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  • Mór nic Eidigean (deceased)
    Brian's first wife was Mór, daughter of the king of Uí Fiachrach Aidne of Connacht. She is said to have been the mother of his sons Murchad, Conchobar and Flann. Later genealogies claimed...
  • Aidne, King of Uí Fiachrach (deceased)
    Brian's first wife was Mór, daughter of the king of Uí Fiachrach Aidne of Connacht. She is said to have been the mother of his sons Murchad, Conchobar and Flann.
  • Morough O'Brien, King of Leinster (985 - 1014)
    Brian's first wife was Mór, daughter of the king of Uí Fiachrach Aidne of Connacht. She is said to have been the mother of his sons Murchad , Conchobar and Flann. Later genealogies claime...
  • Sigurd II Driga (Earl of Orkney, Scotland) (c.960 - 1014)
    There's a song about him, written by Debra Doyle (aka "Malkin Grey") and Melissa Williamson (aka "Peregrynne Windryder") - this is probably the best version you're going to find on Youtube: ---------...
  • Máel Mórda mac Murchada O'Fáeláin (962 - 1014)
    Máel Mórda mac Murchada From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Máel Mórda mac Murchada (died 23 April 1014) was King of Leinster. Son of Murchad mac Brain and brother o...

This project is to create a Collaborative template to defer to for the Medieval Irish tree on Geni. Please come & help to get it as correct as we can.

I've begun by using Charles Cawley's Medlands as the initial format - mostly because he's the best laid out internet resource to cut & paste from. We can edit in / over further sources, as we go, this being a very long-term project an all :-) Sharon

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MEDIEVAL LANDS: IRELAND

INTRODUCTION



During the middle medieval period, Ireland was divided into five provinces, Connaught, Leinster, Meath, Munster and Ulster, each ruled by provincial kings under the supreme king of Ireland who was appointed from one of their number and whose royal seat was at Tara in Meath. Other minor local kingdoms included Desmond, Ormond, Ossory, Tara, and Thomond. The position of over-king was not consistently hereditary within any one of the provincial royal families nor does it seem to have been rotated in order between them. The acceptance of one individual as “High King” depended, it would appear, on his own personal power and the respect with which he was regarded by his fellow kings, reminiscent of the bretwalda in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms in England. This is illustrated, in the case of the High King Tordelbach Ua Briain, by the Annals of Inisfallen which record that "the son of Conchobair Ua Mail Sechnaill (king of Temuir), Gofraid grandson of Ragnall king of Áth Cliath, and Domnall son of Gilla Pátraic king of Osraige…submitted to Tairdelbach Ua Briain king of Mum” in 1072 and “gave acknowledgement and high-kingship to him”[1]. No indication has been found in the primary sources so far consulted concerning any formal selection process which was followed before a new High King was appointed. It is unlikely that the High King held any jurisdictional role in respect of the regional kingdoms other than his own. The High Kings are shown in Chapter 1 of this document.


The Annals of Tigernach and its Continuations provide a detailed history of the various kings and chieftains of Ireland between [972/73] and 1178, with one significant gap from 1002 to 1017[2]. The Annals of Ulster are a useful complementary source[3] which, although generally less detailed, significantly extend the coverage at both ends of the date spectrum and record some events which are omitted from the Annals of Tigernach. The Annals of Inisfallen[4] emphasise affairs in the kingdom of Munster, but contain a significant gap between 1130 and 1159. The Annals of the Four Masters[5] are much more extensive, purporting to cover from the pre-Christian era until the early 17th century. They contain less detail than the Annals of Tigernach and their chronology is generally two or three years different from the other Annals, at least until the last quarter of the 10th century, but they provide significant additional information which is absent elsewhere. Of these four main sources for early Irish history, it is difficult to tell which might have been the earliest source which provided the basis for the others. Even in cases where information is duplicated in the different sources, the wording of the respective paragraphs is often significantly different. Another difficulty, common to all early European primary sources of this type, is deciding when legend gives way to fact. For the purposes of preparation of the present document, the mid-9th century has been taken as the starting point from which information has been extracted.


All the Annals consist mainly of a litany of violent deaths and destructive local conflicts. They are also noteworthy for the absence of significant detail relating to the religious life of the community (although the Annals of Inisfallen include more religious references than, for example, the Annals of Tigernach), which contrasts with similar primary sources in England and continental European countries. However, the Irish Annals are unusually valuable for family reconstruction as the names of the fathers and grandfathers of the protagonists are nearly always specified, by way of composite names which include “Mac” (son of) and “Ua/Húa” (grandson of) in the Gaelic original. Nevertheless, the process of reconstruction is less certain from the mid-11th century, with the duplication of similar names and therefore the multiplication of possibilities for particular family connections. From the early 12th century, “Ua” in the text more often indicates the name of the most illustrious more remote paternal ancestor, rather than the grandfather of the individual concerned. This enables a person´s family group to be identified but not his precise place within it. One difficulty with the Annals is that, when recording the death of a king, they rarely specify the name of his successor. On the basis of the sources so far consulted, this results in uncertainty regarding the precise regnal order and, in some cases, significant gaps in knowledge about the royal succession of regional kings.


The Annals refer to numerous local kingships either over named clans, for example “the Kindred of Conall”, “the Húi Fidgenti”, “the Húi Echach”, “the Húi Cennselaig”, “the Húi Fiachrach”, “the Húi Forgo”, “the Gailenga”, or over restricted areas of the country, including “Aidne”, “Cairbre”, “Legh and Rechet”, “Teffa”, not all of which have been located. In some cases, these local kings were descendants of younger sons of the regional kings. It is probable that many more such connections exist, but the duplication of names presents an obstacle to tracing family relationships. The Annals do not explicitly state that these local kings operated under the suzerainty of the regional kings, but some passages in the texts suggest that this may have been the case. For example, the Annals of Ulster record the deaths in 1063 and 1064 of "Niall son of Eochaid over-king of Ulaid [Ulster]” and of “Donnchad son of Brian overking of Mumu [Munster]”[6]. None of the Annals include many references to lesser nobility with titles such as earl, count, lord or baron: in Ireland most nobles appear to have borne the title “king” however small their area of jurisdiction.


The Annals reveal little contact between Ireland and its neighbours England and Scotland, beyond the record of the deaths of the most noteworthy English and Scottish kings, although the dates of these events do provide an independent assessment of the chronological reliability of the source as most of them are corroborated by other sources. This comparative isolation of the Irish kingdoms changed in the mid-12th century with the arrival of English adventurers and their troops. It is clear from the Annals that the English encountered stiff resistance, and were not consistently successful in their conquests. Nevertheless, from this time the political climate of Ireland changed dramatically, as illustrated by the understated report in the Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) of the arrival of Henry II King of England in 1171, which in one sentence records the submission of the king of Desmond and the English king´s assumption of kingship over Leinster and “the men of Meath, Brefne, Oriel and Ulster”[7].


In the mid-10th century, Norse invaders established the kingdom of D ublin which survived as an autonomous entity for more than a century. The Norse kings of Dublin made little progress in conquering territory from the neighbouring native Irish kingdoms, although Norse kingdoms were also established temporarily in Waterford. The Annals reveal numerous battles between the Norse settlers and the Irish. But, more surprisingly, they also reveal temporary alliances between different factions in the two groups, and numerous marriage alliances.


The families of some of the English settlers in Ireland are also included in this document.





Chapter 1. HIGH KINGS of IRELAND




A. KINGS of IRELAND (KINGS of TARA)



FLANN 879-916


1. MAELSECHLAINN (-30 Nov 862). His parentage is confirmed by the Annals of Ulster which name "Flann son of Mael Sechnaill son of Mael Ruanaid son of Donnchad king of Temair”[8]. King of Ireland. The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 862 of "Mael Sechnaill son of Mael Ruanaid”[9]. The Fragmentary Annals of Ireland record the death of "Mael Sechlainn son of Mael Ruanaid, king of Irelan…the day before Kal Dec"[10]. m firstly ---. The name of Maelsechlainn´s first wife is not known. m [secondly] as her second husband, LAND, widow of GAETHINE King of Loiches, daughter of DUNLANG King of Osraige & his wife ---. Her first marriage is confirmed by the Fragmentary Annals of Ireland which record in 863 that "Land, daughter of Dunlang…who was Mael Sechlainn´s wife previously…was the mother of Cennetig son of Gaethine king of Loiches"[11]. The Fragmentary Annals of Ireland name in 854 "Cerball son of Dunlang king of Osraige" and "Cerball´s sister, Land, daughter of Dunlang" as the wife of "Mael Sechlainn"[12]. She married thirdly (863) Aedh Finnliath King of Ireland. Her third marriage is confirmed by the Fragmentary Annals of Ireland which record in 863 that "Aed son of Niall king of Ireland massacred the Norwegians…at Loch Febail", adding that "it was his wife who most incited Aed against the Norwegians, namely Land, daughter of Dunlang…who was Mael Sechlainn´s wife previously"[13]. Maelsechlainn & his first wife had one child:

a) daughter . The Fragmentary Annals of Ireland name in 854 "Cerball son of Dunlang king of Osraige" and "Mael Sechlainn´s daughter" as his wife[14]. This daughter must have been born from an earlier otherwise unrecorded marriage of her father as her husband´s sister is recorded in the same passage as her father´s current wife. m CERBALL, son of DUNLANG King of Osraige & his wife ---.

Maelsechlainn & his [second] wife had [five] children:

b) FLANN ([847/48]-Tailltin 25 May 916). His parentage is confirmed by the Annals of the Four Masters which name “Donnchadh son of Flann son of Maelseachlainn”[15]. The Fragmentary Annals of Ireland record in 863 that "Land, daughter of Dunlang…who was Mael Sechlainn´s wife previously, and the mother of Mael Sechlainn´s son i.e. Flann"[16]. The Annals of Ulster record "Flann son of Mael Sechnaill, king of Temair” among the victors in “the battle of Belach Mugna” fought 13 Sep 908 between “the men of Mumu, the Leth Cuinn and the Laigin in Mag Ailbi”[17]. King of Ireland. The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 914 of “Flann the son of Maelsechlainn…at Tailltin” after reigning for 38 years[18]. The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 916 of "Flann son of Mael Sechnaill king of Ireland”[19]. The Annals of Ulster record the death 25 May 916 of "Flann son of Mael Sechnaill son of Mael Ruanaid son of Donnchad king of Temair having reigned 36 years 6 months and 5 days…in the 68th year of his age”[20]. [m (after 879) as her second husband, MAEL MUIRE, widow of AEDH Finnliath King of Ireland, daughter of KENNETH I King of Scotland & his wife --- (-913). The mid-12th century Banshenchas records that "Mael Muire daughter of Cinaed son of Alpin" married "Aed Finnliath and then later…Flann Sinna"[21]. The reliability of this information is unknown, although the inclusion of a record of Mael Muire´s death in the Annals of Ulster (see below) indicates that she had some connection with Ireland. If the information is correct, the chronology dictates that Aedh Finnliath must have divorced his known wife Land of Osraige before marrying Mael Muire.] Fland & [his wife] had eight children:

i) MAELRUANAIDH (-killed 901). The Annals of Ulster record the death in 901 of "Mael Ruanaid son of Flann son of Mael Sechnaill, heir designate of Ireland" killed by “the Luigne i.e. by the sons of Cernachán son of Tadc and by the sons of Lorcán son of Cathal”[22]. m ---. The name of Maelruanaidh´s wife is not known. Maelruanaidh & his wife had two children:

(a) MAELSECHLAINN (-919 or 921). The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 919 of “Maelseachlainn son of Maelruanaidh son of Flann”[23]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 921 of "Mael Sechnaill grandson of Flann, heir designate of Temair”[24].

(b) AEDH (-killed 949). The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Aedh son of Maelruanaidh, royal heir of Teamhair” was killed in 949 by “Domhnall son of Donnchadh”[25].

ii) AENGHUS (-killed in battle Greallach-Eillte 911). The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Aenghus son of Flann heir apparent to the sovereignty of Ireland” was mortally wounded in 911 at “Greallach-Eillte by Cernn son of Bernn” and died after sixty days[26]. m ---. The name of Aenghus´s wife is not known. Aenghus & his wife had one child:

(a) FEARGHAL . The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 948 of “Donnchadh son of Domhnall Ua Maeleachlainn heir-apparent of Meath…killed by his own kinsmen…by Fearghal son of Aengus”[27].

iii) CONAING (-killed in battle Cill-Mosamhog, near Dublin 17 Oct 919). The Annals of Inisfallen record the "battle of Áth Cliath” in 919 in which “Conaing son of Flann royal heir of Temuir” was killed[28].

iv) DONNCHAD (-944). The Annals of Ulster record a rebellion in 915 against "Flann son of Mael Sechnaill…by his sons Donnchad and Conchobar”[29]. King of Ireland 918.

- see below.

v) CONCHOBAR (-killed in battle Cill-Mosamhog, near Dublin 14 Sep or 17 Oct 919). The Annals of Ulster record a rebellion in 915 against "Flann son of Mael Sechnaill…by his sons Donnchad and Conchobar”[30]. The Annals of Ulster name "Conchobor grandson of Mael Sechnaill heir designate or king of Temair” among those killed 14 Sep 919 by “the heathens…at Duiblinn”[31]. The Annals of the Four Masters record the death 17 Oct 917 of “Conchobhar Ua Maeleachlainn heir apparent to the sovereignty of Ireland” at the battle of “Ath-cliath…Cill-Mosamhog”[32].

vi) DOMNALL (-killed in battle Bruighean-Dachoga 921). The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Domnhall son of Flann son of Maelseachlainn heir apparent to the sovereignty of Ireland” was killed in 919 by “his brother Donnchadh at Bruighean-Dachoga”[33]. The Annals of Ulster record that "Domnall grandson of Mael Sechnaill was…killed by his brother Donnchad, which was fitting” in 921[34]. The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 921 of "Domnall son of Flann royal heir of Ireland” killed by “his brother…Donnchadh son of Flann”[35]. m ---. The name of Domnall´s wife is not known. Domnall & his wife had one child:

(a) DONNCHAD (-killed 948). The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 948 of “Donnchadh son of Domhnall Ua Maeleachlainn heir-apparent of Meath…killed by his own kinsmen…by Fearghal son of Aengus”[36].

vii) MAELRUANAIDH (-killed in battle Tracht-Mugha 941). The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 939 of “Maelruanaidh son of Flann, Tanist of Oileach…slain by Cinel-Conaill”[37]. The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 941 of “Maelruanaidh son of Flann heir apparent of the North” killed at “Tracht-Mugha”[38]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 941 of "Mael Ruanaid son of Flann, heir designate of Ailech…killed by the Cenél Conaill”[39], which suggests that both the entries in the Annals of the Four Masters relate to the same person.

viii) GORMLAITH (-948). The Annals of the Four Masters record the reactions of “Gormlaith daughter of Flann” to the battle of “Ath-cliath…Cill-Mosamhog” in 917[40]. The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 946 of “Gormfhlaith daughter of Flann son of Maelseachlainn, queen of Niall Glundubh…after intense penance in her sins and transgressions”[41]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 948 of "Gormlaith daughter of Flann son of Mael Sechnaill”[42]. m NIALL Glundubh King of Ireland, son of AEDH Finnliath & his wife --- (-killed in battle Cill-Mosamhog, near Dublin 17 Oct 919

ix) LIGHACH (-921, bur Cluain-mic-Nois). The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 921 of “Lighach daughter of Flann son of Maelseachlainn and wife of Maelmithidh lord of all Breagh” and her burial “at Cluain-mic-Nois”[43]. m MAELMITHIDH Lord of Breagh, son of ---.

x) MUIRGEL (-Cluain-mic-Nois 928). The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 926 of “Muirgheal daughter of Flann son of Maelseachlainn…at Cluain-mic-Nois”[44]. The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 928 of "Muirgel daughter of Mael Sechnaill”[45].

xi) AEDH . His parentage is confirmed by the Annals of the Four Masters which record the death in 972 of “Muircheartach son of Aedh son of Flann Ua Maelseachlainn King of Meath”[46].

