All marriages between Jews required the State’s permission.

No Jew under the age of 30 could marry and only the eldest male in each family was permitted to do so. The result was that large numbers of Jewish children were stigmatized with the entry of “illegitimate” on the birth registers. Since only the eldest male could marry, younger siblings sometimes left their family and native town to avoid the shame that they were “living in sin”.

The repeal of the Family Laws in the mid 1800s launched what many regard as the “golden age” of Horažd’ovice Jewry. By 1890, the Jewish community reached its peak population of 300 – 9% of the total population. The influence of the Jewish community however was far greater as they were the driving force behind much of Horažd’ovice’s Industrial Revolution.

In 1873, Samuel Kohn opened a matchstick factory that produced matches with colourful wax heads in decorative boxes for export to the east. On the adjacent property, a paper manufacturing plant owned by Rud, Firth and Bernard Gans was particularly important as it employed many workers and purchased straw from local farmers. This early business interaction with the Non-Jewish community likely accelerated the process of acceptance and assimilation.

In 1898, Heřman Steiner, Zikmund Friedler and Josef Geschmay opened a starch factory which was so successful that it inspired potato farmers across Bohemia to form an agricultural cooperative, which purchased the factory in 1912. It still operates today as LYCKEBY AMYLEX and is the largest producer of potato starch in the Czech Republic.

Perhaps the best known Jewish business in Horažd’ovice’s was the vinegar and spirits company “Münz Brothers” founded by Simon Münz in 1831 and famed for its “Münzovka” whiskey. Expanded by his sons, Eduard and Karel Münz, and later by František and Pavel Münz, it became the largest distributor of spirits and vinegar in the region and was the sole distributor of almost all foreign wines and domestic mineral waters.

In 1859, Heřman Katz founded what was to become the largest grocery mercantile house in southern Bohemia. In 1907, his son Otto Katz founded a wholesale grocery house which was as prosperous as his father’s shop and his brother Eduard Katz founded an ironworks shop. Eduard Steiner purchased an ironworks shop in 1907. His partnership with Žibřid Porges was tremendously successful as they were the first suppliers to the Balkans after WWI with shipments of more than 200 wagonloads of enameled and iron goods.

In 1919, Eduard Steiner purchased Vienna’s famed Riesenrad Ferris wheel. Beginning in the 1870s, Jews were active as corn traders including J. Dušner, Vilém Kohn, Bernard Gans, and Heřman Steiner. Jews active as livestock traders included Heřman Adler, Leopold Levý, Josef Löwy and his children Jakub, Richard, Jaroslav and Frida. Moritz Steiner successfully traded in agricultural machinery beginning in 1890, expanding to sell bicycles, sewing machines and gramophones. Jewish textile traders included K. Sabat, Rudolf Fantl, Gustav Fischl, Ludvik Löwy and Leopold Treichlinger and the grocery shop of Ern. Kohn and the egg trade of Max Kafka were also successful.

"On the whole we can declare that through commerce, the Jews in Horažďovice either became affluent or were at least comfortable, for which they thank firstly their highly developed sense for trading and also the solid foundation of their enterprises"…. Karel Němec,State Conservator, Horažďovice, 1934

The community in Horažd’ovice was officially German during Austrian rule. In 1885, Eduard Münz was elected representative of the Jews announcing:

“We, the Jews, live here in the wholly Czech region and we have no interest in German language. Therefore I make a proposal here for the Jewish community to use the Czech language in their offices and also to have prayers in Czech in the synagogue at funerals and for the inscriptions on the gravestones to be in Czech as well.”

His proposal was accepted and the Czech language was established for all official dealings. Rabbi Martin Friedmann was asked to conduct prayers in the synagogue in Czech despite his knowledge of only three Czech words. He promised that he would conduct prayers in Czech and, after much study, he fulfilled that promise with honour.

While close-knit, the Horažďovice Jewish community was rapidly assimilating with the native Czech population. At the beginning of the 20th century, many of the homes on Prácheňská Street were still owned by Jews, but unlike conventional ghettos, Jewish and non-Jewish homes now stood side by side and Jews often lived outside the ghetto boundaries.

