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Riksdag of Sweden

The Riksdag (Swedish: Riksdagen) is the national legislature and the supreme decision-making body of Sweden. Since 1971, the Riksdag has been a unicameral legislature with 349 members (riksdagsledamöter), elected proportionally and serving, from 1994 onwards, on fixed four-year terms.

The seat of the Riksdag is at Parliament House (Swedish: Riksdagshuset) on the island of Helgeandsholmen in the central parts of Stockholm. The Riksdag has its institutional roots in the feudal Riksdag of the Estates, by tradition thought to have first assembled in Arboga in 1435, and in 1866 following reforms of the 1809 Instrument of Government that body was transformed into a bicameral legislature with an upper chamber (Första Kammaren) and a lower chamber (Andra Kammaren).
https://s3.amazonaws.com/photos.geni.com/p13/05/34/d9/f5/5344485cb2de271a/riksdag_sweden_1_large.jpgThe Riksdag from the outside

Name

The Swedish word riksdag, in definite form riksdagen, is a general term for "parliament" or "assembly", but it is typically only used for Sweden's legislature and certain related institutions. In addition to Sweden's parliament, it is also used for the Parliament of Finland and the Estonian Riigikogu, as well as the historical German Reichstag and the Danish Rigsdagen. In Swedish use, riksdagen is usually uncapitalized. Riksdag derives from the genitive of rike, referring to royal power, and dag, meaning diet or conference; the German word Reichstag and the Danish Rigsdag are cognate. The Oxford English Dictionary traces English use of the term "Riksdag" in reference to the Swedish assembly back to 1855.

History

The precursor to the modern Riksdag was the Riksdag of the Estates (Swedish: Ståndsriksdagen). Of ancient origin in the Viking Things, the 1435 meeting in the town of Arboga is considered the first Riksdag, however only three of the estates were probably present the nobility, the clergy and the burghers. This informal representation was formalized in 1527 by King Gustav I of Sweden to include representatives of all the four estates, which historically reflected the lines of division in Swedish society: the nobility, the clergy, the burghers and the peasantry. Under the Instrument of Government of 1809 the Riksdag shared the powers of government with the King.

The New Riksdag

On the basis of the 1863 electoral reform bill the Estates voted in 1866 to dissolve the Riksdag of the Estates and establish a new Riksdag. The new Riksdag was a political assembly with two chambers where the members were chosen in national elections.

The revolution was that citizens could participate and vote in the elections without regard to which Estate they had hitherto belonged; instead there were new requirements on income or wealth, i.e. census suffrage. Despite the fundamental change in the principles of representation, the social composition of the Riksdag did not alter by much, and the system of government had not changed. Under the Constitution of 1809 the Riksdag still divided the powers of government with the King.

Democracy emerges

From the second half of the 19th century, when the Riksdag was founded, until the early 20th century, Swedish society underwent a number of fundamental changes that impacted on the political system. Political demands, but also sheer economic progress, increased the share of citizens eligible to vote and have a direct influence on the political system. This in turn also sponsored the emergence and growth of political parties. The Riksdag had also been able to assert itself against the Royal authority and a de facto parliamentary system had begun to emerge. As of the general election in 1921, universal and equal franchise was introduced for men and women alike, and the Riksdag finally achieved a system of democratic representation for all citizens who were at least 23 years old on election day.

The last time the king attempted to exercise political authority was in February 1914 when King Gustav V delivered a speech to 30,000 peasants, assembled on the yard of the Royal Castle in Stockholm, an action which precipitated the fall the incumbent liberal cabinet, headed by Prime Minister Karl Staaff. In the face of popular unrest and gains for Liberals and Socialists in general elections 1917 the King hesitantly accepted to appoint a new Cabinet in accordance with the principles of Parliamentarism. The new government's main task was to present bills on democratization. The voting franchise had been extended to all adult males in 1907 and women's suffrage gave them the same rights in 1921. By this Sweden had established a democratic and parliamentary system of government.

Constitutional reform

In the 1960s debates intensified over constitutional reform in Sweden. The fundamental question was over the system of government. Even though a de facto parliamentary system was firmly established, somewhat similar to the situation in the United Kingdom, there were demands for a more democratic constitution. One of the main issues was whether the monarchy would survive constitutional reform and this blocked the issue for a long time.

Effective from 1970 a reform of the Riksdag had been agreed upon. Though not technically part of the constitution it showed that the parties in the Riksdag were able to agree upon fundamental changes of the political system, which transformed the Riksdag from a bicameral legislature into a unicameral one. This would have 350 seats, all of which would be filled by direct election. However, the second general election to the unicameral Riksdag only gave the government support from 175 members, while the opposition could mobilize an equal force of 175 members, resulting in what became known as the "lottery Riksdag", in which the Speaker had to draw lots to resolve deadlocked votes. In 1974 it was decided that the number of seats from 1977 were to be reduced to 349.

Present

In 1974 a new Instrument of Government was established as a vital part of the Constitution and for the system of government. The monarchy was retained, whereas the monarch lost all formal political influence and became only a symbolic head of state. Several of the traditional head-of-state functions have instead been transferred to the Speaker of the Riksdag.

The Riksdag performs the normal functions of a legislature in a parliamentary democracy. It enacts laws, amends the constitution and appoints a government. In most parliamentary democracies, the head of state commissions a politician to form a government. Under the new Instrument of Government (one of the four fundamental laws of the Constitution) enacted in 1974, that task was removed from the Monarch of Sweden and given to the Speaker of the Riksdag. To make changes to the Constitution under the new Instrument of Government, amendments must be approved twice, in two successive electoral periods with a regular general election held in between.

There are 15 parliamentary committees in the Riksdag.