- KINGS of MEATH.

c) AENGUS (-7 Feb 915). The Annals of Ulster record that "Aengus son of Mael Sechnaill” was among those who defeated “a Northern army led by Niall son of Aed” in 914[47]. The Annals of Ulster record the death 7 Feb 915 of "Aengus grandson of Mael Sechnaill, heir designate of Temair”[48]. The latter entry presumably refers to the son of Maelsechnaill, as the latter´s known grandson named Aengus was already deceased at the time (see above). In addition, it is more likely that the “heir designate” would have been the younger brother of the ruling king, not his son, in accordance with observed succession patterns in Ireland.

d) [son . This son may have been one of the other sons of Maelsechlainn named above. m ---.] One child:

i) AEDH (-919 or after). The Annals of Ulster record that "Aed grandson of Mael Sechnaill” was blinded in 919 by “his kinsman Donnchad king of Mide”[49].

e) LIGACH (-923). The Annals of Ulster record the death in 923 of "Lígach daughter of Mael Sechnaill, queen of the king of Brega”[50]. Her husband is not named in the source. However, the text implies that her husband was living when she died, and Lorcán is named as king of Brega in the same source only two years later. m [LORCAN King of Brega, son of DONNCHAD & his wife --- (-925)].

f) MUIRGEL (-928). The Annals of Ulster record the death in 928 of "Muirgel daughter of Mael Sechnaill…in old age”[51].



DONNCHAD 918-942


DONNCHAD, son of FLANN King of Ireland & his wife --- (-942). The Annals of Ulster record a rebellion in 915 against "Flann son of Mael Sechnaill…by his sons Donnchad and Conchobar”[52]. King of Ireland 918. The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Donnchadh son of Flann son of Maelseachlainn” defeated “the foreigners” in 918 at “Cianachta-Breagh (i.e. at Tigh-mic-nEathach)”[53]. The Annals of the Four Masters record the “burning of Ath-Cliath by Donnchadh son of Flann King of Ireland” in 934[54]. The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 942 of “Donnchadh son of Flann son of Maelseachlainn King of Ireland…after the 25th year of his reign”[55]. The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 944 of "Donnchadh son of Flann and of Conn his son”[56]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 944 of "Donnchad son of Flann son of Mael Sechnaill son of Mael Ruanaid son of Donnchad, king of Temair” after “spending 25 years as king”[57].

m firstly CAINEACH, daughter of CANANNAN & his wife --- (-927). The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 927 of “Caineach daughter of Canannan and wife of the king of Ireland”[58].

[m secondly DER bhFáil, daughter of MAELFINNIA & his wife --- (-931). The Annals of Ulster record the death in 931 of "Der bhFáil daughter of Mael Finnia son of Flannacán, queen of Temair”[59]. The name of Der´s husband is not stated. However, Donnchad was “king of Temair” at the time of Der´s death. Not enough information is known about the chronology of Maelfinnia´s family to be able to test whether this is a reasonable hypothesis.]

m [thirdly] DUIBHLEAMBNA, daughter of TIGERNAN Lord of Breifne & his wife --- (-941). The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 941 of “Duibhleambna daughter of Tighearnan lord of Breifne and wife of Donn-chadh son of Flann king of Ireland”[60].

Donnchad & his first wife had six children:

1. CONN (-killed 944). The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 942 of “Conn son of Donchadh, heir apparent of the sovereignty of Ireland…slain by the men of Fearnmhagh”[61]. The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 944 of "Donnchadh son of Flann and of Conn his son”[62]. m ---. The name of Conn´s wife is not known. Conn & his wife had one child:

a) CARLUS (-killed 960). The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 958 of “Carlus son of Conn son of Donnchadh…slain by the Norsemen”[63]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 960 of "Carlus son of Conn son of Donnchad…killed in Ath Cliath”[64].

2. DOMNALL Donn (-952). The Annals of the Four Masters record the deaths in 950 of “Domhnall Donn son of Donnchadh royal heir of Teamhair and Oebhinn daughter of Donnchadh”[65]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 952 of "Domnall son of Donnchad heir designate of Temair”[66]. m as her first husband, ---, daughter of ---. The name of Domnall´s wife is not known. She married secondly as his [second] wife, Olaf Sihtricson King of Dublin. Her marriages are confirmed by the Annals of Tigernach which record that “MaelSechnaill son of Domnall and Glún iarainn (Ironknee) son of Olaf, son of MaelSechnail´s mother” defeated “Domnall Clóen, son of Lorcán, and Imar of Waterford” in [981/82][67]. She must have been separated from her first husband and married again before her first husband died as her son named above must have been at least a young adult in [981/82]. Domnall & his wife had three children:

a) MAELSECHNAILL ([949/50]-Cró Inis of Lough Ennell 2 Sep 1022). His date of birth is estimated from the Annals of the Four Masters which record the birth in 925 of “Brian son of Ceinnedigh” (extremely unlikely date) adding that this was “24 years before Maelseachlainn son of Domnhall”[68]. The Annals of Tigernach record “the first expedition of MaelSechnaill the Great (“Moir”) from Dublin, when he broke and cut down the wood” in [973/74][69]. The Annals of Tigernach record the death of “Domnall mac Muirchertaigh” in [978/79] and the accession of “Mael Sechnaill Mor”[70]. King of Tara. High King of Ireland.

- see below.

b) MUIRCHERTACH (-killed 977). The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 977 of "Muirchertach son of Domnall, royal heir of Ireland, and the son of Domnall son of Congal another royal heir…killed by the foreigners of Áth Cliath”[71].

c) DONNCHAD (-killed in battle [989/90]). Crown Prince of Tara. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Donchad son of Domnall crownprince of Tara” was killed in [989/90] by “the Clan Colmáin, that is, by Conchobar son of Cerball”[72].

3. OEBHINN (-950). The Annals of the Four Masters record the deaths in 950 of “Domhnall Donn son of Donnchadh royal heir of Teamhair and Oebhinn daughter of Donnchadh”[73].

4. CONCHOBAR (-killed 950). The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 950 of “Conchobhar son of Domhnall Ua Maeleachlainn royal heir of Ireland…slain by his own tribe”[74].

5. FLANN (-940). The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 938 of “Flann daughter of Donnchadh and queen of Oileach”[75]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 940 of "Flann daughter of Donnchad, queen of Ailech”[76]. Her husband is not named in the source. However, Muirchertach was king of Ailech at the time. m [MUIRCHERTACH, son of NIALL Glundubh King of Ireland & his wife Gormlaith (-killed in battle Ath-Fhirdiath 26 Feb 943)].

6. AENGUS (-943). The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 943 of “Aenghus son of Donnchadh son of Flann, lord of Meath”[77]. It has not been ascertained whether Aenghus was ancestor of the later lords of Meath.

- LORDS of MEATH.



The precise relationship between the following persons and the main line of this family has not yet been ascertained:

1. MAELRUANAID (-killed 975). The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Maelruanaidh God Ua Maeleachlainn, royal heir of Teamhair was…killed” in 975[78]. m ---. The name of Maelruanaid´s wife is not known. Maelruanaid & his wife had one child:

a) MAELSECHNAILL . His parentage is confirmed by the Annals of the Four Masters which name “two sons of Maelseachlainn, son of Maelruanaidh, Ardghar and Ardchu, royal heirs of Aileach”[79]. m ---. The name of Maelsechnaill´s wife is not known. Maelsechanill & his wife had two children:

i) ARDGAR (-killed 1017). The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1017 of “two sons of Maelseachlainn, son of Maelruanaidh, Ardghar and Ardchu, royal heirs of Aileach” killed by “the Cinel-Eoghain”[80].

ii) ARDCHU (-killed 1017). The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1017 of “two sons of Maelseachlainn, son of Maelruanaidh, Ardghar and Ardchu, royal heirs of Aileach” killed by “the Cinel-Eoghain”[81].


2. CARRACH Calma . m ---. The name of Carrach´s wife is not known. Carrach & his wife had one child:

a) AENGHUS (-1016). The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1016 of “Oenghus son of Carrach Calma, royal heir of Teamhair…of the cholic”[82].


3. MAELSECHLAINN . m ---. The name of Maelsechnaill´s wife is not known. Maelsechanill & his wife had one child:

a) MUIRCHERTACH . m ---. The name of Muirchertach´s wife is not known. Muirchertach & his wife had one child:

i) ROEN (-killed in battle 1027). The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Roen son of Muircheartach son of Maeleachlainn, i.e. one of the Clann-Colmain, royal heir of Teamhair” won three battles in 1026 “over the men of Meath…the men of Breagha and…the foreigners of Ath-cliath”[83]. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Roen O´MaelSechlainn king of Meath and crownprince of Ireland” won three battles against “the men of Meath…the men of Bregia and…the Foreigners” in [1024/26][84]. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Raen Húa Maelsechlainn…king of the west of Meath” was killed in battle in [1027] by “Sitric son of Olaf”[85]. m ---. The name of Roen´s wife is not known. Roen & his wife had one child:

(a) MAELRUANAID (-killed 1041). The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1041 of “Maelruanaidh son of Roen, royal heir of Teamhair…slain”[86].



MAELSECHNAILL 979-1022


MAELSECHNAILL, son of DOMNALL & his wife --- ([949/50]-Cró Inis of Lough Ennell 2 Sep 1022). His date of birth is estimated from the Annals of the Four Masters which record the birth in 925 of “Brian son of Ceinnedigh” (extremely unlikely date) adding that this was “24 years before Maelseachlainn son of Domnhall”[87]. The Annals of Tigernach record “the first expedition of MaelSechnaill the Great (“Moir”) from Dublin, when he broke and cut down the wood” in [973/74][88]. The Annals of Tigernach record the death of “Domnall mac Muirchertaigh King of Tara” in [978/79] and the accession of “Mael Sechnaill Mor”[89]. King of Tara. High King of Ireland. The Annals of the Four Masters record 979 as “the first year of Maelseachlainn Mor son of Domhnall son of Donnchadh son of Flann in sovereignty of Ireland”[90]. The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Brian son of Cennétig…and Mael Sechnaill son of Domnall king of Temuir” divided Ireland between them in 997 “Leth Cuinn to Mael Sechnaill and Leth Moga to Brian”[91]. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Ragnall, son of Olaf, crownprince of the Foreigners” was killed in battle by “Mael Sechnaill the Great, son of Domnall, son of Donnchad, son of Fland…King of Ireland” at “Tara” in [978/79][92]. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Tomar´s ring and Carlus´s sword were forcibly taken by MaelSechnaill son of Domnall from the Foreigners of Dublin” in [993/94], presumably referring to powerful symbols of power[93]. The Annals of Tigernach record the death in [1018/22] of “Mael-Sechlainn the Great son of Donnchad overking of all Ireland” at “Cró Inis of Lough Ennell in the 43rd year of his reign”[94]. The Annals of Ulster record that "Mael Sechnaill son of Domnall son of Donnchad overking of Ireland" died in 1022 “in the 43rd year of his reign and the 73rd of his age…2 Sep”[95].

m firstly MOR, daughter of DONNCHAD mac Cellach King of Ossory & his wife --- (-[984/85]). The Annals of Tigernach record the death in [984/85] of “Mor, daughter of Dondchad son of Cellach, and queen of Ireland”[96]. This passage does not name Mor´s husband. However, Maelsechnaill is the only person described in other passages in the Annals as king of Ireland at that time.

m secondly MOR, daughter of TAIDG maic Cathail maic Concobair & his wife --- (-[990/91]). The Annals of Tigernach record the death in [990/91] of “Mor, daughter of Tadg, son of Cathal, son of Conchobar, queen of Ireland”[97]. This passage does not name Mor´s husband. However, Maelsechnaill is the only person described in other passages in the Annals of Tigernach as king of Ireland at that time.

m [thirdly] as her third husband, GORMLAITH, widow of OLAF Sihtricsson King of Dublin and separated wife, secondly, of BRIAN Boroma King of Ireland, daughter of (-1030). Her third marriage is confirmed by the Annals of the Four Masters which record the death in 1030 of “Gormlaith daughter of Murchadh son of Finn, mother of the king of the foreigners Sitric, Donnchadh son of Brian king of Munster, and Conchobhar son of Maeleachlainn king of Teamhair”[98]. It is assumed that Maelsechnaill separated from Gormlaith as he is recorded with another wife before Gormlaith died.

m [fourthly] MAELMAIRE, daughter of OLAF Sihtricson King of Dublin & his wife --- (-1021). The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1021 of “Maelmaire daughter of Amhlaeibh, wife of Maelseachlainn son of Domhnall”[99].

Mailschnaill & his [first/second] wife had four children:

1. DONNCHAD (-killed in battle 1012). The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Donnchadh son of Maelseachlainn” was killed in 1012 fighting “Ualgharg Ua Ciardha lord of Cairbre and the son of Niall O´Ruairc and the men of Teathbha”[100].

2. CONGALACH (-killed in battle [1017]). The Annals of Tigernach record that “Congalach son of Maelsechlainn” was killed in battle in [1001/02] by the “Fir cell and Eili”[101].

3. DOMNALL (-[1017/18]). The Annals of Tigernach record that “Domnall son of MaelSechlainn son of Domnall and successor of Saints Findén and my Colmóc rested” in [1017/18][102]. The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1019 of "Domnall son of Mael Sechnaill, ex-layman, martyr and coarb of Finnián”[103].

4. FLANN (-1042). The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1042 of "Flann son of Mael Sechnaill heir designate of Ireland…treacherously killed”[104]. The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1042 of “Flann son of Maelseachlainn Gott, royal heir of Teamhair” killed by “Conchobhar son of Maelseachlainn”[105]. m ---. The name of Flann´s wife is not known. Flann & his wife had three children:

a) AEDH (-killed 1021). The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1021 of “Aedh son of Flann son of Maelseachlainn, heir to the sovereignty of Ireland” killed by “Ua Maighteachain one of the Feara-Bile”[106].

b) FLANN . His parentage is confirmed by the Annals of Tigernach which names “Aed son of Fland son of Fland son of MaelSechlainn crownprince of Ireland”[107]. m ---. The name of Flann´s wife is not known. Flann & his wife had two children:

i) AED (-killed 1021). Crown Prince. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Aed son of Fland son of Fland son of MaelSechlainn crownprince of Ireland” was killed in 1021 by “Húa Maigthecháin one of the Fir bili”[108].

ii) DONDCHAD (-killed 1036). The Annals of Tigernach record that “Donnchad son of Flaind crownprince of Tara” was killed in 1036 by “the men of Brefne”[109].

iii) MURCHAD (-killed Kells 1076). The Annals of Inisfallen record that "the son of Flann Ua Mail Shechnaill was…slain” in 1076 by “the grandson of Maelán Ua Leocháin in the bellhouse of Cenannas”, adding that the latter was killed “within two months for the honour of Colum Cille”[110]. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Murchad, grandson of Fland Húa MaelSechlainn” was killed in 1076 by “Olaf, son of Maelán king of the Gallenga in the bellhouse of the Kells” and “straightway…Olaf…was killed by Mael-Sechlainn son of Conchobar”[111].

c) GORMLAITH (-1046). The Annals of Tigernach record the death in 1046 of “Gormlaith daughter of Fland son of MaelSechlainn…in her old age”[112].

Mailsechnaill & his [third] wife had [two] children:

5. CONCHOBAR Húa MaelSechlainn (-killed 1073). His parentage is confirmed by the Annals of the Four Masters which record the death in 1030 of “Gormlaith daughter of Murchadh son of Finn, mother of the king of the foreigners Sitric, Donnchadh son of Brian king of Munster, and Conchobhar son of Maeleachlainn king of Teamhair”[113]. The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1042 of “Flann son of Maelseachlainn Gott, royal heir of Teamhair” killed by “Conchobhar son of Maelseachlainn”[114]. King of Tara. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Conchobar Húa MaelSechlainn king of Tara” was killed in 1073 by “his own brother´s son Muirchertach Húa MaelSechlainn”[115]. m ---. The name of Conchobar´s wife is not known. Conchobar & his wife had one child:

a) MAELSECHLAINN . King of Tara. The Annals of Inisfallen record that "the son of Conchobair Ua Mail Sechnaill (king of Temuir), Gofraid grandson of Ragnall king of Áth Cliath, and Domnall son of Gilla Pátraic king of Osraige…submitted to Tairdelbach Ua Briain king of Mum” in 1072 and “gave acknowledgement and high-kingship to him”[116]. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Murchad, grandson of Fland Húa MaelSechlainn” was killed in 1076 by “Olaf, son of Maelán king of the Gallenga in the bellhouse of the Kells” and “straightway…Olaf…was killed by Mael-Sechlainn son of Conchobar”[117].

