What is the historical context behind the Macbeth of history, beyond the story told by his most famous biographer - KIng James I? In this project I'm hoping to collect the historical profiles of this complex cast of characters. -Sharon
- [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macbeth_(play) Summary of Shakespeare's Play]
- [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macbeth_(1971_film) Summary of Polanski's Film]
- Gaelic Naming Traditions
- Genealogy of King James VI of Scotland, I of England
- Excerpts from 'Holinshead's Chronicles, Volume V: Scotland'
- Valerie Doughty’s article: ‘The Real Macbeth's Battle at Dunsinane Hill’
- 'Toil and Trouble' The Rev. J.A. Wylie in his 'History Of The Scottish Nation' (published in 1886)
- How Cawdor Castle came to be associated with Macbeth
- Newes from Scotland James VI's horrible little piece if writing about how he had a witch burned for causing him bad sea weather
- Internet article on James I as Shakespeare's patron
- Internet analysis of James' writing the National Body
- Andrew of Wyntoun's 1420 poem: Macbeth and the Weird Sisters
- [http://ia700409.us.archive.org/33/items/cu31924077097958/cu31924077... Chapter 1 of Alan Orr Anderson, Early Sources of Scottish History], 2 vols. (Edinburgh, 1922, reprinted Stamford, 1990).
Play's Dramatis Personae
- DUNCAN, King of Scotland
- MALCOLM, elder son of Duncan
- DONALBAIN, younger son of Duncan
- MACBETH, Thane of Glamis and Cawdor, a general in the King's army
- LADY MACBETH, his wife
- BANQUO, Thane of Lochaber, a general in the King's army
- FLEANCE, his son
- MACDUFF, Thane of Fife, a nobleman of Scotland
- LADY MACDUFF, his wife
- LENNOX, nobleman of Scotland
- ROSS, nobleman of Scotland
- MENTEITH, nobleman of Scotland
- ANGUS, nobleman of Scotland
- CAITHNESS, nobleman of Scotland
- SIWARD, Earl of Northumberland, general of the English forces
- YOUNG SIWARD, his son
- SEYTON, attendant to Macbeth
- Another Lord
- An English Doctor
- A Scottish Doctor
- A Sergeant
- Boy, Son of Macduff
- Gentlewoman attending on Lady Macbeth
- A Captain serving Duncan
- A Porter
- An Old Man
- Three Murderers of Banquo
- First Murderer at Macduff's castle
- Messenger to Lady Macbeth
- Messenger to Lady Macduff
- Servant to Lady Macbeth
- Servant to Lady Macduff
- Three witches or weird sisters
- HECATE, Queen of the Witches
- Three Apparitions
- (Lords, Gentlemen, Officers, Soldiers, Murderers, Attendants, and Messengers)
(Clear & Succinct Article by Bill Robertson, unfortunately citing no sources.)
The first King of the House of Atholl was Duncan I, who reigned from 1034 to 1040. He was the first High King of Scots descended from the Kin of St. Columba and in turn a forefather of Clan Donnachaidh. His ascent to the throne was extremely controversial and changed the succession thereafter.
From the time that Kenneth MacAlpin. The great advantage of this system was that minors never achieved the crown, as happened to Scotland’s detriment in later times after the system was discarded.
Scotland in the 11th century was a tribal Celtic land. The area nominally within the zone of influence of the High King did not include the far north of Sutherland and Caithness, or the Orkneys and the Western Isles which came under control of the King of Norway. Scotland was divided into six tribal areas ruled by Mormaers, or High Stewards; there were also two kingdoms in the south. The tribal areas were Atholl, Moray, Angus & Mearns, Mar & Buchan, Fife and lastly Strathearn. The largest of these Stewardships was Moray which went from the east coast to the west coast. Atholl was second largest, the name Atholl being derived from the old gaelic, meaning “New Ireland”. Third was Strathearn which included the Firth of Clyde and the Firth of Forth. South of Strathearn was the Kingdom of Strathclyde, with its capital, Dumbarton. The second kingdom was the area now called Cumbria in the far southwest. The language of these two kingdoms was Welsh, while the rest spoke Gaelic. The capital of the High King was the small town of Scone. The whole country at this time was essentially rural, dotted with small villages but no large towns. There was a highly developed legal system of Celtic law, the most notable feature being that land was never owned by an individual, but always held in common ownership for the clan.