One of the community’s favourite pastimes was football. The SK Horažd’ovice football club roster in 1921 included Viktor Porges, Ludvik Löwy and Jarka Adler. Gustav Fischl was a founding star player. Attending the celebration of the club’s 65th anniversary in Horažd’ovice in 1985, he was presented with a book inscribed:

"'Comrade Fischl Gustav, the oldest club player on the occasion of the 65th anniversary of the establishment of the club'…SK Sport Horažd’ovice"

The Horažďovice Jews were also not oblivious to the needs of the wider Jewish community. The Horažďovice Town Chronicle reported the welcoming of 100 Jewish refugees from Galicia on 15 November 1914 in response to a humanitarian appeal.

The city council and the fire brigade greeted the train and collections of clothing were organized. After being quarantined at the Boys School, the refugees were placed with local Jewish families. The local paper inflamed the town’s non-Jewish residents by reporting that the Boy’s School was “virtually destroyed” and it questioned, “how could Polish Jews live in this fashion?”

The cultural differences between the Horažďovice Jews and the Polish Jews also quickly became apparent. The Polish Jews were described as “relentlessly demanding respect of religious practices including requesting kosher meat when none was available”. Tempers flared and the situation ultimately became unpopular with all, Jews and non-Jews alike.

A significant number of Jews emigrated from Horažďovice from 1850 to 1938, particularly to the USA, Australia and South America, some inspired by the community’s international business perspective. Adolph Sabath, emigrated to the US in 1881 aged 15 and served in the US House of Representatives for 48 years representing the 5th Congressional district of Illinois.

In 1880, Sigmund Eisner emigrated to the US from Horažďovice aged 21 with the family sewing machine. By 1922 the Sigmund Eisner Company in Red Bank, NJ became the largest manufacturer of uniforms in the US with over 2,000 employees; it became the exclusive supplier for the Boy Scouts of America after providing uniforms for the Spanish-American War. His great-grandson Michael Eisner was CEO of the Walt Disney Company from 1984 to 2005.

Horažďovice’s Jewish community seemed well positioned when the German Army entered on 15 March 1939 to declare the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia of the Third Reich, but all was soon to change.


The lives of Horažďovice’s Jews changed dramatically within days of German occupation. Excerpts from the Horažďovice Town Chronicle capture an endless set of increasingly harsh restrictions:

“All Jews are dismissed from their jobs.” 1 April 1939
“All Jewish Families must give up their radio receivers.” 22 September 1939
“Jews are banned from bars.”
“Jews may only enter barbers on Wednesday afternoons.” 25 September 1939
“Jewish shops gradually close.” January 1940
“Münz Wholesale forced to relinquish control to commissioner.” 5 March 1940
“All remaining Jewish businesses are closed.” 1 July 1940
“Jews students are banned from public schools.”
“Jews may only shop at stores 11:00-11:30 and 16:00-17:00.” 14 August 1940
“Social relations with Jews prohibited, including talking and greeting.” 25 October 1940
“Münz Brothers business sold to Schwecke, Haas & Co, previous owner evicted.” 1 January 1941
“Jews obligated to forced labour.”
“Jews banned from public venues.” January 1941
“Jews conscripted for forced labour in forestry, starch factory and collection of field samples." 1 May 1941
“14 Jewish families evicted from their homes.” 8 September 1941
“Jews forced to wear yellow stars.” 15 September 1941
“Jews are forbidden to buy poultry, sweets, fruit, preserves, cheeses and fish.” 26 October 1941
“Jews’ cattle confiscated.” 1 March 1942
“Confiscated Jewish property sold to those with positive attitudes to the Reich.” September 1942
“All Jewish families were assembled and transported by train to Klatovy for transfer to Teresienstadt. Only three families in mixed marriages remain.” 23 November 1942


93 Jews were transferred from Horažd’ovice via railway on transport Cd to Terezín on the 26th November 1942. Six Jews were deported by other means. Only seven survived. Today, not one Jew lives in Horažd’ovice.

The names of those who perished:

Růžena Adlerová (68) Otto Adler (34) Jakub Adler (76) Karel Adler (51) Jaroslav Adler (48) Josef Adler (36) Tomy Adler (8) Jindřiška Adlerová (33) Lili Alderová (age unknown) Hanuš Petr Deutsch (11) Ela Deutshová (38) Zikmund Edelstein (77) Eliska Edelstein (71) Otto Edelstein (44) Josefa Ehrenfreundová (43) Bertold Eisner (73) Vilem Eisner (42) Anna Eisnerová (40)) Františka Eisnerová (73) Milena Eisnerová (5) Jan Elters (54) Barbora Elters (43) Aharon Elters (31) Karel Fantl (20) Rudolf Fantl (59) Anna Fantlová (55) Karel Fischer (42) Elsa Fischerová (31) Oskar (Cvi) Fischl (42) Adéla Fischlová (42) Ema Fischlová (68) Ota Fried (58) Martin Friedman (82) Elsa Friedmanová (48) Karel Glauber (7) Valtr Glauber (43) Gertrude Glauber (30) Karel Kafka (57) Osvald Kafka (35) Otakar Kafka (34) Berta Kafková (59) Eduard Katz (76) Jaroslav Katz (38) Karel Katz (28) Osvald Katz (41) Emilie (Pesl) Katzová (56) Terezie Katzová (64) Gabriela Kaudersová (58) Artur Klein (37) David Klein (85) Rudolf Klein (67) Valtr Klein (34) Efrosina Kleinová (63) Sali (Sorl) Kleinová (83) Žofie (Sarche) Kleinová (63) Arnošt Kohn (62) Evženie Kohnová (42) Vojtěch Lederer (82) Rerina Ledererová (74) Josefa Ledererová (61) David Loheit (67) Elsa Loheitová (34) Khaia (Josefa) Loheitová (59) Alice Löwenstammová (70) Olga Löwenstammová (40) Alfréd Löwy (47) František Löwy (14) Josef Löwy (79) Leo Löwy (15) Ludvík Löwy (45) Richard Löwy (52) Emilie (Blimele)Löwyová (35) Františka (Frumit) Lowyová (78) Hana Löwyová (7) Marketa Löwyová (41) Růžena (Reijzl) Löwyová (45) Zdenka Löwyová (13) Zikmund Mautner (41) František Münz (57) Hugo Münz (30) Malvina Münzová (50) Josefa Pisingerová (43) Valerie Popper (47) Oskar Rainmann (60) Elsa Raimannová (55) Erna Reikh (age unknown) Růžena Reichová (17) Arnold Schwartz (39) Arnost Schwarz (19) Gustav Schwarz (54) Elsa Schwarzová (51) Helena Schwarzová (24) Irma Schwarzová (47) Markéta Schwarzová (49) Bedřiška Singerová (38) Berta Singerová (69) Mořic Steiner (81) Josefa Steinerová (71) Vilem Swarz (age unknown) Artur Treichlinger (53) Jiří (Rene)Treichlinger (7) Josef Treichlinger (56) Charlota Treichlingerová (83) Eva Treichlingerová (6) Gabriela Treichlingerová (45) Herta Treichlingerová (33) Karel Weiner (66) Leo Weiner (39) Amalie Weinerová (c.66) Antonie Weinerová (27) Růžena Weisová (61)


The ten torah scrolls from the Horažďovice synagogue were among the 1,564 CzechTorah Scrolls rescued by London's Westminster Synagogue in 1964. The Memorial Scrolls Trust: was set up to repair them and loan them to synagogues throughout the world so that they could be used to commemorate the lost Jewish communities of Bohemia.

Westminster Synagogue holds one of the scrolls and has produced a book The Lives of the Jews of Horažďovice containing the history of the Horažďovice's Jewish community and its fate.

Members of Westminster Synagogue traveled to Horažďovice with Shlomo Fischl, the town's sole living holocaust survivor, who guided the group with his personal recollections of the Horažďovice Jewish community and gave first hand testimony of the deportation of the town's Jews to Terezin on November 23, 1942, Video of Westminster Synagogue Visit to Horažďovice

Horažďovice Families


A. First Generation

Michael Eisner (c.1750-1820) married Rosina Eisner

B. Second Generation

Children of Michael Eisner and Rosina Eisner (1756-1840)

Abraham Eisner (1801-1870) married Rosina Bloch

C. Third Generation

Children of Abraham Eisner and Rosina Bloch

Josef Eisner (1828-1896) married Josefa Eisner (Weiss) (1829-1911)
Michael Eisner married Katerina-Eisner
Leopold Eisner (1834-1882) married Marie Eisner (Funk) (c18358-1865) and Marie Eisner (Hasterlik) (1846-1922)
Jakub Eisner (1836-)
Alois Eisner (1843-1902)
Josepha Eisner Steiner






A. First Generation

Valtr Glaubr (1899-1943) married Gertruda Glauber (Zinner) (1909-1943)

B. Second Generation

Child of Valtr Glaubr (1899-1943) and Gertruda Glauber (Zinner) (1909-1943)

Karel Glaubr (1937-1943)