6. son . It is not certain that this son was also born from Mailsechnaill´s [third] marriage. m ---. One child:

a) MUIRCHERTACH . The Annals of Tigernach record that “Conchobar Húa MaelSechlainn king of Tara” was killed in 1073 by “his own brother´s son Muirchertach Húa MaelSechlainn”[118].


1. FLANN . m ---. The name of Fland´s wife is not known. Fland & his wife had two children:

a) DOMNALL (-killed 1094). King of Tara. The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Domnall the son of Fland Húa MaelSechlainn king of Tara” was killed in 1094 by “the Luigni of Meath”[119].

b) DONNCHAD . The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Donnchadh son of Flann Ua Mail Shechnaill king of western Mide submitted to Muirchertach Ua Briain” in 1095 and “received from him twenty ingots of gold as a stipend”[120].




B. KINGS of IRELAND (Ua NIALL)



AEDH -879, NIALL 916-919


1. NIALL . m ---. The name of Niall´s wife is not known. Niall & his wife had three children:

a) AEDH Finnliath (-Druimm Inasclainn 20 Nov 879). The Fragmentary Annals of Ireland record in 855 "a raid by Aed son of Niall to plunder Ulaid" but adding that "the Ulaid routed Cenel Eogain, and Flaithbertach son of Niall and Conacan son of Colman were slain there"[121]. King of Ireland. The Fragmentary Annals of Ireland record in 862 that "Aed son of Niall, mortal enemy of Mael Sechlainn, took the kingship of Ireland after Mael Sechlainn…[and] held the kingship…for seventeen years"[122]. The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 879 of "Aed son of Niall king of Temuir”[123]. The Annals of Ulster record the death 20 Nov 879 of "Aed son of Niall king of Temair…at Druimm Inasclainn in the territory of Conaille"[124]. m firstly ---. The name of Aedh´s first wife is not known, but the dates of marriage of his daughters shown below indicate that they must have been born from an early marriage. m [secondly] (863, [divorced]) as her third husband, LAND, widow firstly of GAETHINE King of Loiches, and secondly of MAELSECHLAINN King of Ireland, daughter of DUNLANG King of Osraige & his wife ---. Her first marriage is confirmed by the Fragmentary Annals of Ireland which record in 863 that "Land, daughter of Dunlang…who was Mael Sechlainn´s wife previously…was the mother of Cennetig son of Gaethine king of Loiches"[125]. The Fragmentary Annals of Ireland name in 854 "Cerball son of Dunlang king of Osraige" and "Cerball´s sister, Land, daughter of Dunlang" as the wife of "Mael Sechlainn"[126]. Her third marriage is confirmed by the Fragmentary Annals of Ireland which record in 863 that "Aed son of Niall king of Ireland massacred the Norwegians…at Loch Febail", adding that "it was his wife who most incited Aed against the Norwegians, namely Land, daughter of Dunlang…who was Mael Sechlainn´s wife previously"[127]. [m thirdly as her first husband, MAEL MUIRE, daughter of KENNETH I King of Scotland & his wife --- (-913). The mid-12th century Banshenchas records that "Mael Muire daughter of Cinaed son of Alpin" married "Aed Finnliath and then later…Flann Sinna"[128]. The reliability of this information is unknown, although the inclusion of a record of Mael Muire´s death in the Annals of Ulster (see below) indicates that she had some connection with Ireland. If the information is correct, the chronology dictates that Aedh Finnliath must have divorced his known wife Land of Osraige before marrying Mael Muire. She married secondly Flann King of Ireland. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 913 of "Mael Muire daughter of Cinaed son of Ailpin”[129].] Aedh & his first wife had two children:

i) daughter . Her parentage and marriage are indicating by the Fragmentary Annals of Ireland which state in 862 that "Aed´s daughter was Amlaib´s wife"[130]. m (before 862) as his [second] wife, OLAF [Amlaib], son of --- (-after 871).

ii) EITHNE (-916). The Fragmentary Annals of Ireland record that in [869] "the Laigin drove away one of their chieftains…for he was of the stock of the Ciarraigne Luachra", that "came with his followers to the king of Ireland" who married him to "his daughter Eithne"[131]. The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 916 of “Eithne daughter of Aedh son of Niall, queen of the men of Breagh…on the festival day of St Martin”[132]. m ([869]) ---.

Aedh & his --- wife had two children:

iii) DOMNALL (-after 911). The Fragmentary Annals of Ireland record in 863 that "Muiredach son of Mael Duin king of in t-Airthir was killed by Domnall son of Aed son of Niall"[133]. The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Domnall son of Aed king of Ailech assumed the pilgrim´s staff” in 911 and that “Niall son of Aed took the kingship after him”[134]. m ---. The name of Domnall´s wife is not known. Domnall & his wife had two children:

(a) DONNCHAD (-killed 928). The Annals of Ulster record the death in 928 of "Donnchad son of Domnall son of Aed…killed by the Norsemen”[135].

(b) FERGAL (-after 933). The Annals of Ulster record that "Fergal son of Domnall son of Aed and Sicfrith son of Uathmarán, the son of Domnall´s daughter” defeated “Muirchertach son of Niall” in 933[136].

(c) daughter . Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the Annals of Ulster which record that "Fergal son of Domnall son of Aed and Sicfrith son of Uathmarán, the son of Domnall´s daughter” defeated “Muirchertach son of Niall” in 933[137]. m UATHMHARAN, son of [IVAR & his wife ---].

iv) NIALL Glundubh (-killed in battle Cill-Mosamhog, near Dublin 14 Sep or 17 Oct 919). The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Domnall son of Aed king of Ailech assumed the pilgrim´s staff” in 911 and that “Niall son of Aed took the kingship after him”[138]. King of Ireland 916. The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Niall son of Aed took the kingship of Temuir” in 916[139]. The Annals of the Four Masters record 915 as “the first year of Niall Glundubh son of Aedh Finnliath over Ireland in sovereignty”[140]. The Annals of the Four Masters record the death 17 Oct 917 of “Niall Glundubh son of Aedh Finnliath king of Ireland” at the battle of “Ath-cliath…Cill-Mosamhog”[141]. The Annals of Ulster name "Niall Glúndub son of Aed, king of Ireland” among those killed 14 Sep 919 by “the heathens…at Duiblinn”[142]. The Annals of Inisfallen record the "battle of Áth Cliath” in 919 in which “Niall Glúndub son of Aed king of Ireland” was killed[143]. m GORMLAITH, daughter of FLANN King of Ireland & his wife --- (-948). The Annals of the Four Masters record the reactions of “Gormlaith daughter of Flann” to the battle of “Ath-cliath…Cill-Mosamhog” in 917[144]. The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 946 of “Gormfhlaith daughter of Flann son of Maelseachlainn, queen of Niall Glundubh…after intense penance in her sins and transgressions”[145]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 948 of "Gormlaith daughter of Flann son of Mael Sechnaill”[146]. Niall & his wife had three children:

(a) MUIRCHERTACH (-killed in battle Ath-Fhirdiath 26 Mar 943). The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Muircheartach son of Niall” defeated “the foreigners” in 919[147].

- see below.

(b) CONAING (-937). The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Conaing son of Niall and the foreigners of Loch Eathach” won a battle “over the province of Ulidia” in 931[148]. The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 937 of "Conaing son of Niall”[149]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 937 of "Conaing son of Niall, heir designate of Ireland”[150]. m ---. The name of Conaing´s wife is not known. Conaing & his wife had one child:

(1) FERGAL (-937). The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 937 of "Ferga son of Conaing, king of Ailech”[151].

(c) MAEL MUIRE (-966). The Annals of Ulster record the death in 966 of "Mael Muire daughter of Niall son of Aed”[152].

Aedh & his [third] wife had [one child]:

v) [DOMNALL (-after 911). The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records the death of "Doneualdus rex Britannorum", during its record of the early part of the reign of Constantine II King of Scotland, and the choice of "Duuenaldus filius Ede" to succeed him, "et Flann filius Maelsethnaill et Niall filius Ede"[153]. Some secondary sources show Donald as the son of Aedh King of Scotland. However, the subsequent references to the two Irish kings in the same passage suggest that the Chronicle is referring to the son of Aedh King of Ireland. If this hypothesis is correct, it is possible that Domnall´s claim to the Scottish throne was through Mael Muire, shown above as the possible second wife of his father, which would mean in turn that this Domnall was not the same person as the son of Aedh of the same name who is recorded in 863 (see above).]

b) FLAITHBERTACH (-killed in battle 855). The Fragmentary Annals of Ireland record in 855 "a raid by Aed son of Niall to plunder Ulaid" but adding that "the Ulaid routed Cenel Eogain, and Flaithbertach son of Niall and Conacan son of Colman were slain there"[154].

c) daughter . Her parentage and marriage are indicating by the Fragmentary Annals of Ireland which state in 862 that "Flann son of Conaing king of Cinachta…was the son of Niall´s daughter"[155]. m --- King of Connaught, son of ---.



DOMNALL 955-978


MUIRCHERTACH, son of NIALL Glundubh King of Ireland & his wife Gormlaith (-killed in battle Ath-Fhirdiath 26 Feb 943). The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Muircheartach son of Niall” defeated “the foreigners” in 919[156]. The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Donnchadh king of Ireland” fought “Muircheartach son of Niall Glundubh lord of Oileach” in 936 but they were reconciled and jointly “lay siege to the foreigners of Ath-Cliath”[157]. The Annals of the Four Masters record the death 26 Mar 941 of “Muirchertach of the Leather Cloaks, son of Niall Glundubh, lord of Aileach…slain at Ath-Fhirdiath” by “Blacaire son of Godfrey lord of the foreigners”[158]. The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 943 of "Muirchertach son of Niall royal heir of Ireland at the hands of the heathens”[159]. The Annals of Ulster record the death 26 Feb 943 of "Muirchertach son of Niall, i.e. Muirchertach of the Leather Cloaks, king of Ailech” killed “by Blacair son of Gothfrith king of the foreigners at Glas Liatháin beside Cluain Chaín in Fir Rois”[160].

m [FLANN, daughter of DONNCHAD King of Ireland & his wife --- (-940). The name of Muirchertach´s wife is not known. The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 938 of “Flann daughter of Donnchadh and queen of Oileach”[161]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 940 of "Flann daughter of Donnchad, queen of Ailech”[162]. Her husband is not named in the source. However, Muirchertach was king of Ailech at the time.]

Muirchertach & his wife had two children:

1. DOMNALL (-Ard-Macha [978/80]). The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Domhnall Ua Neill, the son of Muircheartach, son of Niall Glundubb and…his brother” defeated “the foreigners of Loch-Eathach” and killed their king in 943[163]. King of Ireland. The Annals of the Four Masters record 955 as “the first year of Domhnall son of Muircheartach in sovereignty over Ireland”[164]. The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 978 of “Domhnall son of Muircheartach, of the Leather Cloaks, son of Niall Glundubh” at “Ard-Macha” after reigning for 24 years[165]. The Annals of Tigernach record the death of “Domnall mac Muirchertaigh King of Tara” in [978/79] and the accession of “Mael Sechnaill Mor”[166]. The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 980 of "Domnall Ua Néill king of Temuir”[167]. m ---. The name of Domnall´s wife is not known. Domnall & his wife had two children:

a) MUIRCHERTACH (-killed 977). The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Muirchertach son of Domnall, king of Aileach, and son of the king of Ireland” plundered “Lughmadagh and Druim-Inesclainn” in 968[168]. The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Muircheartach son of Domhnall Ua Neill, and Conghalach son of Domhnall son of Conghalach, two heirs to the monarchy of Ireland” were killed in 975 by “Amhlaeibh son of Sitric”[169]. The Annals of Ulster record the same event in 977[170]. m ---. The name of Muirchertach´s wife is not known. Muirchertach & his wife had one child:

i) FLAITHBERTACH (977-after 1031). The Annals of Ulster record the birth in 977 of “Flaithbertach son of Muirtertach”[171]. The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Flaithbheartach son of Muircheartach, lord of Aileach” made “a great prey…in Conaille-Muirtheimne” in 1005 but was stopped by “Maelseachlainn king of Teamhaire”[172]. The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Flaithbheartach son of Muircheartach O´Neill and his son Aedh” plundered “Inis-Eoghain” in 1031[173]. m ---. The name of Flaithbertach´s wife is not known. Flaithbertach & his wife had two children:

(a) AEDH (-30 Nov 1033). The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Flaithbheartach son of Muircheartach O´Neill and his son Aedh” plundered “Inis-Eoghain” in 1031[174]. The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1033 of “Aedh son of Flaithbheartach Ua Neill, lord of Oileach, and heir to the sovereignty of Ireland” on “the night of St Andrew´s festival”[175].

(b) MUIREDACH (-killed 1039). The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1039 of “Muireadhach son of Flaithbheartach Ua Neill…slain by the Ui-Labhradha”[176].

b) AEDH ([974/75]-killed in battle Craebh-tulcha 1004). The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Aedh son of Domhnall Ua Neill heir apparent to the sovereignty of Ireland and Eochaidh son of Ardgar king of Ulidia” opposed “Brian and Maelseachlainn…[at] Dun-Dealgan in Conaille-Muirtheimhne” in 1001[177]. The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Aedh son of Domhnall Ua Neill, lord of Oileach” was killed in 1003 at “the battle of Craebh-tulcha between the Ulidians and the Cinel-Eoghain”, adding that he died “in the 15th year of his reign and the 29th of his age”[178]. m ---. The name of Aedh´s wife is not known. Aedh & his wife had two children:

i) MUIRCHERTACH (-killed 1012). The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Muircheartach son of Aedh O´Neill” was killed in 1012 by “the Dail-Riada”[179].

ii) DOMNALL (-killed 1024). The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1024 of “Domhnall son of Aedh royal heir of Aileach” killed by “Gillamura son of Ogan”[180].

2. FLAITHBERTACH (-949). The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 947 of “Flaithbheartach son of Muircheartach son of Niall Glun-dubh…slain by the Cinel-Conaill”[181]. The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 949 of "Flaithbertach son of Muirtertach son of Niall”[182]. m ---. The name of Flaithbertach´s wife is not known. Flaithbertach & his wife had one child:

a) MURCHAD (-Dun-Cloitighe 972). The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Cathal son of Tadhg king of Connaught” was killed in 971 in “the battle of Ceis-Corainn [against] Murchadh Ua Flaithbheartach i.e. Glun-Illar king of Aileach”[183]. The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Murchadh Ua Flaithbheartach…lord of Aileach” died at “Dun-Cloitighe” from wounds received during a “predatory excursion into Cinel-Conaill”[184].