The position of High King was usually elected from the Mormaers of Moray and Atholl, and those chosen were usually from the one family in Moray and another single family in Atholl. Battles between clans and leaders were common. Giric at the battle of Monzievaird in Strathearn. The High King was regularly engaged in wars against the Norse to the north, the Angles from the south, or the Danes.
After nearly 200 years of alternating Tanist succession, a furious dispute arose when the tradition was broken by Crinan, Archpriest of the Sacred Kindred of St. Columba.
Crinan died trying in vain to save the cathedral.
Malcolm II marched south and captured the kingdom of Bernica.
In 1020 Malcolm MacBodhe killed.
The struggle between Moray and Atholl was growing more acute. Malcolm II died on 25 November 1034, aged 80, at Glammis.
Of these sons, the heir with the closest right to succession was Duncan became Scotland’s first Priest-King, in the style of the earlier Merovingian Kings of Gaul (France). This concept of the monarch as both the sovereign and the religious patriarch remained at the core of Scots culture thereafter.
Soon after Grouch, who now knew the crown was within her husband’s grasp.
Maelmaire Earl of Atholl, from whom Clan Donnachaidh descends.
Unlike Shakespear’s portrait, which presented him as a wise old man, Duncan was young and rash, and not particularly able; he lasted six years as High King. He proved himself incompetent, losing four major battles in endeavors to expand his territory. Contemporary chroniclers describe him as a vicious, bloodthirsty, selfish tyrant.
In 1040 he made the classical blunder of opening a war to gain more territory on two fronts. He marched south with one army to attack northern England, hoping to take advantage of the chaos in England following the death of Harold Harefoot on 17 March and a disputed succession. Before this, Moddan ruler of Caithness and sent a force of Atholl clansmen to enforce that claim.
Going south, Duncan to suffer a massive defeat.
Meanwhile, in the north at the Caithness border, Duncan and the remnants of his fleet withdrew to the Moray Firth.
Meanwhile the Athollmen under Moddan himself was killed.
Duncan was killed by his own men immediately after the battle.
The claim that he was assassinated in Macbeth was almost certainly not there.
Duncan had led the country into expansionist wars north and south, and had lost four battles in a row, Durham, Deerness (at sea), Thurso and Burghead. Add to that the fact that he was very unpopular. An inauspicious start to the reign of the House of Atholl.
Within two weeks of the Battle of Burghead and the death of Macbeth, Mormaer of Moray, was elected High King and enthroned at Scone.
By: William J. Rolfe (The following article was originally published in Shakespeare's Tragedy of Macbeth. Ed. William J. Rolfe. New York: American Book Co., 1918.)
Shakespeare drew the materials for the plot of Macbeth from Holinshed's Chronicles of Englande, Scotlande, and Ireland, the first edition of which was issued in 1577, and the second (which was doubtless the one the poet used) in 1586-87. The extracts from Holinshed in the notes will show that the main incidents are taken from his account of two separate events--the murder of Duncan by Macbeth, and that of King Duffe, the great-grandfather of Lady Macbeth, by Donwald. It will be seen, too, that Shakespeare has deviated in other respects from the chronicle, especially in the character of Banquo.