Elections

All 349 members of the Riksdag are elected in the general elections held every four years. All Swedish citizens who turn 18 years old no later than on the day of the election are eligible to vote in and stand for elections. A minimum of 4% of the national vote is required for a party to enter the Riksdag, alternatively 12% or more within a constituency. Substitutes for each deputy are elected at the same time as each election, so by-elections are rare. In the event of a snap election, the newly elected members merely serve the remainder of the four-year term.
https://s3.amazonaws.com/photos.geni.com/p13/2c/f7/c6/5a/5344485cb2de271b/riksdag_sweden_2_large.jpgThe Riksdag from within

Sveriges riksdag

Sveriges riksdag, riksdagen, är Sveriges lagstiftande församling. De av folket valda representanterna på riksnivå, riksdagsledamöterna, samlas i riksdagen, som har 349 ledamöter och leds av en talman. Grundlagsändringen för allmän rösträtt genomförs 1921, när också andrakammarvalet 1921 hölls. Riksdagsval i Sverige sker vart fjärde år den andra söndagen i september månad. Riksmötet öppnar den andra tisdagen i september, varje år utom de år allmänt val hålls. Mandaten fördelas enligt jämkade uddatalsmetoden. Historiskt sett kan ordet riksdag ha tre betydelser: dels det beslutande och politiska organet, dels den tidsperiod under året då riksdagsarbetet pågår (sedan införandet av nuvarande regeringsform 1975 formellt kallat ”riksmöte”) och dels själva byggnaden. Sveriges riksdag har sitt säte i riksdagshuset i Stockholm.

https://s3.amazonaws.com/photos.geni.com/p13/05/34/d9/f5/5344485cb2de271a/riksdag_sweden_1_large.jpgRiksdagshuset

Lista över talmän i Sveriges riksdag

Höglovliga ridderskapet och adeln

Högvördiga Prästerskapet

Vällovliga Borgarståndet

Hedervärda Bondeståndet


Ruotsin valtiopäivät

Ruotsin valtiopäivät (ruots. Sveriges riksdag tai riksdagen) on Ruotsin eduskuntaa vastaava lakeja säätävä elin, joka kokoontuu vaaleilla valittuna ryhmän puhemiehen johtamana. Ruotsiin tuli vuonna 1909 pitkän julkisen keskustelun jälkeen osittainen äänioikeus toiseen kamariin, ja yleinen ja yhtäläinen äänioikeus lopulta 1921.

Vaalit

Historialliset valtiopäivät pois lukien, nykyään Ruotsin valtiopäivillä on 349 edustajapaikkaa, joista 310 valitaan 29 vaalipiiristä ja 39 valitaan tasauspaikkoina, joilla taataan puolueille valtakunnallisen suhteellisuuden tarkempi toteutuminen. Vaalipiirien paikkaluvut määräytyvät piirin asukasmäärän perusteella. Valtiopäivävaalien äänikynnys on valtakunnallisesta tuloksesta laskettava 4%. Henkilökohtaiset äänet asettavat valtiopäivävaaleissa ehdokkaan ohi puoluelistan, jos ehdokas saa 8% tai enemmän puolueen saamasta äänimäärästä.

Äänestyskelpoisia ovat 18 vuotta viimeistään vaalipäivänä täyttäneet Ruotsin kansalaiset, jotka ovat jossain elämänsä vaiheessa asuneet Ruotsissa.
https://s3.amazonaws.com/photos.geni.com/p13/05/34/d9/f5/5344485cb2de271a/riksdag_sweden_1_large.jpgRiksdagshset

Alun perin Ruotsissa ei ollut koko kansan kansalliskokouksia, vaan suurimmat / vanhimmat miehet kokoontuivat päättääkseen yhteisistä asioista.

Kansakokous (Riksmöte) syntyi neuvostojen kokouksista ja niiden jatkamisesta herrojenpäivänä (herredagen), joka koostui aatelistosta, papistosta, porvareista ja talonpoikaissädun edustajista, samoin kuin Suomessa.

Ensimmäinen tunnettu kutsu kansankokoukseen on vuodelta 1359, mutta kokousta ei todennäköisesti koskaan pidetty. Ensimmäiset tunnetut valtiopäivät om ns. Arbogan kokous tai Arbogan herrainpäivät (ruots. Arboga möte) oli vuonna 1435 Arbogassa pidetty kokous, jossa keskusteltiin ja päätettiin Ruotsin valtion asioita. Tästä syystä sitä yleensä kutsutaan Ruotsin ensimmäisiksi valtiopäiviksi. Tätä kokousta on pidetty Ruotsin ensimmäisinä valtiopäivinä, jossa kaikki säädyt olivat koolla, joskin on on epätodennäköistä, että talonpoikien sääty oli kutsuttu.

Syy kokoukseen oli vuosi aiemmin tapahtunut Bergslagenin kapina, jota johti Engelbrekt Engelbrektinpoika. Kapina levisi nopeasti ympäri Ruotsia ja Tanskalle kuuluvaa Hallandia ja Eerik Pommerilainen syrjäytettiin vallasta. Herrainpäivillä Engelbrekt valittiin Ruotsin sotajoukkojen johtajaksi (ruots. rikshövitsman). Myöhemmin samana vuonna Eerik Pommerilainen sai valtansa takaisin 14. lokakuuta luvattuaan hoitaa velvollisuuksiaan paremmin.

Näitä herrainkokouksia ei kuitenkaan vielä kutsuttu parlamenteiksi, vaan vasta 1500-luvun puolivälistä lähtien (todistettu ensin asiakirjalla 1544) heidät (luultavasti saksalaisen mallin mukaan) alettiin nimetä nimellä: Riksdag, jota käytettiin sitten erottamaan heidät todellisista herrojen päivistä, komiteoiden kokouksista ja maakunnan kokouksista.