C. KINGS of IRELAND (Ua CELLACH)



1. CELLACH . His ancestry is confirmed by the Annals of Ulster which name "Congalach son of Mael Mithig son of Flannacán son of Cellach son of Congalagh son of Conaing of Cuirrech son of Congalach son of Aed of Sláine king of Ireland”[185]. m ---. The name of Cellach´s wife is not known. Cellach & his wife had one child:

a) FLANNACAN (-896). The Annals of Ulster record the death in 896 of "Flannacán son of Cellach king of Brega…killed by the Norsemen”[186]. m DER bFáil, daughter of ---. The Annals of Ulster name "Mael Finnia…the son of Der bFáil”[187]. Flannacán & his wife had five children:

i) CONGALACH (-893). The Annals of Ulster record the death in 893 of "Congalath son of Flannacán heir designate of Brega”[188]. m ---. The name of Congalach´s wife is not known. Congalach & his wife had one child:

(a) AMALGAID (-beheaded 909). The Annals of Ulster record that "Amalgaid son of Congalach, heir designate of Brega, and Innéirge son of Mael Teimin, a religious layman” were beheaded in 909 by “the Conaille of Muirtheimne”[189].

ii) CELLACH (-895). The Annals of Ulster record the death in 895 of "Cellach son of Flannacán heir designate of Brega” killed by “Fogartach son of Tolarg”[190].

iii) CINAED (-896). The Annals of Ulster record the death in 896 of "Cinaed son of Flannacán heir designate of Brega”[191].

iv) MAELFINNIA (-903). The Annals of Ulster record the death in 903 of "Mael Finnia son of Flannacán king of Brega, a religious layman”[192]. m ---. The name of Maelfinnia´s wife is not known. Maelfinnia & his wife had one child:

(a) DER bhFáil (-931). The Annals of Ulster record the death in 931 of "Der bhFáil daughter of Mael Finnia son of Flannacán, queen of Temair”[193]. The name of Der´s husband is not stated. However, Donnchad was “king of Temair” at the time of Der´s death. Not enough information is known about the chronology of Maelfinnia´s family to be able to test whether this is a reasonable hypothesis. m [as his second wife, DONNCHAD King of Ireland, son of FLANN King of Ireland & his wife --- (-942)].

v) MAELMITHIGH (-killed in battle Cill-Mosamhog, near Dublin 14 Sep or 17 Oct 919). The Annals of Inisfallen record the "battle of Áth Cliath” in 919 in which “Mael Mithig son of Flannacán king of the men of Brega” was killed[194].

- see below.



CONGALACH 943-956


MAELMITHIGH, son of FLANNACAN & his wife --- (-killed in battle Cill-Mosamhog, near Dublin 14 Sep or 17 Oct 919). The Annals of Ulster record that "Mael Mithig son of Flannacán, king of Cnogba went over to the heathens” in 918 “with a view to defending northern Brega…which availed him not at all”[195]. The Annals of Inisfallen record the "battle of Áth Cliath” in 919 in which “Mael Mithig son of Flannacán king of the men of Brega” was killed[196]. The Annals of Ulster name "Mael Mithig son of Flannacán king of Brega” among those killed 14 Sep 919 by “the heathens…at Duiblinn”[197].

m

Maelmithigh & his wife had one child:

1. CONGALACH (-killed Tech Giurann, Leinster 956). The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Conghalach son of Maelmithigh, heir apparent to the sovereignty of Ireland, Braen son of Maelmordha, king of Leinster, Ceallach, son of Faelan, heir of Leinster” destroyed Dublin in 942[198]. King of Ireland 943. The Annals of the Four Masters record 943 as “the first year of Conghalach son of Maelmithigh in sovereignty over Ireland”[199]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 956 of "Congalach son of Mael Mithig son of Flannacán son of Cellach son of Congalagh son of Conaing of Cuirrech son of Congalach son of Aed of Sláine king of Ireland” killed “by the foreigners of Áth Cliath and by the Laigin at Tech Giurann in Laigin”[200]. The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Congalach king of Ireland" was killed in 954[201]. m EITHNE, daughter of FEARGHAL & his wife --- (-951). The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 951 of “Eithne daughter of Fearghal Queen of Ireland, wife of Conghalach son of Maelmithigh”[202]. Congalach & his wife had three children:

a) MUIRCHERTACH (-killed 964). The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 962 of “Muircheartach son of Conghalach son of Maelmithigh heir to the sovereignty of Ireland” killed by “Domhnall son of Conghalach”[203]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 964 of "Muirchertach son of Congertach son of Mael Mithig, heir designate of Temair” killed by “Domnall son of Congalach”[204].

b) DOMNALL (-killed [976/77]). The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 962 of “Muircheartach son of Conghalach son of Maelmithigh heir to the sovereignty of Ireland” killed by “Domhnall son of Conghalach”[205]. The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 972 of “Muircheartach son of Aedh son of Flann Ua Maelseachlainn King of Meath” killed by “Domhnall son of Conghalach”[206]. The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 974 of “Domhnall son of Conghalach, lord of Breagha…named Triubhus Fliuch”[207]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 976 of "Domnall son of Congalach king of Brega”[208]. The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 977 of "Muirchertach son of Domnall, royal heir of Ireland, and the son of Domnall son of Congal another royal heir…killed by the foreigners of Áth Cliath”[209]. m ---. The name of Domnall´s wife is not known. Domnall & his wife had one child:

i) CONGALACH (-killed 977). The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Muircheartach son of Domhnall Ua Neill, and Conghalach son of Domhnall son of Conghalach, two heirs to the monarchy of Ireland” were killed in 975 by “Amhlaeibh son of Sitric”[210]. The Annals of Ulster record the same event in 977[211].

c) DONNCHAD (-killed 991). The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 991 of "Donnchadh Ua Congalaig royal heir of Ireland…by Mael Sechnaill son of Domnall”[212]. m ---. The name of Donnchad´s wife is not known. Donnchad & his wife had one child:

i) DONNCHAD (-killed 1016). The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1016 of “Donnchad son of Donnchad Ua Conghalaigh, lord of Breagha and royal heir of Ireland…slain by the men of Breagha themselves”[213].

d) DEARBHAIL (-1012). The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1012 of “Dearbhail daughter of Conghalach son of Maelmithigh, daughter of the king of Ireland”[214].

2. DUNLAITH (-940). The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 940 of “Dunlaith daughter of Maelmithigh”[215].

3. AEDH (-963). The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 963 of “Aedh son of Maelmithigh…on his pilgrimage”[216]. m ---. The name of Aedh´s wife is not known. Aedh & his wife had one child:

a) MADUDHAN (-killed Tech Giurann, Leinster 956). The Annals of the Four Masters name “Conghalach son of Maelmithig King of Ireland…Madudhan son of Aedh son of Maelmithig…” among those killed in 954 (956) by “the foreigners of Ath-cliath”[217].



1. DONNCHAD . m ---. The name of Donnchad´s wife is not known. Donnchad & his wife had one child:

a) LORCAN (-925). King of Brega. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 925 of "Lorcán son of Dúnchad, king of Brega…in old age”[218]. m [LIGACH, daughter of MAELSECHNAILL & his wife --- (-923). The Annals of Ulster record the death in 923 of "Lígach daughter of Mael Sechnaill, queen of the king of Brega”[219]. Her husband is not named in the source. However, the text implies that her husband was living when she died, and Lorcán is named as king of Brega in the same source only two years later.] Lorcan & his wife had two children:

i) two sons (-killed 942). The Annals of Ulster record the death in 942 of "two sons of Lorcán son of Donnchad…killed by Congalach son of Mael Mithig”[220].




D. KINGS of IRELAND (Ua BRIAN)



BRIAN 1002-1014


1. BRIAN Boroma, son of CEINNÉITIG & his wife --- (-killed in battle Clontarf 23 Apr 1014). His parentage is confirmed by the Annals of Ulster which record that "Brian son of Ceinnéitig son of Lorcán king of Ireland and Mael Sechnaill son of Domnall king of Temair" led an army to “Áth Cliath” in 1014[221]. The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Brian son of Cennétig…and Mael Sechnaill son of Domnall king of Temuir” divided Ireland between them in 997 “Leth Cuinn to Mael Sechnaill and Leth Moga to Brian”[222]. High King of Ireland 1002. It would appear that Brian´s high-kingship overlapped with that of MaelSechanaill as no record has been found that the latter resigned the position. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Brían Boroma regnat” in [999/1000][223]. The Chronicon of Mariano Scotti records that "Brian rex Hiberniæ" was killed "1014 IX Kal Mai"[224]. Orkneyinga Saga records that Sigurd Jarl of Orkney went to Ireland “five years after the Battle of Svoldur” to support “King Sigtrygg Silk-Beard” against “King Brian of Ireland”, and left “his elder sons in charge of the earldom”, but was killed in the battle in which King Brian was killed[225]. The Annals of Ulster record that "Brian son of Ceinnéitig son of Lorcán king of Ireland and Mael Sechnaill son of Domnall king of Temair" led an army to “Áth Cliath” in 1014, adding that Brian was killed in the battle[226].



TORDELBACH 1072-1086, MUIRCHERTACH 1086-1119


1. TORDELBACH, son of DOMNAILL of Munster & his wife --- ([1008/09]-Cenn Coradh 14 Jul 1086). King of Munster 1064. High King of Ireland 1072. The Annals of Inisfallen record that "the son of Conchobair Ua Mail Sechnaill (king of Temuir), Gofraid grandson of Ragnall king of Áth Cliath, and Domnall son of Gilla Pátraic king of Osraige…submitted to Tairdelbach Ua Briain king of Mum” in 1072 and “gave acknowledgement and high-kingship to him”[227]. The Annals of Tigernach record the death in 1086 of “Tordelbach Húa Bríáin king of the greater part of Ireland…in the 77th year of his age but in the 22nd of his reign” and of “his son Tadhg…in one month”[228].

a) MUIRCHERTACH (1048-10 Mar 1119, bur Killaloe). The Annals of Tigernach record the birth in 1048 of “Muirchertach Húa Bríáin king of Ireland”[229]. Snorre names "King Myrkjartan…a son of the Irish king Thialfe" when recording that he ruled over Connaught[230]. King of Munster. High King of Ireland 1086-1119. The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Diarmait Húa Bríáin” seized the kingdom of Munster in 1114 when “Muirchertach Húa Bríáin” fell ill[231]. The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Murchertach Húa Bríáin king of Ireland” died in 1119 “in the sixth year of his tribulation” (presumably referring to his illness reported in an earlier passage) and was buried “in the church of Killaloe”[232]. The Annales Cambriæ record the death in 1119 of "Murchach maximus rex Hiberniæ"[233]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1119 of "Muirchertach ua Brian king of Ireland…10 Mar”[234].




E. KING of IRELAND (Ua MAIL na mBó)



DIARMAIT 1053-1072


1. DIARMAIT, son of Mail na mbó & his wife --- (-killed in battle Odba 7 Feb 1072). The Annals of Tigernach record that “Diarmait son of Mael na mbó king of the Húi Cennselaig” plundered “Colomb cille´s Maein (Moone), Dísert Diarmata and my Senóc´s Mugna and Clonmore” in 1040[235]. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Echmarcach son of Ragnall king of the Foreigners went oversea” in 1052 and “the son of Mael na mbó assumed the kingship after him”, adding in a later passage that “the son of Mael na mbó took the kingship of Dublin by force” in 1053[236]. King of Leinster. High King of Ireland. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that Harold Godwinsson and his brother Leofwine, sons of Godwin Earl of Wessex, sought refuge with him in 1051 following the family's disgrace[237]. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Diarmait son of Mail na mbó, king of Britons and the Hebrides and Dublin and Mug Nuadat´s Half [southern Ireland]” was killed in 1072 by “Conchobar Húa Mael-Sechlainn in the battle of Odba”[238].




F. KING of IRELAND (Ua CONCHOBAIR)



TORDELBACH 1118-1156, RUAIDRI 1166-1199


1. TOIRDELBACH, son of RUAIDRI Húa Conchobair & his wife Mor --- (1088-1156, bur St Ciaran). The Annals of Ulster record the birth in 1088 of "Tairdelbach ua Conchobuir king of Ireland”[239]. King of Connaught. The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Domnall son of Ruaidri Húa Conchobair” was deposed “by the Connaughtmen” in 1106 and “his brother Toirdelbach the Great was made king”[240]. The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Toirdelbach Húa Conchobair” assumed “the kingship of the Foreigners” in 1118 after expelling “Domnall of the Short Hands Húi Briaín”[241]. High King of Ireland. The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record “a great hosting by Toirdelbach son of Ruaidri king of Ireland, as far as Aghaboe in Ossory” in 1125 “so that they gave him his full award in respect of the revolt which they had made against him”[242]. The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Enna son of Donnchad son of Murchad king of Leinster” died in 1126, after which “Toirdelbach Húa Conchobair king of Ireland” was made king of Leinster, unsuccessfully challenged by “Cormac Mac Carthaig king of Desmond”[243]. The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Toirdelbach Húa Conchobair king of all Ireland and the Augustus of the west of Europe” died in 1156 “in the 68th year of his age in the 50th year of his reign” and was buried “beside S. Ciaran´s altar”[244].

a) RUAIDRI (-1199). The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Muredach Húa Dubthaig…demanded from his father the liberation of Rúaidri, son of Toirdelbach Húa Conchobair” in 1143 after he was taken prisoner “by Tigernán Húa Ruairc and by Conchobar his own brother”[245]. King of Connaught. The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “the Foreigners” gave the kingship to “Ruaidri Húa Conchobair” in 1166 in Dublin[246]. High King of Ireland 1166. The Annals of Ulster record that "Ruaidhri Ua Conchubair was expelled by his own son…Conchobar Maenmhuide” in 1186[247]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1199 of "Ruaidhri Ua Concobair…son of Toirrdhealbhach Ua Conchubair, king of Ireland”[248].



1. NIALL Mac Lochlainn (-killed 1120). The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1120 of "Niall son of Mac Lochlainn, royal heir of Ireland…slain by his own people”[249]. m ---. The name of Niall´s wife is not known. Niall & his wife had four children:

a) MUIRCERTACH (-killed in battle Tyrone 1166). The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record “the consecration of the Temple of the Monks (at the monastery of Drogheda) by the clerics of Ireland…and Muirchetach mac maic Lochlann…” in 1157[250]. High King of Ireland. The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Muirchetach son of Níall Mac Lochlainn overking of Ireland” was killed in 1166 by “the men of Brefne and Conmaicini and Oriel and Húa Ruairc´s army” in Tyrone[251]. m ---. The name of Muircertach´s wife is not known. Muircertach & his wife had [three] children:

i) [son . It is not known which of the sons of Muircertach was the father of Fingola. m ---. One child:]

(a) FINGOLA . The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records that King Godred married “Phingola filia MacLotlen filii Murkartac regis Hiberniæ”, mother of his son, in a Christian marriage ceremony in 1176[252]. m (1176) GODRED King of Man, son of OLAV King of Man & his wife Aufrica of Galloway (-Isle of St Patrick, Isle of Man 10 Nov 1187, bur Iona).

ii) DOMNALL (-killed 1189). The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1189 of "Domnall son of Muircertach Ua Lochlainn…killed by the Foreigners of Dal-Araidhe, amongst themselves”[253].

iii) MUIRCERTACH (-killed 1196, bur Daire of Colum-cille). The Annals of Ulster record that "Muircertach, son of Muircertach Ua Lochlainn, king of Cenel-Eogain and royal heir of all Ireland” was killed in 1196 by “Donnchadh, son of Bloscadh Ua Cathan, by counsel of all Cenel-Eogain” and buried at “Daire of Colum-cille”[254].

b) CONCHOBAR (-killed Armagh 1170). The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “the kingship of the Kindred of Eogan was taken by Conchobar son of Níall Mac Lochlainn” in 1169[255]. The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Conchobar son of Mac Lochlainn king of the Kindred of Eogan” was killed in 1170 by “the sons of Cano in Armagh”[256].

c) NIALL (-killed 1176). The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “the kingship of the Kindred of Eogan was taken by Niall Mac Lochlainn” in 1170[257]. The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Niall son of Mac Lochlainn” was killed in 1176 by “the Dál mBuinne”[258].

d) MAELSECHLAINN . The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record a “hosting by MaelSechlainn son of MacLochlainn and by the Kindred of Eogan and the men of Oriel” in 1176 when they attacked “the castle of Slane” and killed “Richard Fleming the Foreigner who was commander therein”[259]. The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Aed Húa Néill king of the Kindred of Eogan” was killed in 1177 by “Mael Sechlainn son of MacLochlainn”[260]. The Annals of Ulster record that "Mael-Sechlainn son of Mac Lochlainn and…Ardgal son of…that Mael-Sechlainn” killed “Aedh Ua Neill…´the lazy youth´ king of Cenel-Eogain for a time and royal heir of all Ireland” in 1177[261]. m ---. The name of Maelsechlainn´s wife is not known. Maelsechlainn & his wife had one child:

i) ARDGAL . The Annals of Ulster record that "Mael-Sechlainn son of Mac Lochlainn and…Ardgal son of…that Mael-Sechlainn” killed “Aedh Ua Neill…´the lazy youth´ king of Cenel-Eogain for a time and royal heir of all Ireland” in 1177[262].