Although, as Knight remarks, "the interest of Macbeth is not an historical interest," so that it matters little whether the action is true or has been related as true, I may add, for the benefit of my younger readers, that the story of the drama is almost wholly apocryphal. The more authentic history is thus summarized by Sir Walter Scott:
"Duncan, by his mother Beatrice a grandson of Malcolm II, succeeded to the throne on his grandfather's death, in 1033: he reigned only six years. Macbeth, his near relation, also a grandchild of Malcolm II, though by the mother's side, was stirred up by ambition to contest the throne with the possessor. The Lady of Macbeth also, whose real name was Graoch, had deadly injuries to avenge on the reigning prince. She was the granddaughter of Kenneth IV, killed 1003, fighting against Malcolm II, and other causes for revenge animated the mind of her who has been since painted as the sternest of women. The old annalists add some instigations of a supernatural kind to the influence of a vindictive woman over an ambitious husband. Three women, of more than human stature and beauty, appeared to Macbeth in a dream or vision, and hailed him successively by the titles of Thane of Cromarty, Thane of Moray, which the king afterwards bestowed on him, and finally by that of King of Scots; this dream, it is said, inspired him with the seductive hopes so well expressed in the drama.
"Macbeth broke no law of hospitality in his attempt on Duncan's life. He attacked and slew the king at a place called Bothgowan, or the Smith's House, near Elgin, in 1039, and not, as has been supposed, in his own castle of Inverness. The act was bloody, as was the complexion of the times; but, in very truth, the claim of Macbeth to the throne, according to the rule of Scottish succession, was better than that of Duncan. As a king, the tyrant so much exclaimed against was, in reality, a firm, just, and equitable prince. Apprehensions of danger from a party which Malcolm, the eldest son of the slaughtered Duncan, had set on foot in Northumberland, and still maintained in Scotland, seem, in process of time, to have soured the temper of Macbeth, and rendered him formidable to his nobility. Against Macduff, in particular, the powerful Maormor of Fife, he had uttered some threats which occasioned that chief to fly from the court of Scotland. Urged by this new counsellor, Siward, the Danish Earl of Northumberland, invaded Scotland in the year 1054, displaying his banner in behalf of the banished Malcolm. Macbeth engaged the foe in the neighbourhood of his celebrated castle of Dunsinane. He was defeated, but escaped from the battle, and was slain at Lumphanan in 1056."
Whether Shakespeare was ever in Scotland is a question that has been much discussed. Knight (Biography, ed. 1865, p. 420 fol.) endeavours to prove that the poet visited the country in 1589, but most of the editors agree that there is no satisfactory evidence of his having ever been there.
original text from 1420 that is, quite ostensibly, in an Old Scottish dialect of English.
A nycht he thowcht in hys dreamyng,
That syttand he wes besyd the kyng
At a sete in hwntyng; swa
Intil his leisch had grewhundys; twa
He thowcht, quhile he wes swa syttand,
He sawe threw wemen by gangand;
And thai wemen than thowct he
Thre werd systrys mast lyk to be.
The first he hard say, gangang by,
'Lo, yhondyr the Thane of Crumbawchety!'
The tothir woman sayd agane,
'Of Morave yhondyre I se the thane!'
The thryd than sayd, 'I se the kyng!'
All this he herd in his dreamyng...
Sone eftyre that, in his yhowthad,
Of thyr thanydoms he thane wes made;
Syne neyst he thowcht to be king,
Fra Dunkanyis dayis had tane endying.
The fantasy thus of his dreme
Movyd hym mast to sla his eme;
As he dyd all furth in-dede,
As before yhe herd one rede,
And Dame Growky, his emys wyf,
Tuk, and lef wyth hyr hys ly,
And held hyr bathe hys wyf and queyne,
As befor than scho had beyne
Till hys eme qwene, lyvand
Quhen he was kyng with crone rygnend
For lytil in honowre than had he
The greys of affynyte.
All thus quhen his eme was dede,
He succeedyt in his stede;
And sevyntene syntyr full rygnand
As kyng-he wes than in-til Scotland.
All hys tyme wes gret plente
Abowndand, bath on land and se.
He was in justice rycht lawchful,
And till hys legis all awful.
Quhen Leo the tend was Pape of Rome,
As pylgryne to the court he come;
And in his almus he sew sylver
Till all pure folk that had myster;
And all tyme oysyd he to wyrk
Profitably for haly kyrke.