2. [DOMNALL (-1121). The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1121 of "Domnall son of Mac Lochlainn, king of Ireland, in Doire Coluim Chille”[263]. The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record the death in 1121 of “Domnall mac Mec Lochlainn king of the north of Ireland and the taker of Erin´s hostages”[264].] m ---. The name of Domnall´s wife is not known. Domnall & his wife had one child:

a) MOR (-1122). The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1122 of "Mór daughter of Domnall ua Lochlainn, wife of Tairdelbach ua Conchobuir”[265]. m as his [third] wife, TOIRDELBACH King of Connaught, son of RUAIDRI Húa Conchobair & his wife Mor --- (1088-1156, bur St Ciaran).

3. [CONCHOBAR . The Annals of Inisfallen record "a great raid by Conchobar son of Mac Lochlainn in Ulaid” in 1129[266]. The Annals of Inisfallen record "a battle rout of the Ulaid by Conchobar son of Mac Lochlainn and by the Cenél Eógain” in 1130[267].

4. [MAGNUS (-1129). The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1129 of "the king of Ailech Magnus son of Mac Lochlainn”[268].]


Chapter 5.    KINGS of LEINSTER

The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that Henry II King of England arrived in Ireland in 1171, went to Dublin where he received “the kingship of Leinster and of the men of Meath, Brefne, Oriel and Ulster”[542].




A. KINGS of LEINSTER



1. MUIREDACH (-885). King of Leinster. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 885 of "Muiredach son of Bran king of Laigin and superior of Cell Dara"[543]. m ---. The name of Muiredach´s wife is not known. Muiredach & his wife had two children:

a) FAELAN (-Aenach-Colmain 942). King of Leinster. The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Faelan son of Muireadhach, King of Leinster, with his son Lorcan” were taken prisoners in 923 by “the foreigners of Ath-cliath”[544]. The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 940 of “Faelan son of Muireadhach King of Leinster…of a fall at Aenach-Colmain”[545]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 942 of "Faelán son of Muiredach king of Laigin”[546]. m ---. The name of Faelan´s wife is not known. Faelan & his wife had [five] children:

i) DONNCUAN (-929). The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 929 of “Donncuan son of Faelan heir apparent of Leinster”[547].

ii) LORCAN (-killed Dublin 943). The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Faelan son of Muireadhach, King of Leinster, with his son Lorcan” were taken prisoners in 923 by “the foreigners of Ath-cliath”[548]. King of Leinster. The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 941 of “Lorcan son of Faelan king of Leinster…slain by the Norsemen as he was plundering Ath-Cliath”[549]. The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 943 of "Lorcán son of Faelán king of Laigin, at the hands of the heathens”[550]. m ---. The name of Lorcan´s wife is not known. Lorcan & his wife had two children:

(a) CEARBHALL (-killed 967). The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 965 of “Muireadhach son of Faelan, Abbot of Cill-dara and royal heir of Leinster” killed by “Amhlaeibh lord of the foreigners and by Cearbhall son of Lorcan”[551]. The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 965 of “Cearbhall son of Lorcan royal heir of Leinster” killed by “Domhnall lord of Breagha”[552]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 967 of "Cerball son of Lorcán heir designate of Laigin” killed by “Domnall king of Brega”[553]. m ---. The name of Cearbhall´s wife is not known. Cearbhall & his wife had four children:

(1) three sons (-killed Gleann-da-Locha 983). The Annals of the Four Masters record that “the three sons of Cearbhall son of Lorcan plundered the Termon of Caeimhghin at Gleann-da-Locha” in 983 and were killed[554].

(2) GILLACELE (-killed 993). The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 993 of “Gillacele son of Cearbhall, royal heir of Leinster” killed by “the son of Amhlaeibh”[555].

(b) DOMNALL Claen (-killed [977/84]). The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Domnall Claen son of Lorcan” killed “Murchadh son of Finn, king of Leinster” in 970[556]. King of Leinster. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Domnall Cloen king of Leinster” was captured in [977/78] by “the Foreigners of Dublin”, adding in a later passage that he was released by “Mael-Sechnaill the Great” in [978/79][557]. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Domnall Clóen” was killed in [982/83] by “Aed son of Echthigern of the Húi Cennselaig”[558]. The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Domnall Claen” was killed in 982 by “Aedh son of Echthigern, one of the Ui-Ceinnsealaigh, and Fiachra son of Finnshneacta, chief of Fortuatha-Laighean, and Maelmithigh son of Gairbheth by treachery”[559]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 984 of “Domnall Claen king of Laigin…killed by the Ui Cheinnselaig”[560]. m ---. The name of Domnall´s wife is not known. Domnall & his wife had one child:

(1) DONNCHAD (-after 1003). King of Leinster. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Donchad son of Domnall Clóen king of Leinster” was captured in [997/98] by “Sitric son of Olaf”[561]. The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Brian son of Cennétig” deposed “the king of Laigin Donnchadh son of Domnall” in 1003[562].

iii) CELLACH (-966). The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Conghalach son of Maelmithigh, heir apparent to the sovereignty of Ireland, Braen son of Maelmordha, king of Leinster, Ceallach, son of Faelan, heir of Leinster” destroyed Dublin in 942[563]. King of Leinster. The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 966 of "Cellach son of Faelán king of Laigin”[564].

iv) MUIREDACH (-killed 965). The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 965 of “Muireadhach son of Faelan, Abbot of Cill-dara and royal heir of Leinster” killed by “Amhlaeibh lord of the foreigners and by Cearbhall son of Lorcan”[565].

v) DOMNALL . The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Donndubhan son of Imhar and Domhnall son of Faelan lord of the Deisi” killed “Gillaphadraig son of Donnchadh lord of Osraighe” in 995[566]. The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 995 of “Domhnall son of Faelan lord of the Deisi”[567]. m ---. The name of Domnall´s wife is not known. Domnall & his wife had one child:

(a) MOTHLA (-killed in battle Clontarf 23 Apr 1014). The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Mothla son of Domnhall son of Faelan, lord of the Deisi-Mumhan” was killed in 1013 in the battle [of Clontarf][568].

b) FLANN (-930). The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 930 of “Flann son of Muireadhach heir apparent of Leinster” and of “Lorcan son of Cathal royal heir of Leinster”[569].



1. MUIREGAN . m ---. The name of Muiregan´s wife is not known. Muiregan & his wife had three children:

a) DOMNALL (-killed 884). King of Leinster. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 884 of "Domnall son of Muirecán, king of Laigin…killed by his associates"[570].

b) CERBALL (-909). King of Leinster. The Annals of Ulster record "Cerball son of Muirecán, king of Laigin” among the victors in “the battle of Belach Mugna” fought 13 Sep 908 between “the men of Mumu, the Leth Cuinn and the Laigin in Mag Ailbi”[571]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 909 of "Cerball son of Muirecán…king of the Laigin…of a sickness”[572]. The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Cerwallt son of Muregan king of Leinster died of a fatal disorder" in 905[573].

c) MAELMORDA (-killed in battle Cenn Fuait 917). The Annals of Ulster record that "Mael Mórda son of Muirecán, king of eastern Life” was killed in 917 “by Sitriuc grandson of Imar in the battle of Cenn Fuait”[574]. m ---. The name of Maelmorda´s wife is not known. Maelmorda & his wife had one child:

i) FINN (-923). The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 921 of “Finn son of Maelmordha son of Muiregan heir apparent of Leinster” killed by “Ceallach son of Cearbhall”[575].

- see below.

ii) MUIREDACH (-942). The Annals of the Four Masters record the deaths in 942 of “Flann son of Finn and Muireadhach son of Maelmordha, two royal heirs of Leinster”[576].

iii) BRAEN (-killed in battle 947). King of Leinster. The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Conghalach son of Maelmithigh, heir apparent to the sovereignty of Ireland, Braen son of Maelmordha, king of Leinster, Ceallach, son of Faelan, heir of Leinster” destroyed Dublin in 942[577]. The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 945 of “Braen son of Maelmordha king of Leinster” killed by “Donnchadh son of Ceallach lord of Osraighe”[578]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 947 of "Braen son of Mael Mórda, king of the Laigin…killed on a foray in Osraige”[579]. m ---. The name of Braen´s wife is not known. Braen & his wife had two children:

(a) MADUDAN (-killed 970). The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Mac Brain” killed “Madudhan son of Bran” in 970[580].

(b) FINN (-killed 970). The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Ceallach son of Domhnall son of Finn son of Maelmordha , lord of Ui-Faelain” killed “Finn son of Bran” in 970[581].



FINN, son of MAELMORDA & his wife --- (-923). The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 921 of “Finn son of Maelmordha son of Muiregan heir apparent of Leinster” killed by “Ceallach son of Cearbhall”[582]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 923 of "Finn son of Mael Mórda, heir designate of Laigin…killed by his own kinsman”[583].

m ---. The name of Finn´s wife is not known.

Finn & his wife had five children:

1. FLANN (-942). The Annals of the Four Masters record the deaths in 942 of “Flann son of Finn and Muireadhach son of Maelmordha, two royal heirs of Leinster”[584].

2. MURCHAD (-972). King of Leinster 965. The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Murchadh son of Finn king of Leinster” led an army “into Osraighe” in 965[585]. The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 972 of "Murchad son of Finn king of Laigin”[586]. m ---. The name of Murchad´s wife is not known. Murchad & his wife had three children:

a) MAELMORDA (-killed in battle Clontarf 23 Apr 1014). King of Leinster. The Annals of Ulster record that "Brian son of Ceinnéitig son of Lorcán king of Ireland and Mael Sechnaill son of Domnall king of Temair" led an army to “Áth Cliath” in 1014, adding that “Mael Mórda son of Murchad king of Laigin” was killed in the battle[587]. The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Murchadh son of Finn king of Leinster” was killed in 1013 in the battle [of Clontarf][588]. m ---. The name of Mail-mordha´s wife is not known. Mail-mordha & his wife had two children:

i) CEARBALL (-killed 1017). The Annals of Tigernach record that “Cearball mac Mail-mordha crownprince of Leinster” was killed in 1017[589].

ii) BRAEN (-Köln 1052). King of Leinster. The Annals of Ulster record that "Braen son of Mael Mórda king of Laigin” was blinded in 1018 “in Áth Cliath by Sitriuc son of Amlaib”[590].

b) GORMLAITH (-1030). The Annals of Tigernach record the death in 1030 of “Gormlaith, daughter of Murchad son of Fland” mother of “Sitric son of Olaf king of the Foreigners and of Donnchad son of Brian king of Munster”[591]. Her third marriage is confirmed by the Annals of the Four Masters which record the death in 1030 of “Gormlaith daughter of Murchadh son of Finn, mother of the king of the foreigners Sitric, Donnchadh son of Brian king of Munster, and Conchobhar son of Maeleachlainn king of Teamhair”[592]. It is assumed that Maelsechnaill separated from Gormlaith as he is recorded with another wife before Gormlaith died. m firstly as his third wife, OLAF Sihtricsson King of Dublin, son of SIHTRIC King of York & his first wife --- (-981). m secondly (after 981, [separated]) [as his second wife,] BRIAN Boroma, son of CEINNÉITIG & his wife --- (941-killed in battle Clontarf 23 Apr 1014). m thirdly ([separated]) as his [third] wife, MAELSECHNAILL King of Ireland, son of DOMNALL & his wife --- ([949/50]-Cró Inis of Lough Ennell 2 Sep 1022).

c) BRAEN (-killed in battle Teamhair [978/80]). The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 973 of “Ceallach son of Domhnall, lord of Ui-Faelain” killed by “Broen son of Murchadh”[593]. The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Braen son of Murchadh royal heir of Leinster” was killed in 978 in “the battle of Teamhair”[594], the battle being dated between 978 and 980 in different sources.

3. DOMNALL (-947). The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 947 of “Dormhnall son of Finn royal heir of Leinster”[595]. m ---. The name of Domnall´s wife is not known. Domnall & his wife had one child:

a) CELLACH (-after 970). The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Ceallach son of Domhnall son of Finn son of Maelmordha , lord of Ui-Faelain” killed “Finn son of Bran” in 970[596]. The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 973 of “Ceallach son of Domhnall, lord of Ui-Faelain” killed by “Broen son of Murchadh”[597].

4. MAELMORDA (-966). The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Maelmordha son of Finn royal heir of Leinster” was mortally wounded in 966[598].

5. CONCHOBAR (-977). The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 977 of “Conchobhar son of Finn, lord of Ui-Failghe”[599]. m ---. The name of Conchobar´s wife is not known. Conchobar & his wife had one child:

a) CONGALACH (-killed 1014 or 1017). The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Conghalach son of Conchobhar, lord of the Ui-Failghe” was killed in 1014 when the army of “Maelseachlainn, Ua Neill, and Ua Maeldoraidh” was attacked while they were plundering “Ui-Cennsealagh”[600]. The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1017 of “Conghalach son of Conchobhar son of Finn lord of Ui-Failghe”[601]. It is probable that these two entries refer to the same person. Neither entry is found in the Annals of Ulster or the Annals of Inisfallen. m ---. The name of Congalach´s wife is not known. Congalach & his wife had one child:

i) MUIRCHERTACH (-killed in battle 1026). The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1026 of “Muircheartach son of Conghalach lord of Ui-Failghe” killed “by the foreigners of Ath Cliath”[602].



1. DUNLANG . m ---. The name of Dúnlang´s wife is not known. Dúnlang & his wife had one child:

a) AILILL (-killed 871). The Annals of Ulster record that "Ailill son of Dúnlang king of Laigin” was killed in 871 “by the Norsemen”[603]. m ---. The name of Ailill´s wife is not known. Ailill & his wife had one child:

i) UGAIRE (-killed in battle Cenn Fuait 917). King of Leinster. The Annals of Ulster record that "Ugaire son of Ailill king of Laigin” was killed in 917 “by Sitriuc grandson of Imar in the battle of Cenn Fuait”[604]. m ---. The name of Augaire´s wife is not known. Augaire & his wife had one child:

(a) TUATHAL (-958). The Annals of the Four Masters record “a victory…over the people of Laighis and the Ui-Faircheallain by Tuathal son of Ugaire” in 950[605]. King of Leinster. The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 958 of "Tuathal son of Augaire king of Laigin”[606]. m ---. The name of Tuathal´s wife is not known. Tuathal & his wife had three children:

- see below.



TUATHAL, son of UGAIRE & his wife --- (-958). The Annals of the Four Masters record “a victory…over the people of Laighis and the Ui-Faircheallain by Tuathal son of Ugaire” in 950[607]. King of Leinster. The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 958 of "Tuathal son of Augaire king of Laigin”[608].

m ---. The name of Tuathal´s wife is not known.

Tuathal & his wife had three children:

1. DONNCHAD (-964). The Annals of the Four Masters records the death in 964 of “Donnchadh son of Tuathal royal heir of Leinster”[609].

2. UGAIRE (-killed in battle Bithland [976/77]). King of Leinster. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Ugaire, son of Tuathal, king of Leinster” was captured in [974/75] by “the Foreigners of Dublin”[610]. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Ugaire, son of Tuathal, king of Leinster” was killed in [976/77] at “the Battle of Bithland”[611]. m ---. The name of Ugaire´s wife is not known. Ugaire & his wife had one child:

a) TUATHAL (-killed in battle Clontarf 23 Apr 1014). The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Tuathal son of Ugaire, royal heir of Leinster” was killed in 1013 in the battle [of Clontarf][612].

3. DUNLANG (-1013). King of Leinster. The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1013 of “Dunlang son of Tuathal king of Leinster”[613]. m ---. The name of Dunlang´s wife is not known. Dunlang & his wife had five children:

a) GILLA COEMGIN (-killed [1017/18]). Crown Prince of Leinster. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Gilla Coemgin son of Dunlang crownprince of Leinster” was killed in [1017/18] “by the Leinstermen”[614].

b) DONNCUAN “the Simpleton” (-killed 1015). King of Leinster. The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Donncuan i.e. the Simpleton son of Dunlaing lord of Leinster and Tadhg Ua Riain lord of Ui-Drona” were killed in 1015 by “Donnchadh son of Gillaphadraig at Leithghlinn”[615].

c) UGAIRE (-killed Dubloch [1022/24]). King of Leinster. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Ugaire son of Dunlang king of Leinster” defeated “Sitric son of Olaf with the Foreigners of Dublin at Dergnae mo Goróc (Delgany)” in 1021[616]. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Augaire son of Dunlang king of Leinster” was killed “at Dubloch, by Donn slébe” in [1022/24][617].

d) DONNCHAD (-killed [1036/37]). King of Leinster. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Donnchad, son of Dunlang, king of Leinster” was blinded by “Donnchad Mac Gilla Pátraic” in 1036 and died[618]. The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1037 of "Dúnlang´s king of Laigin by the Osraige”[619].

i) DOMNALL (-1039). Crown Prince of Leinster. The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1039 of "Domnall son of Donnchad royal heir of Laigin”[620]. The Annals of Tigernach record the death in 1039 of “Domnall son of Donnchad king of the Húi Faeláin…slain by Domnall Húa Fergail king of the Forths”[621].

e) MURCHAD (-killed in battle Mag Muilchet 1042). King of Leinster. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Murchad son of Dunlang king of Leinster” was killed by “Gilla Pátraic son of Donnchad king of Ossory and by Mac Craith Húa Donnchada king of the Eoganacht ´load-of-plunder´ on Mag Muilchet in Leix” in 1042[622].





1. UATHMARAN . m ---. The name of Uathmaran´s wife is not known. Uathmaran & his wife had one child:

a) DIARMUIT (-[982/83]). King of Leinster. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Diarmuit mac Uathmaran king of Leinster” died in [982/83][623].


1. MAIL na mBó (-1006). The Annals of Tigernach record that “Aed son of Echthigern” was killed in [1001/02] “in the prayer-house of Saint m´Aedóc´s great Ferns by Mael na mbó”[624]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1006 of "Mael na mBó king of Uí Cheinnselaigh…killed by his own people”[625]. m ---. The name of Mail´s wife is not known. Mail & his wife had three children:

a) DIARMAIT (-killed in battle Odba 7 Feb 1072). The Annals of Tigernach record that “Diarmait son of Mael na mbó king of the Húi Cennselaig” plundered “Colomb cille´s Maein (Moone), Dísert Diarmata and my Senóc´s Mugna and Clonmore” in 1040[626]. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Echmarcach son of Ragnall king of the Foreigners went oversea” in 1052 and “the son of Mael na mbó assumed the kingship after him”, adding in a later passage that “the son of Mael na mbó took the kingship of Dublin by force” in 1053[627]. King of Leinster. High King of Ireland.

- see below.

b) DOMNALL “Remuir/the Fat” (-killed 1041). The Annals of Tigernach record that “Domnall the Fat crownprince of the Húi Cennsilaig” was killed in 1041 by “in Húi Bairrche [by] Murchad son of Dunlang”[628]. The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1041 of "the son of Mael na mBó” killed in “a battle between the Laigin”[629]. m ---. The name of Domnall´s wife is not known. Domnall & his wife had one child:

i) DONNCHAD (-killed 1089). King of Leinster. The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Enna son of Diarmait and the nobles of Desmumu” successfully held the fortress of “Port Láirge” in 1088 against “the Laigin and the son of Domnall Remar”[630]. The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Donnchad, son of Domnall the Fat, son of Mael na mbó, King of Leinster and the Foreigners” was killed by “Húa Conchobair…with the folk of Ossory and the west of Leinster” in 1089[631]. The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Muirchertach Ui Briain” killed “Domnall´s son [and] took the kingship of Laigin and Áth Cliath” in 1089[632]. m ---. The name of Donnchad´s wife is not known. Donchad & his wife had [one possible child]:

(a) [MURCHAD (-killed 1091). The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1091 of "Murchad grandson of Domnall Remar…killed by Enna son of Diarmait”[633].]

c) MURCHAD . His parentage is confirmed by the Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) which name “Gormlaith, daughter of Murchad, son of Mael na mbó”[634]. m ---. The name of Murchad´s wife is not known. Murchad & his wife had one child:

i) GORMLAITH (-1112). The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record the death in 1112 of “Gormlaith, daughter of Murchad, son of Mael na mbó, female successor to S. Brigit”[635].



DIARMAIT, son of MAEL na mBó & his wife --- (-killed in battle Odba 7 Feb 1072). The Annals of Tigernach record that “Ruaidri son of Tadg son of Lorcan” was blinded in 1036 by “Mael na mbó” (which must indicate the latter´s son assuming that the death date of Mail na mBó is correctly recorded above)[636]. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Diarmait son of Mael na mbó king of the Húi Cennselaig” plundered “Colomb cille´s Maein (Moone), Dísert Diarmata and my Senóc´s Mugna and Clonmore” in 1040[637]. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Echmarcach son of Ragnall king of the Foreigners went oversea” in 1052 and “the son of Mael na mbó assumed the kingship after him”, adding in a later passage that “the son of Mael na mbó took the kingship of Dublin by force” in 1053[638]. King of Leinster. High King of Ireland. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that Harold Godwinsson and his brother Leofwine, sons of Godwin Earl of Wessex, sought refuge with him in 1051 following the family's disgrace[639]. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Diarmait son of Mail na mbó, king of Britons and the Hebrides and Dublin and Mug Nuadat´s Half [southern Ireland]” was killed in 1072 by “Conchobar Húa Mael-Sechlainn in the battle of Odba”[640]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1072 of "Diarmait son of Mael na mBó king of Laigin and the foreigners…7 Feb” killed in battle by “Conchobar ua Mael Sechlainn king of Temair”[641].

m DERBORGAILL, daughter of ---, granddaughter of BRIAN Boru King of Ireland (-Imlech 1080). The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1080 of "Derbhforgaill daughter of Brian´s son, wife of Diarmait son of Mael na mBó…in Imlech”[642].

Diarmait & his wife had three children:

1. MURCHAD (-Dublin 1070, bur Dublin). The Annals of Tigernach record that “Murchad son of Diarmait son of Mael na mbó” invaded “Mann…and defeated Ragnall´s son” in 1061[643]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1070 of "Murchad son of Diarmait king of Laigin and the foreigners…buried in Áth Cliath”[644]. The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1070 of "Murchad son of Diarmiat son of Mael na mBó king of foreigners and Gaedil…in Áth Cliath”[645]. m ---. The name of Murchad´s wife is not known. Murchad & his wife had four children:

a) DOMNALL (-1075). The Annals of Inisfallen record that "the son of Murchad, grandson of Mael na mBó took the kingship of Áth Cliath” in 1075 and died “in the same year”[646]. King of Dublin. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1075 of "Domnall son of Murchad, king of Áth Cliath…of a three nights' sickness"[647].

b) DONCHAD (-1115). King of Leinster. The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “the son of Murchad, son of Diarmait, son of Máel na mbó” won a battle in 1114[648].

- see below.

c) ENDA . His parentage is confirmed by the Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) which names “Diarmait son of Enda, son of Murchad, king of the Foreigners and Leinstermen”[649]. m ---. The name of Enda´s wife is not known. Enda & his wife had one child:

i) DIARMUIT (-[1117]). King of Leinster. The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Diarmait son of Enda, son of Murchad, king of the Foreigners and Leinstermen, rested in Dublin” in 1117[650].

d) GORMLAITH (-1112). The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Gormlaith, daughter of Murchad coarb of Brigit, rested” in 1112[651]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1112 of "Gormlaith daughter of Murchad son of Diarmait, successor of Brigit”[652].

2. ENNA (-killed 1092). His parentage is confirmed by the Annals of Ulster which name "Diarmait son of Enna son of Diarmait king of Laigin”[653]. The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Enna son of Diarmait and the nobles of Desmumu” successfully held the fortress of “Port Láirge” in 1088 against “the Laigin and the son of Domnall Remar”[654]. The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Muirchertach Ui Briain” imprisoned “Énna son of Diarmait” in 1089[655]. The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1092 of "Enna son of Diarmait…slain by the Uí Cheinnselaig”[656]. m ---. The name of Enna´s wife is not known. Enna & his wife had one child:

a) DIARMUIT (-killed Cell Dara 1098). The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1098 of "Diarmait son of Enna son of Diarmait king of Laigin, killed by the sons of Murchad son of Diarmait…in the middle of Cell Dara”[657].

3. --- “Glún Iairn” (-killed in battle 1070). The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1070 of "Glún Iairn son of Diarmiat son of Mael na mBó…slain by Cartach´s son and the Gailenga and by the north of Ireland”[658].



DONCHAD, son of MURCHAD King of Leinster & his wife --- (-1115). King of Leinster. The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “the son of Murchad, son of Diarmait, son of Máel na mbó” won a battle in 1114[659]. The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Donnchad son of Murchad king of Leinster” was killed in battle by “Domnall son of Murchertach Húa Bríáin” in 1115[660].

m ---. The name of Donchad´s wife is not known.

Donchad & his wife had one child:

1. ENNA (-1126). King of Leinster. The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Toirdelbach son of Ruaidri king of Ireland” gave “the kingship of the Foreigners to the king of Leinster” in 1125[661]. The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Enna son of Donnchad son of Murchad king of Leinster” died in 1126, after which “Toirdelbach Húa Conchobair king of Ireland” was made king of Leinster, unsuccessfully challenged by “Cormac Mac Carthaig king of Desmond”[662]. m ---. The name of Enna´s wife is not known. Enna & his wife had one child:

a) DIARMAIT (-Fermanagh 1 May 1171). King of Leinster. The Annales Cambriæ record that "Diermit rex filius Murcath" was expelled from Ireland by his people and went to the English king, recording in later passages that he returned to Ireland and built "castellum Carrec iuxta Wisefordiam" in 1170, and died in 1172[663]. "Diarmicius Rex Lageniensium" donated "terram…Balidubgaill" to All Saints Dublin by undated charter witnessed by "…Enna filio meo…"[664]. The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that Henry II King of England arrived in Ireland in 1171, went to Dublin where he received “the kingship of Leinster and of the men of Meath, Brefne, Oriel and Ulster”[665]. The Expugnatio Hibernica records the death "apud Fernas circa kal Mai" of "Dermitius Murchardi filius" [in 1171][666]. m [MOR, daughter of ---]. The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified. Mistress: (1152) DERBFORGAILL, wife of TIERNAN O'Rourke King of Breifny, daughter of MURCHAD O'Malaghlin King of Meath & his wife ---. The Expugnatio Hibernica records that "Dermitius…Murchardi filius Langeniensium princeps" eloped with "Ororicio…Medensium rege…uxor ipsius Omachlachelini filia" [in 1152][667]. The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Diarmait Mac Murchada king of Leinster forcibly carried off out of Meath the wife of Húa Ruairc…Derb-forgaill daughter of Murchad with her wealth” in 1152, adding in a later passage that she “came again to Húa Ruairc by flight from Leinster” in 1153[668]. Diarmait & his wife had two children:

i) AOIFE [Eva] (-after 1189). The Annales Cambriæ record that "Ricardus comes de Striguil" invaded Ireland in 1171 and married "filiam Diermit regis"[669]. The Expugnatio Hibernica records the marriage of "filia…Dermitii, Eva" and Earl Richard[670]. She was styled Countess of Ireland in 1185, but Countess of Strigoil in 1186[671]. m (Waterford [26 Aug 1171]) RICHARD de Clare "Strongbow" Earl of Pembroke, son of GILBERT de Clare "Strongbow" Earl of Pembroke & his wife Isabel de Beaumont ([1130]-Dublin 20 Apr 1176, bur Dublin, Holy Trinity). In [1168] he promised Dermot King of Leinster to help him recover his kingdom in return for the hand of his daughter and eventual succession to the crown. He landed near Waterford 23 Aug 1170, and marched to Dublin. He acceded to the demand of King Henry II to surrender his Irish conquests to him and was granted Leinster in fee[672].

ii) URLACHAN . The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified. m DONOUGH [Donald] More King of Thomond, son of TADHG King of Thomond & his wife --- (-1194).

Dermot had three illegitimate children by unknown mistresses:

iii) ENNA (-1168 or after). "Diarmicius Rex Lageniensium" donated "terram…Balidubgaill" to All Saints Dublin by undated charter witnessed by "…Enna filio meo…"[673]. The Expugnatio Hibernica records that "Ossiriæ princeps Duvenaldus" [Dounchad [Donough] Lord of Ossory] blinded "Dermitio…filium eiusdem primogenitum"[674]. The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Enna Mac Murchada crownprince of Leinster” was blinded in 1168 by “Donnchad Mac Gilla Pátraic king of Ossory”[675].

iv) CONNOR (-1170). The Expugnatio Hibernica records that "Dermitio" gave "filium suum Chuchurum" as hostage to Roderic of Connaught [in 1169][676]. The Expugnatio Hibernica records that Roderic killed Dermot's son [in 1170][677].

v) DOMNALL Caemanach (-killed 1175). The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1175 of "Domnall Caemanach son of Diarmaid Mac Murchadha king of Leinster…[slain]”[678].




B. KINGS of OSSORY



1. CERBALL (-888). King of Ossory. The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 888 of "Cerball son of Dúngal, king of Osraige”[679]. m ---. The name of Cerball´s wife is not known. Cerball & his wife had one child:

a) DIARMAIT (-928). The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Diarmait son of Cerball took the kingship of Osraige” in 894[680]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 928 of "Diarmait son of Cerball, king of Osraige”[681].

b) CELLACH (-killed in battle Mag Ailbe 908). The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 908 of "Cellach son of Cerball king of Osraige” killed in “the battle of Mag Ailbe”[682]. m ---. The name of Cellach´s wife is not known. Cellach & his wife had three children:

i) CUILEN (-933). King of Ossory. The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 933 of "Cuilén son of Cellach king of Osraige”[683].

ii) DONNCHAD (-[974/76]). The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Donnchadh son of Cellach took the kingship of Osraige” in 934[684]. King of Ossory. The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Donnchadh son of Ceallach lord of Osraighe” killed “Braen son of Maelmordha king of Leinster” in 945[685]. The Annals of Tigernach record the death of “Donnchad, son of Cellach king of Ossory in senili étate” in [974/75][686]. The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 974 of “Donnchadh son of Ceallach lord of Osraighe”[687]. The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 976 of "Donnchadh son of Cellach king of Osraige”[688]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 976 of "Donnchadh, son of Cellach, king of Osraige”[689]. m ---. The name of Donnchad´s wife is not known. Donnchad & his wife had five children:

(a) GILLA PATRAIC (-996). King of Ossory. The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Gilla Pátraic son of Donnchaidh king of Osraige” was captured by “Brian son of Cennétig” in 983[690]. m ---. The name of Gilla Patraic´s wife is not known. Gilla Patraic & his wife had one child:

- see below.

(b) DIARMAIT (-killed 972). The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Diarmaid son of Donnchad, Tanist of Osraighe” was killed in 972 in “a slaughter of the Osraighi in Iarthar-Liphi”[691]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 974 of "Diarmait son of Donnchad” killed by “Ugaire son of Tuathal”[692]. m ---. The name of Diarmait´s wife is not known. Diarmait & his wife had one child:

(1) CELLACH (-killed [1001/02]). The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 996 of "Gilla Pátraic son of Donnchadh king of Osraige” and the accession of “Cellach son of Diarmait”[693]. King of Ossory. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Cellach son of Diarmait king of Ossory” was killed in [1001/02] by “the son of his father´s brother…Donchad son of Gilla Patraic”[694].