After Makbeth an excellent capteine. The beginning of Duncans reigne was verie quiet and peaceable, without anie notable trouble; but after it was perceiued how negligent he was in punishing offendors, manie misruled person tooke occasion thereof to trouble the peace and quiet state of the common-wealth, by seditious commotions which first had their beginnings in this wise.
Banquho the thane of Lochquhaber, of whom the house of the Stewards is descended, the which by order of linage hath now for a long time inioied* the crowne of Scotland, euen till these our daies, as he gathered the finances due to the king, and further punished somewhat sharplie such as were notorious offendors, being assailed by a number of rebels inhabiting that countrie, and spoiled of the monie and all other things, had much a doo to get awaie with life, after he had receiued sundrie grieuous wounds amongst them. Yet escaping their hands, after hée was somewhat recouered of his hurts, and was able to ride, he repaired to the court, where making his complaint to the king in most earnest wise, he purchased at length* that the offendors were sent for by a sergeant at armes, to appeare to make answer vnto such matters as should be laid to their charge: but they augmenting their mischiefous act with a more wicked déed, after they had misused the messenger with sundrie kinds of reproches, they finallie slue him also.
Then doubting not but for such contemptuous demeanor against the kings regall authoritie, they should be inuaded with all the power the king could make, Makdowald one of great estimation among them, making first a confederacie with his nearest friends and kinsmen, took vpon him to be chief capteine of all such rebels as would stand against the king, in maintenance of their grieuous offenses latelie committed against him. Manie slanderous words also, and railing tants this Makdowald vttered against his prince, calling him a faint-hearted milkesop, more meet to gouerne a sort of idle moonks in some cloister, than to haue the rule of such valiant and hardie men of warre as the Scots were. He vsed also such subtill persuasions and forged allurements, that in a small time he had gotten together a mightie power of men: for out of the westerne Iles there came vnto him a great multitude of people, offering themselues to assist him in that rebellious quarell, and out of Ireland in hope of the spoile came no small number of Kernes and Galloglasses, offering gladlie to serve vnder him, whither it should please him to lead them.
Makdowald thus hauing a mightie puissance about him, incountered with such of the kings people as were sent against him into Lochquhaber, and discomfiting them, by mere force tooke their capteine Malcolme,* and after the end of the battell smote off his head. This ouerthrow being notified to the king, did put him in woonderfull fear, by reason of his small skill in warlike affaires. Calling therefore his nobles to a councell, he asked of them their best aduice for the subduing of Makdowald & other the rebels. Here, in sundrie heads (as euer it happeneth) were sundrie opinions, which they vttered according to euerie man his skill. At length Banquho, so to order the matter, that the rebels should be shortly vanquished & quite put downe, and that not so much as one of them should be found to make resistance within the countrie.
And euen so it came to passe: for being sent foorth with a new power, at his entring into Lochquhaber, the fame of his comming put the enimies in such feare, that a great number of them stale secretlie awaie from their capteine Makdowald, who neuertheless inforced thereto, gaue battell vnto Makbeth entring into the castell by the gates, as then set open, found the carcasse of Makdowald lieng dead there amongst the residue of the slaine bodies,* which when he beheld, remitting no peece of his cruel nature with that pitifull sight,* he caused the head to be cut off, and set vpon a poles end, and so sent as a present to the king, who as then laie at Bertha. The headlesse trunk he commanded to bée hoong vp upon an high paire of gallowes.
Them of the westerne Iles suing for pardon, in that they had aided Makdowald in his tratorous enterprise, he fined at great sums of monie: and those whome he took in Lochquhaber, being come thither to bear armor against the king, he put to execution. Hereupon the Ilandmen conceiued a deadlie grudge towards him, calling him a couenant-breaker, a bloodie tyrant, & a cruell murtherer of them whome the kings mercie had pardoned. With which reprochfull words Sueno king of Norway was arrived in Fife with a puissant armie, to subdue the whole realme of Scotland.