(c) MUIRDACH (-973). The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 973 of “Muireadhach son of Donnchadh son of Ceallach, Tanist of Osraighe”[695].

(d) TADG (-killed [990/91]). The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 990 of “Tadhg son of Donnchadh, Tanist of Osraighe”[696]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 991 of “Tadc son of Donnchad, heir designate of Osraige”[697].

(e) MOR (-[984/85]). The Annals of Tigernach record the death in [984/85] of “Mor, daughter of Dondchad son of Cellach, and queen of Ireland”[698]. This passage does not name Mor´s husband. However, Maelsechnaill is the only person described in other passages in the Annals as king of Ireland at that time. m as his first wife, MAELSECHNAILL King of Ireland, son of DOMNALL & his wife --- ([949/50]-Cró Inis of Lough Ennell 2 Sep 1022).

iii) DOMNALL (-killed 974). The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 972 of “Domhnall son of Ceallach, lord of Ui-Ceinnsealaigh” killed when “the UiCeinnsealaigh were plundered in Osraighe”[699]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 974 of "Domnall son of Cellach” killed by “Ugaire son of Tuathal”[700].



GILLA PATRAIC, son of DONNCHAD King of Ossory & his wife --- (-996). King of Ossory. The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Gilla Pátraic son of Donnchaidh king of Osraige” was captured by “Brian son of Cennétig” in 983, adding in a later passage that he was released in 984[701]. The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 996 of "Gilla Pátraic son of Donnchadh king of Osraige” and the accession of “Cellach son of Diarmait”[702].

m ---. The name of Gilla Patraic´s wife is not known.

Gilla Patraic & his wife had four children:

1. DONNCHAD (-1039). The Annals of Tigernach record that “Cellach son of Diarmait king of Ossory” was killed in [1001/02] by “the son of his father´s brother…Donchad son of Gilla Patraic”[703]. King of Leinster 1033. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Donnchad Mac Gilla Pátraic” held “the Fair of Carman…after taking the kingship of Leinster” in 1033[704]. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Donnchad son of Gilla Pátraic, overking of Leinster and Ossory, champion of Ireland” died in 1039[705]. m ---. The name of Donnchad´s wife is not known. Donnchad & his wife had two children:

a) DIARMAIT (-killed 1036). The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1036 of “Diarmaid son of Donnchadh, Tanist of Osraighe…slain”[706].

b) GILLA PATRAIC (-1055). King of Ossory. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Murchad son of Dunlang king of Leinster” was killed by “Gilla Pátraic son of Donnchad king of Ossory” in 1042[707]. The Annals of Tigernach record the death in 1055 of “Gilla Pátraic king of Ossory”[708]. m ---. The name of Gilla Patraic´s wife is not known. Gilla Patraic & his wife had three children:

i) DOMNALL (-1087). King of Ossory. The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Domnall Ua Gilla Pátraic submitted to Tiadelbach Ua Briain and received a very large stipend of valuables and riches from the king of Mumu” in 1070[709]. The Annals of Inisfallen record that "the son of Conchobair Ua Mail Sechnaill (king of Temuir), Gofraid grandson of Ragnall king of Áth Cliath, and Domnall son of Gilla Pátraic king of Osraige…submitted to Tairdelbach Ua Briain king of Mum” in 1072 and “gave acknowledgement and high-kingship to him”[710]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1087 of "Domnall mac Gilla Pátraic king of Osraige”[711]. m ---. The name of Domnall´s wife is not known. Domnall & his wife had two children:

(a) DONNCHAD (-killed 1090). The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1090 of "Donnchadh son of Domnall Ua Gilla Pátraic…slain”[712].

(b) MUIRCHERTACH (-1095). The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1095 of "Muirchertach son of Domnall son of Gilla Pátraic, royal heir of Osraige”[713].

(c) [GILLA PATRAIC “Ruad/Red” (-killed in battle Mag Coba, Ulster 1103). The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. King of Ossory. The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Gilla Pátraic Ruad king of Osraige” was killed in 1103 at “the battle of Mag Coba”[714].] m ---. The name of Gilla Patraic´s wife is not known. Gilla Patraic & his wife had one child:

(1) DONNCHAD (-killed 1123). King of Ossory. The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Tadc son of Mac Carthaig accompanied by the Desmumu went to Osraige” and “Ua Gilla Pátraic king of Osraige submitted to him”, adding that “the nobles of Osraige including their king were imprisoned by the Dál Cais”[715]. The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Donncadh Húa Gilla Padraic king of Ossory” was killed in 1123[716]. The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1123 of "the son of Gilla Pátraic, king of Osraige…slain by his own people”[717].

ii) DONNCHAD (-killed 1089). The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Donncadh mac Gilla Padraic king of Ossory” was killed in 1089[718].

iii) CERBALL (-1105). The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1105 of "Cerball son of Domnall son of Gilla Pátraic, king of the south of Osraige”[719].

2. DUNGHAL (-killed 1015). The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Dunghal son of Gillaphadraig son of Donnchadh” was killed in 1015 by “Maelseachlainn [in a raid] into Ossory”[720].

3. MUIRCHERTACH (-killed 1041). Joint King of Ossory. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Muirchertach Mac Gilla Pátraic one of the two kings of Ossory” was killed in 1041 by “the Húi Caeluide his own people”[721].

4. TAIDHG (-after 1027). The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Tadhg Mac Gillaphadraig” was blinded in 1027 by “the lord of Osraighe, Donnchadh Mac Gillaphadraig”[722]. m ---. The name of Taidhg´s wife is not known. Taidhg & his wife had one child:

a) DERBORGAILL (-after 1098). The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Derborgaill daughter of Tadg, son of Gilla Pátraic, mother of Muirchertach Húa Bríáin king of Ireland…rested in Glendalough” in 1098[723]. m TORDELBACH, son of TADGH & his wife --- ([1008/09]-Cenn Coradh 14 Jul 1086). He succeeded in 1064 as King of Munster.





Chapter 6. MEATH



The kingdom of Meath was one of the five main regional kingdoms in Ireland. However, it is only mentioned in the Annals of Tigernach from the early 1020s. The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that Henry II King of England arrived in Ireland in 1171, went to Dublin where he received “the kingship of Leinster and of the men of Meath, Brefne, Oriel and Ulster”[724].



A. KINGS of MEATH



1. AENGUS, son of DONNCHAD King of Ireland & his first wife Caineach --- (-943). Lord of Meath. The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 943 of “Aenghus son of Donnchadh son of Flann, lord of Meath”[725].


2. AEDH, son of FLANN Ua Maelseachlainn & his wife --- . King of Meath. His parentage is confirmed by the Annals of the Four Masters which record the death in 972 of “Muircheartach son of Aedh son of Flann Ua Maelseachlainn King of Meath”[726]. m ---. The name of Aedh´s wife is not known. Aedh & his wife had three children:

a) DONNCHAD Finn (-killed 972). Lord of Meath. The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Donnchadh Finn son of Aedh, lord of Meath” was killed in 972 by “Aghda son of Dubhcenn son of Tadhgan, lord of Teathba”[727]. The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 974 of "Donnchadh Finn son of Mael Sechnaill”[728], but this appears to refer to the same person. m ---. The name of Donnchad´s wife is not known. Donnchad & his wife had two children:

i) DOMNALL (-after 997). The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Domhnall son of Donnchadh Finn” was blinded in 996 by “Maelseachlainn son of Domhnall”[729]. The Annals of Ulster record the same event in 997[730].

ii) DONNCHAD (-killed in battle 1012). The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Donnchadh son of Donnchadh Finn and the Ui-Meith” plundered “Lann-Leire” in 1002 but were defeated by “Cathal son of Labhraidh”[731]. The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Donnchadh son of Donnchadh Finn royal heir of Teamhair” was killed in 1012 fighting “Ualgharg Ua Ciardha lord of Cairbre and the son of Niall O´Ruairc and the men of Teathbha”[732].

b) MUIRCHERTACH (-killed 972). King of Meath. The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 972 of “Muircheartach son of Aedh son of Flann Ua Maelseachlainn King of Meath” killed by “Domhnall son of Conghalach”[733].

c) DOMNALL (-killed 1023). Lord of Meath. The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1023 of “Domhnall son of Aedh Beag Ua Maeleachlainn, the second lord that was over Meath” killed by “the son of Seanan Ua Leocain and the Luighni”[734].


3. MAELSECHLAINN . The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1025 of “Maelseachlainn Gott lord of Meath”[735].


4. AEDH “Bic/the Little” . m ---. The name of Aed´s wife is not known. Aed & his wife had one child:

a) DOMNALL (-killed in battle [1021/23]). Joint King of Meath. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Domnall son of Aed the Little, grandson of MaelSechlainn, one of the two kings of Meath” was killed by “the son of Senán Hua Leochain and by the Luigni” in [1021/23][736].



1. DOMNALL “Got/the Stammerer” (-killed 1030). King of Meath. The Annals of Tigernach record that the kingdom of Meath was seized by “MaelSechlainn” in 1029 and “the Stammerer was expelled upon Lough Ree”[737]. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Domnall the Stammerer king of Meach” was killed in 1030 “by his own soldier Cú cairn Húa Cobthaig”[738].


2. MAELSECHLAINN . The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Maelseachlainn son of Maelruanaidh” entered Meath in 1026[739]. King of Meath. The Annals of Tigernach record that the kingdom of Meath was seized by “MaelSechlainn” in 1029 and “the Stammerer was expelled upon Lough Ree”[740]. The Annals of the Four Masters record that “the kingdom of Meath was assumed by Ua Maeleachlainn” in 1030 “after he had been expelled up Loch Ribh by Gott Ua Maeleachlainn”[741]. The Annals of the Four Masters record the death of “Tadhg of the White Steed Ua Conchobhair, king of Connaught” killed by “the Gott, i.e. Maelseachlainn grandson of Maelruanaidh, lord of Meath and Cremthainne”[742]. m ---. The name of Maelsechlainn´s wife is not known. Maelsechlainn & his wife had one child:

a) MURCHAD (-killed Loch Semhdidhe Island 1033). The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1033 of “Murchadh Ua Maeleachlainn, i.e. the son of Maeleachlainn Gott” killed by “Mac Iarnain, i.e. the chief of Cuircne, on the island of Loch Semhdidhe”[743].


3. MURCHAD Ua Fallamhain (-killed 1064). The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Murchadh Ua Fallamhain Tanist of Meath and his brother” were killed in 1064[744].


4. CONCHOBAR Ua Máil-Sechlainn (-1073). King of Meath. The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Conchobhair Ua Maeleachlainn lord of Meath” defeated “Murchad son of Diarmait son of Mael na mbo lord of the foreigners” in 1059[745]. The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Conchobhar O´Maeleachlainn king of Meath” defeated and killed “Diarmaid son of Mael na mbo king of Leinster” in 1072[746]. The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Conchobhar Ua Maelseachlainn king of Meath” was killed in 1073 by “the son of his brother, Murchadh son of Flann” in 1072, adding that Meath was “afterwards desolated between Maelseachlainn son of Conchobhar and this Murchadh”[747]. m ---. The name of Conchobar´s wife is not known. Conchobar & his wife had two children:

a) MAELSECHLAINN . The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Conchobhar Ua Maelseachlainn king of Meath” was killed in 1073 by “the son of his brother, Murchadh son of Flann” in 1072, adding that Meath was “afterwards desolated between Maelseachlainn son of Conchobhar and this Murchadh”[748].

b) MURCHAD (-killed 1077). The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Murchadh son of Conshobair Ua Maeleachlainn” was killed in 1077 by “the men of Teathbha and Catharnach Sinnach”[749].

5. FLANN . m ---. The name of Flann´s wife is not known. Flann & his wife had one child:

a) MURCHAD . The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Conchobhar Ua Maelseachlainn king of Meath” was killed in 1073 by “the son of his brother, Murchadh son of Flann” in 1072, adding that Meath was “afterwards desolated between Maelseachlainn son of Conchobhar and this Murchadh”[750]. The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Muirchertach Húa Mael-Sechlainn” was deposed again in 1106 and the kingship of Meath given to “Murchad son of Fland”[751]. King of Meath. m ---. The name of Murchad´s wife is not known. Murchad & his wife had three children:

Chapter 7. KINGS of MUNSTER




A. KINGS of MUNSTER



1. CELLACHAN (-954). King of Caisel. The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Ceallachan king of Caiseal with the men of Munster…” attacked Meath in 937[890]. The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Ceallachan of Caiseal” defeated “Ceinneidigh son of Lorcan at Magh-duin” in 942[891]. The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 954 of "Cellachán king of Caisel”[892]. m ---. The name of Cellachan´s wife is not known. Cellachan & his wife had one child:

a) DONNCHAD (-963). King of Caisel. The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 963 of "Donnchadh son of Cellachán king of Caisel”[893]. The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 961 of “Donnchadh son of Ceallachan king of Caiseal…mortally wounded by his own kinsmen”[894].


2. INMAINEN . m ---. The name of Inmainen´s wife is not known. Inmainen & his wife had one child:

a) FLAITHBERTACH (-920 or 944). The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Flaithbertach son of Inmainén took the kingship of Caisel” in 914[895]. King of Caisel. The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Flaithbheartach son of Inmhainen king of Caiseal” was killed in 920 and that “Lorcan son of Conlingan assumed the kingship of Caiseal”[896]. The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 942 of “Flaithbheartach son of Inmainen, king of Caiseal”[897]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 944 of "Flaithbertach son of Inmainén, chief”[898]. m ---. The name of Flaithbertach´s wife is not known. Flaithbertath & his wife had one child:

i) SENCHAN . m ---. The name of Senchan´s wife is not known. Senchan & his wife had one child:

(a) DOMNALL (-killed in battle 1027). Crown Prince of Munster. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Domnall son of Senchán son of Flaithbertach crownprince of Munster” was killed in battle in [1027][899].


3. FLANN . m ---. The name of Flann´s wife is not known. Flann & his wife had one child:

a) MAELFOTHARDAIG (-957). King of Caisel. The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 955 of “Maelfothartaigh son of Flann, king of Caiseal”[900]. The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 957 of "Mael Fothardaig king of Caisel”[901].


4. CLEIRACH . m ---. The name of Cleirach´s wife is not known. Cleirach & his wife had one child:

a) FEARGRAIDH (-961). King of Caisel. The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 958 of “Feargraidh son of Cleireach, Tanist of Caiseal” and in 959 of “Feargraidh son of Cleireach, king of Caiseal”[902]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 961 of "Fer Gráid king of Caisel…killed by his own people”[903].


5. DOMNALL . m ---. The name of Domnall´s wife is not known. Domnall & his wife had one child:

a) DUB da boirenn (-959). King of Caisel. The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 959 of "Dub dá Bairenn son of Domnall king of Caisel”[904]. m ---. The name of Dub´s wife is not known. Dub & his wife had three children:

i) DUNLANG (-killed in battle [986/87]). Crown Prince of Munster. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Dunlang, son of Dub da boirenn, crownprince of Munster [and] Muirgus, son of Conchobar, crownprince of Connaught” were killed in battle between the Munstermen and the Connacians in [986/87][905]. m ---. The name of Dunlang´s wife is not known. Dunlang & his wife had three children:

(a) CORMAC (-1016). The Annals of Inisfallen record the "repose of Cormac son of Dúnlang, coarb of Barre” in 1016[906].

(b) BAETHAN (-killed 1016). The Annals of Inisfallen record the "Baethán son of Dúnlaing” was killed in 1016 by “the king of Osraige in Lethglenn”[907].

(c) UGAIRE (-killed 1024). The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1024 of "Ugaire son of Dúnlaing” killed “with his princes by Donn Sléibe son of Mael Mórda”[908].

ii) DOMNALL (-killed in battle 1015). The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1015 of "Domnall son of Dub dá Bairenn in a battle against the son of Bran”[909].

iii) DONNCHAD (-killed 1017). The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1017 of "Donnchadh son of Dub dá Bairenn…slain by Mael Muad”[910].