Omitted: Two paragraphs on Sweno's famous ancestors and kin.
But now touching the arriuall of Banquho, & the king himselfe gouerned in the maine battell or middle ward, wherein were appointed to attend and wait vpon his person the most part of all the residue of the Scotish nobilitie.
The armie of Scotishmen being thus ordered, came vnto Culros, where incountering with the enimies, after a sore and cruell foughten battell, Sueno, that no souldier should hurt either man, woman or child, except such as were found with weapon in hand readie to make resistance, for he hoped now to conquer the realme without further bloudshed.
But when knowledge was giuen how Duncane offered to send foorth of the castell into the campe great prouision of vittels to refreshe the armie, which offer was gladlie accepted of the Danes, for that they had béen in great penurie of sustenance manie daies before.
The Scots héerevpon tooke the iuice of mekilwoort berries, and mixed the same in their ale and bread, sending it thus spiced & confectioned, in great abundance vnto their enimies. They reioising that they had got meate and drinke sufficient to satisfie their bellies, fell to eating and drinking after such greedie wise, that it séemed they stroue who might deuoure and swallow vp most, till the operation of the berries spread in such sort through all the parts of their bodies, that they were in the end brought into a fast dead sleepe, that in manner it was vnpossible to awake them. Then foorthwith Sueno himselfe and ten other persons, by whose helpe he got to his ships lieng at rode in the mouth of Taie.
Omitted: One paragraph on Sweno's return to Norway. The place where the Danish vessels were thus lost, is yet called Drownelow sands. This ouerthrow receiued in manner afore said by Makbeth for a great summe of gold, that such of their friends as were slaine at this last bickering, might be buried in saint Colmes Inch. In memorie whereof, manie old sepultures are yet in the said Inch, there to be seene grauen with the armes of the Danes, as the maner of burieng noble men still is, and héeretofore hath béene vsed.
A peace was also concluded at the same time betwixt the Danes and Scotishmen, ratified (as some haue written) in this wise: That from thencefoorth the Danes should neuer come into Scotland to make anie warres against the Scots by anie maner of meanes. And these were the warres that Makbeth that héerafter shalt be king of Scotland."
Then Banquho would call Mackbeth in iest, king of Scotland; and Mackbeth againe would call him in sport likewise, the fatherof manie kings. But afterwards the common opinion was, that these women were either the weird sisters, that is (as ye would say) the goddesses of destinie, or else some nymphs or feiries, indued with knowledge of prophesie by their necromanticall science, bicause euerie thing came to passe as they had spoken. For shortlie after, the thane of Cawder being condemned at Fores of treason against the king committed; his lands, liuings, and offices were giuen of the kings liberalitie to Mackbeth.
The same night after, at supper, Duncane did what in him lay to defraud him of all maner of title and claime, which he might in time to come, pretend vnto the crowne.
The woords of the thrée weird sisters also (of whome before ye haue heard) greatlie incouraged him herevunto, but speciallie his wife lay sore vpon him to attempt the thing, as she that was verie ambitious, burning in vnquenchable desire to beare the name of a quéene. At length therefore, communicating his purposed intent with his trustie friends, amongst whome Duncane was first conueied vnto Elgine, & there buried in kinglie wise; but afterwards it was remoued and conueied vnto Colmekill, and there laid in a sepulture amongst his predecessors, in the yeare after the birth of our Sauiour, 1046.
Duncane. And to bring his purpose the better to passe without anie trouble or great businesse, he deuised a subtill wile to bring all offendors and misdooers vnto iustice, soliciting sundrie of his liege people with high rewards, to challenge and appeale such as most oppressed the commons, to come at a day and place appointed, to fight singular combats within barriers, in triall of their accusations. When these théeues, barrettors,* and other oppressors of the innocent people were come to darren battell in this wise (as is said) they were streight waies apprehended by armed men, and trussed vp in halters on gibbets, according as they had iustlie deserued. The residue of misdooers that were left, werepunished and tamed in such sort, that manie years after all theft and reiffings* were little heard of, the people inioieng the blissefull benefit of good peace and tranquillitie. Mackbeth shewing himselfe thus a most diligent punisher of all iniuries and wrongs attempted by anie disordered persons within his realme, was accounted the sure defense and buckler* of innocent people; and hereto he also applied his whole indeuor, to cause yoong men to exercise themselues in vertuous maners, and men of the church to attend their diuine seruice according to their vocations.
He caused to be slaine sundrie thanes, as of Cathnes, Sutherland, Stranauerne, and Ros, because through them and their seditious attempts, much trouble dailie rose in the realme. He appeased the troublesome state of Galloway, and slue one Makgill a tyrant, who had manie yeares before passed nothing of* the regall authoritie or power. To be briefe, such were the woorthie dooings and princelie acts of this Mackbeth in the administration of the realme, that if he had atteined therevnto by rightfull means, and continued in vprightnesse of iustice as he began, till the end of his reigne, he might well haue béene numbred amongest the most noble princes that anie where had reigned. He made manie holesome laws and statutes for the publike weale of his subiects.
Omitted: A list of King Macbeth's laws.
These and the like commendable lawes Banquho and his sonne without the palace, as they returned to their lodgings, and there to slea them, so that he would not haue his house slandered, but that in time to come he might cleare himselfe, if anie thing were laid to his charge vpon anie suspicion that might arise.
It chanced yet by the benefit of the darke night, that though the father were slaine, the sonne yet by the helpe of almightie God reseruing him to better fortune, escaped that danger: and afterwards hauing some inkeling (by the admonition of some friends which he had in the court) how his life was sought no lesse than his fathers, who was slaine not by chance medlie (as by the handling of the matter Makbeth would haue had it to appeare) but euen upon a prepensed deuise:* wherevpon to auoid further perill he fled into Wales.
Omitted: Seven and a half paragraphs showing how, through many generations, the descendants of Fleance became the "Stewards," and how the Stewards became kings of Scotland, the last of whom being (when Holinshed's Chronicles were published) "Charles Iames, now king of Scotland."
But to returne vnto Makbeth: for in maner euerie man began to doubt his owne life, and durst vnneth* appeare in the kings presence; and euen as there were manie that stood in feare of him, so likewise stood he in feare of manie, in such sort that he began to make those awaieby one surmized cauillation* or other, whome he thought most able to worke him anie displeasure.
At length he found such swéetnesse by putting his nobles thus to death, that his earnest thirst after bloud in this behalfe might in no wise be satisfied: for ye must consider he wan double profit (as hée thought) hereby: for first they were rid out of the way whome he feared, and then againe his coffers were inriched by their goods which were forfeited to his vse, whereby he might better mainteine a gard of armed men about him to defend his person from iniurie of them whom he had in anie suspicion. Further, to the end he might the more cruellie oppresse his subiects with all tyrantlike wrongs, he builded a strong castell on the top of an hie hill called Dunsinane, situate in Gowrie, ten miles from Perth, on such a proud height, that standing there aloft, a man might behold well neere all the countries of Angus, Fife, Stermond, and Ernedale, as it were lieng vnderneath him. This castell then being founded on the top of that high hill, put the realme to great charges before it was finished, for all the stuffe necessarie to the building, could not be brought vp without much toile and businesse. But Makbeth being once determined to haue the worke go forward, caused the thanes of each shire within the realme, to come and helpe towards the building, each man his course about.*
At the last, when the turne fell vnto Makduffe thane of Fife to build his part, he sent workemen with all néedfull prouision, and commanded them to shew such diligence in euerie beahalfe, that no occasion might bée giuen for the king to find fault with him, in that he came not himselfe as other had doone, which he refused to doo, for doubt least the king bearing him (as he partlie vnderstood) no great good will, would laie violent hands vpon him, as he had doone vpon diuerse other. Shortlie after, Makbeth comming to behold how the worke went forward, and bicause he found not Makduffe there, he was sore offended, and said; I perceiue this man will neuer obeie my commandements, till he be ridden with a snaffle: but I shall prouide well inough for him. Neither could he afterwards abide to looke vpon the said Makduffe, either for that he thought his puissance ouer great; either else for that he had learned of certeine wizzards, in whose words he put great confidence (for that the prophesie had happened so right, which the thrée faries or weird sisters had declared vnto him) how that he ought to take héed of Makduffe, who in time to come should seeke to destroie him.
And suerlie herevpon had he put Makduffe to death, but that a certeine witch, whome hee had in great trust, had told that he should neuer be slaine with man borne of anie woman, nor vanquished till the wood of Bernane came to the castell of Dunsinane. By this prophesie Makbeth had in euerie noble mans house, one slie fellow or other in fée with him, to reueale all that was said or doone within the same, by which slight he oppressed the most part of the nobles of his realme.
Immediatlie then, being aduertised whereabout Makduffe went, he came hastily with a great power into Fife, and foorthwith besieged the castell where Makduffe dwelled, trusting to haue found him therein. They that kept the house, without anie resistance opened the gates, and suffered him to enter, mistrusting none euill. But neuerthelesse Makbeth, hauing committed manie horrible slaughters and murders, both as well of the nobles as commons, for the which he was hated right mortallie of all his liege people, desiring nothing more than to be deliuered of that intollerable and most heauie yoke of thraldome, which they susteined at such a caitifes hands.
Makbeth to betraie him, he thought to haue some further triall, and therevpon dissembling his mind at the first, he answered as followeth.
"I am trulie verie sorie for the miserie chanced to my countrie of Scotland, but though I haue neuer so great affection to reliue the same, yet by reason of certeine incurable vices, which reigne in me, I am nothing méet thereto. First, such immoderate lust and voluptuous sensualitie (the abhominable founteine of all vices) followeth me, that if I were made king of Scots, I should séeke to defloure maids and matrones, in such wise that mine intemperancie should be more importable* vnto you, than the bloudie tyrannie of Makbeth now is." Héerevnto Makduffe answered: "This suerlie is a verie euill fault, for manie noble princes and kings haue lost both liues and kingdomes for the same; neuerthelesse there are women enow in Scotland, and therefore follow my counsell. Make thy selfe king, and I shall conueie the matter so wiselie, that thou shalt be so satisfied at thy pleasure in such secret wise, that no man shall be aware thereof."
Then said Malcolme, suffer me to remaine where I am, least if I atteine to the regiment of your realme, mine vnquenchable auarice may prooue such; that ye would thinke the displeasures which now grieue you, should séeme easie in respect of the vnmeasurable outrage, which might insue through my comming amongst you."
Makduffe to this made answer, "how it was a far woorse fault than the other: for auarice is the root of all mischiefe, and for that crime the most part of our kings haue béene slaine and brought to their finall end. Yet notwithstanding follow my counsell, and take vpon thée the crowne. There is gold and riches inough in Scotland to satisfie they gréedie desire." Then Malcolme againe, "I am furthermore inclined to dissimulation, telling of leasings,* and all other kinds of deceit, so that I naturallie reioise in nothing so much, as to be-traie & deceiue such as put anie trust or confidence in my woords. Then sith there is nothing that more becommeth a prince than constancie, veritie, truth, and iustice, with the other laudable fellowship of those faire and noble vertues which are comprehended onelie in soothfastnesse, and that lieng vtterlie ouerthroweth the same; you sée how vnable I am to gouerne anie prouince or region: and therefore sith you haue remedies to cloke and hide all the rest of my other vices, I praie you find shift to cloke this vice amongst the residue."
Then said Makduffe: "This yet is the woorst of all, and there I leaue thee, and therefore saie; Oh ye vnhappie and miserable Scotishmen, which are thus scourged with so manie and sundrie calamities, ech one aboue other! Ye haue one curssed and wicked tyrant that now reigneth ouer you, without anie right or title, oppressing you with his most bloudie crueltie. This other that hath the right to the crowne, is so replet with the inconstant behauiour and manifest vices of Englishmen, that he is nothing woorthie to inioy it: for by his owne confession he is not onelie auaritious, and giuen to vnsatiable lust, but so false a traitor withall, that no trust is to be had vnto anie woord he speaketh. Adieu Scotland, for now I account my selfe a banished man for euer, without comfort or consolation:" and with those woords the brackish teares trickled downe his chéekes verie abundantlie.
At the last, when he was readie to depart, Malcolme was confederat with him, to come hastilie into Scotland to claime the crowne, and therefore he required them, sith he was right inheritor thereto, to assist him with their powers to recouer the same out of the hands of the wrongfull vsurper.
In the meane time, Malcolme, or else to flée with all spéed into the Iles, and to take his treasure with him, to the end he might wage* sundrie great princes of the realme to take his part, & reteine strangers, in whome he might better trust than in his owne subiects, which stale* dailie from him: but he had such confidence in his prophesies, that he beléeued he should neuer be vanquished, till Birnane wood were brought to Dunsinane; nor yet to be slaine with anie man, that should be or was borne of anie woman.
Makbeth perceiuing that Makduffe was hard at his backe, leapt beside his horsse,* saieng; "Thou traitor, what meaneth it that thou shouldest thus in vaine follow me that am no appointed to be slaine by anie creature that is borne of woman, come on therefore, and receiue thy reward which thou hast deserued for thy paines," and therwithall he lifted vp his swoord thinking to haue slaine him.
But Makduffe quicklie auoiding from his horsse, yer* he came at him, answered (with his naked swoord in his hand) saieng: "It is true Makbeth, after he had reigned 17 yeeres ouer the Scotishmen. In the beginning of his reigne he accomplished manie woorthie acts, verie profitable to the common-wealth (as ye haue heard) but afterward by illusion of the diuell, he defamed the same with most terrible crueltie. He was slaine in the yéere of the incarnation, 1057, and in the 16 yeere of king Edwards reigne ouer the Englishmen.
MALCOLME Makbeth, aduancing them to fées and offices as he saw cause, & commanded that speciallie those that bare the surname of anie offices or lands, should haue and inioy the same. He created manie earles, lords, barons, and knights. Manie of them that before were thanes, were at this time made earles, as Fife, Menteth, Atholl, Leuenox, Murrey, Cathnes, Rosse, and Angus. These were the first earles that haue beene heard of amongst the Scotishmen (as their histories doo make mention.)
(See Medieval Moray for Detailed Version of this Summary)
RUAIDHRI. Mormaer of Moray.
m ---. The name of Ruaidhri´s wife is not known.
Ruadhri & his wife had two children:
1. [http://www.geni.com/people/Gorn-Vilaidaraga/20]). Thane of Angus, Mormaer of Moray.
Mormaer Findlaech & [wife] had one child:
a) MACBETH (-killed in battle Lumphanan, Aberdeenshire 15 Aug 1057, bur Isle of Iona).
m ([after 1032]) [as her second husband,] BOITE[Bodhe] of Scotland & his wife --- (-).
m ---. The name of Maelbrigte´s wife is not known.
Maelbrigte & his wife had two children:
a) MALCOLM (-1029).
b) GILLACOMGAIN (-burned alive 1032). Mormaer of Moray.
m [as her first husband, BOITE--- (-)].
Mormaer Gillacomgain & his [wife] had [one child]:
i) LULACH (-killed in battle Essie, Strathbogie 17 Mar 1058, bur Isle of Iona).
m ---. Finnghuala of Angus?
Lulach & his wife had two children:
(a) MAELSNECHTAI (-1085).
m ---. One child:
(1) ANGUS (-killed in battle Strickathrow 1130). Mormaer of Moray.