6. BRAN . m ---. The name of Bran´s wife is not known. Bran & his wife had one child:

a) MAELMUAD (-killed Belach Lechta 978). King of Caisel. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Mathgamain son of Cenn-étig king of Munster” was killed in [974/75] by “Mael-Muad son of Bran king of the Húi Echach (Iveagh)” after being “treacherously delivered up by Donnában son of Cathal king of the Húi Fidgenti”[911]. The Annals of the Four Masters call him “Maelmhuaidh son of Bran, lord of Desmond” when recording the same incident[912]. The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Brian son of Cennétig” defeated and killed “Mael Muad son of Bran king of Caisel” at “the battle of Belach Lechta” in 978[913]. The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Maelmhuaidh lord of Desmond” was killed in 976 at “the battle of Bealach-Leachta [with] Brian son of Cenneidigh”[914]. m ---. The name of Mael Muad´s wife is not known. Mael Muad & his wife had four children:

i) CIAN (-killed in battle [1013/14]). The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1014 of "Cian son of Mael Muad and his brother”[915]. The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Cian, Cathal and Roghallach, three sons of Maelmhuaidh” were killed in 1013 in the battle between the “Ui-Eathach themselves, i.e. between Cian son of Maelmhuaidh and Domhnall son of Dubh-da-bhoireann”[916].

ii) CATHAL (-killed in battle [1013/14]). The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1014 of "Cian son of Mael Muad and his brother”[917]. The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Cian, Cathal and Roghallach, three sons of Maelmhuaidh” were killed in 1013 in the battle between the “Ui-Eathach themselves, i.e. between Cian son of Maelmhuaidh and Domhnall son of Dubh-da-bhoireann”[918].

iii) ROGHALLACH (-killed in battle [1013/14]). The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Cian, Cathal and Roghallach, three sons of Maelmhuaidh” were killed in 1013 in the battle between the “Ui-Eathach themselves, i.e. between Cian son of Maelmhuaidh and Domhnall son of Dubh-da-bhoireann”[919].

iv) son . The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1015 of "Domnall son of Dub dá Bairenn in a battle against the son of Bran”[920].



1. LORCÁN . King of Caisel. The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Flaithbheartach son of Inmhainen king of Caiseal” was killed in 920 and that “Lorcan son of Conlingan assumed the kingship of Caiseal”[921]. m ---. The name of Lorcán´s & his wife is not known. Lorcán & his wife had one child:

a) CEINNÉITIG (-951). His parentage is confirmed by the Annals of Ulster which record that "Brian son of Ceinnéitig son of Lorcán king of Ireland and Mael Sechnaill son of Domnall king of Temair" led an army to “Áth Cliath” in 1014[922]. The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Ceallachan of Caiseal” defeated “Ceinneidigh son of Lorcan at Magh-duin” in 942[923]. The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 951 of "Cennétig son of Lorcán, royal heir of Caisel”[924]. m ---. The name of Ceinnéitig & his wife is not known. Ceinnéitig & his wife had six children:

i) ECHTIGERN (-killed 948). The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Conghalach” killed “two sons of Ceinneidigh son of Lorcan…Echtighern and Donnchuan” in 948[925].

ii) DONN CUAN (-killed 948). The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Conghalach” killed “two sons of Ceinneidigh son of Lorcan…Echtighern and Donnchuan” in 948[926]. m ---. The name of Donn Cuan´s wife is not known. Donn Cuan & his wife had three children:

(a) CONANG (-killed in battle Clontarf 23 Apr 1014). The Annals of Inisfallen record that "the princes of Mumu round Conaing son of Donn Cúán” were killed at the battle of Clontarf in 1014[927]. The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Conaing son of Donncuan, the son of Brian´s brother” was killed in 1013 in the battle [of Clontarf][928]. m ---. The name of Conang´s wife is not known. Conang & his wife had [three] children:

(1) MATHGAMAIN (-[1017/19]). Crown Prince of Munster. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Mathgamain son of Conang son of Donn Cuan, crownprince of Munster” died in [1017/18][929]. The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1019 of "Mathgamain son of Conaing”[930]. m ---. The name of Mathgamain´s wife is not known. Mathgamain & his wife had one child:

a. AEDH (-1011). The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1011 of "Aed son of Mathgamain”[931]. The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1010 of “Aedh son of Mathgamain, royal heir of Caiseal”[932].

(2) [--- . m ---.]

a. [EDRU Hua Conaing (-killed 1032). The Annals of Tigernach record that “Edru Hua Conaing crownprince of Munster” was killed by “the community of Emly” in 1032[933].]

(3) DUNADACH . The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Ua Dúnchada and Dúnadach son of Conang” plundered “Cell Mo-Chellóc” in 1015[934].

(b) CEINNETIG . His parentage is confirmed by the Annals of Ulster which names "Aed son of Ceinnétig son of Donn Cuan, chief of the Clann Tairdelbaig” when recording his death[935]. m ---. The name of Ceinnetig´s wife is not known. Ceinnetig & his wife had one child:

(1) AEDH (-killed 1054). The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1054 of "Aed son of Ceinnétig son of Donn Cuan, chief of the Clann Tairdelbaig…killed by the Connachta”[936]. The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1054 of "Aed son of Cennétig…slain” when “Aed Ua Conchobuir” raided “Tratraige” in 1054[937].

(c) CEILEACHAIR (-1007). The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1007 of “Ceileachair son of Donncuan son of Ceinneidigh, Abbot of Tir-da-ghlas”[938].

iii) LACHTNA (-953). The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 953 of "Lachtna son of Cennétig son of Lorcán”[939].

iv) MATHGAMUIN (-killed 976). The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Mathgamain son of Cennétig” defeated “the foreigners…at Sulchuait” in 967[940]. King of Munster. The Annals of Ulster record that "Mathgamuin son of Cennétig king of Caisel” was killed in 976 by “Mael Muad son of Bran”[941]. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Mathgamain son of Cenn-étig king of Munster” was killed in [974/75] by “Mael-Muad son of Bran king of the Húi Echach (Iveagh)” after being “treacherously delivered up by Donnában son of Cathal king of the Húi Fidgenti”[942]. The name of Mathgamuin´s & his wife is not known. Mathgamuin & his wife had one child:

(a) AEDH (-1011). The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Aed son of Mathgamain” was imprisoned by “Brian son of Cennétig” in 986[943]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1011 of "Aed son of Mathgamain, heir designate of Caisel”[944].

v) BRIAN Boroma ([941]-killed in battle Clontarf 23 Apr 1014). The Annals of Ulster record the birth in 941 of "Brian son of Cennéitig”[945]. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Brian mac Cendéidigh” attacked “Inis Cathaig (Scattery Island)…[and] therein the Foreigners of Limerick…Imar, and Olaf one of his sons and Dubchenn his other son” in [975/76][946]. The Annals of Ulster record that "Brian son of Cennétig” killed “Mael Muad king of Desmumu” in battle in 978[947]. The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Brian son of Cennétig” defeated and killed “Mael Muad son of Bran king of Caisel” at “the battle of Belach Lechta” in 978[948]. King of Munster. High King of Ireland 1002.

- see below.

vi) MARCAIN (-1010). The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Marcán son of Cennétig took the abbacy of Imlech Ibuir” in 990[949]. The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1010 of "Marcáin son of Cennétig, coarb of Colum son of Crimthann”[950].



BRIAN Boroma, son of CEINNÉITIG & his wife --- ([941]-killed in battle Clontarf 23 Apr 1014). The Annals of Ulster record the birth in 941 of "Brian son of Cennéitig”[951]. The Annals of the Four Masters record the birth in 925 of “Brian son of Ceinnedigh” adding that this was “24 years before Maelseachlainn son of Domnhall”[952], although this proposed date of birth of Brian is improbable considering the date of his death. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Brian mac Cendéidigh” attacked “Inis Cathaig (Scattery Island)…[and] therein the Foreigners of Limerick…Imar, and Olaf one of his sons and Dubchenn his other son” in [975/76][953]. The Annals of Ulster record that "Brian son of Cennétig” killed “Mael Muad king of Desmumu” in battle in 978[954]. The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Brian son of Cennétig” defeated and killed “Mael Muad son of Bran king of Caisel” at “the battle of Belach Lechta” in 978[955]. King of Munster. The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Brian son of Cennétig…and Mael Sechnaill son of Domnall king of Temuir” divided Ireland between them in 997 “Leth Cuinn to Mael Sechnaill and Leth Moga to Brian”[956]. High King of Ireland 1002. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Brían Boroma regnat” in [999/1000][957]. The Chronicon of Mariano Scotti records that "Brian rex Hiberniæ" was killed "1014 IX Kal Mai"[958]. Orkneyinga Saga records that Sigurd Jarl of Orkney went to Ireland “five years after the Battle of Svoldur” to support “King Sigtrygg Silk-Beard” against “King Brian of Ireland”, and left “his elder sons in charge of the earldom”, but was killed in the battle in which King Brian was killed[959]. The Annals of Ulster record that "Brian son of Ceinnéitig son of Lorcán king of Ireland and Mael Sechnaill son of Domnall king of Temair" led an army to “Áth Cliath” in 1014, adding that Brian was killed in the battle[960]. The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Brian son of Ceinneidigh monarch of Ireland in the 88th year of his age” was killed in 1013 in the battle [of Clontarf][961].

m [firstly] ---. The name of Brian´s first wife is not known. However, it is probable that he was married before his marriage to Gormlaith in order to have grandson who was killed in battle in 1014.

m [secondly] (after 981, [separated]) as her second husband, GORMLAITH, widow of OLAF Sihtricsson King of Dublin, daughter of MORUGH MacFinn King of Leinster & his wife --- (-1030). The Annals of Tigernach record the death in 1030 of “Gormlaith, daughter of Murchad son of Fland” mother of “Sitric son of Olaf king of the Foreigners and of Donnchad son of Brian king of Munster”[962]. Brian must have separated from his wife Gormlaith if the reference to his wife Dub is correct, unless the marriages were polygamous. She married thirdly, as his [third] wife, Maelsechnaill King of Ireland. The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1030 of “Gormlaith daughter of Murchadh son of Finn, mother of the king of the foreigners Sitric, Donnchadh son of Brian king of Munster, and Conchobhar son of Maeleachlainn king of Teamhair”[963].

m [thirdly] DUB Chablaig, daughter of [CATHAL King of Connaught & his wife ---] (-1009). The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1009 of "Dub Chablaig daughter of the king of Connacht…wife of Brian son of Ceinnéitig"[964]. The name of her father is not given. However, it is reasonable to suppose that he was Cathal who was king of Connaught at the time.

Brian & his first wife had one child:

1. MURCHAD (-killed in battle Clontarf 23 Apr 1014). The Annals of Ulster record that "Brian son of Ceinnéitig son of Lorcán king of Ireland and Mael Sechnaill son of Domnall king of Temair" led an army to “Áth Cliath” in 1014, adding that Brian was killed in the battle “and his son Murchad and the latter´s son…Tairdelbach”[965]. The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Murchadh son of Brain heir apparent of the sovereignty of Ireland in the 63rd year of his age” was killed in 1013 in the battle [of Clontarf][966]. m ---. The name of Murchad & his wife is not known. Murchad & his wife had one child:

a) TORDELBACH (-killed in battle Clontarf 23 Apr 1014). The Annals of Ulster record that "Brian son of Ceinnéitig son of Lorcán king of Ireland and Mael Sechnaill son of Domnall king of Temair" led an army to “Áth Cliath” in 1014, adding that Brian was killed in the battle “and his son Murchad and the latter´s son…Tairdelbach”[967].

Brian & his [first/second] wife had one child:

2. DOMNALL (-1011). The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1011 of "Domnall son of Brian”[968]. The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1010 of “Domhnall son of Brian son of Ceinneidigh, son of the king of Ireland”[969]. m ---. The name of Domnall´s wife is not known. Domnall & his wife had one child:

a) TOIRDELBACH ([1008/09]-Cenn Coradh 14 Jul 1086). The Annals of Inisfallen record that "the son of Domnall son of Brian” killed “Ua Donnocáin king of Ara” in 1031[970]. The Annals of Ulster record that "Ua Briain…Toirdelbach” killed “Ua Donnocáin king of Ara Tire” in 1031[971]. King of Munster 1064. High King of Ireland 1072.

- see below.

b) DIARMAIT (-killed 1051). The Annals of Tigernach record that “Diarmait son of Domnall son of Brian” was killed by “Murchad son of Brián” in 1051[972]. The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1051 of "Diarmait Ua Briain…slain by Murchad Ua Briain”[973].

Brian & his second wife had two children:

3. TADHG (-killed 1023). The Annals of Tigernach record that “Tadg son of Brian Boroma” was killed by “the Eili instigated by his brother…Dondchad” in [1021/23][974]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1023 of "Tadc son of Brian killed by the Éile”[975].

4. [son . It is probable that Derborgaill´s father was one of the sons of Brian who are named above, but the primary source which names him as not yet been identified. The mother of this son was most probably Brian´s wife Gormlaith as his daughter Derborgaill had a daughter of this name, which appears to restrict his identity to Tadhg or Donnchad.] m ---. One child:

a) DERBORGAILL (-Imlech 1080). The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1080 of "Derbhforgaill daughter of Brian´s son, wife of Diarmait son of Mael na mBó…in Imlech”[976]. m DERMOT MacMailnamo [Diarmait mac Máel na mBó] King of Leinster and of Ireland (-killed in battle Odba 7 Feb 1072).

Brian & his [second/third] wife had [four] children:

5. DONNCHAD (-Rome after 1064). The Chronicon of Mariano Scotti records that "Donchal filius suis annis 51" succeeded his father "Brian rex Hiberniæ" in 1014[977], although the reference to his age must clearly be incorrect. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Catharnach son of Aed of the Húi Caisín” attacked “Donnchad son of Brian” in [1017/19] and cut off his right hand[978]. King of Munster. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Donnchad son of Brián Boroma king of Munster” was “dethroned” in 1064 and “went to Rome on a pilgrimage” and died there “in the monastery of Stephen”[979]. m firstly ---, daughter of MURCHAD Mac Finn & his wife --- (-1030). The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1030 of "the daughter of Murchad son of Finn, queen of Mumu”[980]. m secondly --- [of Waterford], daughter of RÆGNALD [King of Waterford] & his wife ---. The Annals of Inisfallen record the marriage in 1032 of "Donnchadh son of Brian” and “the daughter of Ragnall”[981]. It is not certain that King Donnchad´s father-in-law was the king of Waterford. Donnchad & his first wife had one child:

a) LATHIR (-1028). The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1028 of "Lathir daughter of Donnchadh…on her pilgrimage in Corcach”[982].

Donnchad & his [first/second] wife had three children:

b) three sons . The Annals of Inisfallen record that "three sons of Donnchadh son of Brian took a great prey in Corcu Modruad, both cows and booty” in 1054[983].

6. BÉ Binn (-Armagh 1073). The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1073 of "Bé Binn daughter of Brian…on pilgrimage in Ard Macha”[984].

7. [--- . m ---.] Two children:

a) two sons (-killed Man 1073). The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1073 of "Sitriuc son of Amlaib and two grandsons of Brian…killed in Man”[985].

8. SADB (-1048). The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1048 of "Sadb daughter of Brian”[986].

Brian & his [third wife] had one child:

9. MURCHAD Ua Brian (-killed in battle 1068). Bearing in mind Murchad´s date of death, he must have been born late in his father´s life and therefore from his father´s third marriage, unless he was illegitimate. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Diarmait son of Domnall son of Brian” was killed by “Murchad son of Brián” in 1051[987]. The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1051 of "Diarmait Ua Briain…slain by Murchad Ua Briain”[988]. The Annals of Ulster record that "Toirdelbach ua Briain” defeated “Murchad ua Briain” in 1055[989]. The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Murchad Ua Briain was attacked in Corcu Modruad and Tairdelbach inflicted a great slaughter upon him” in 1055[990]. The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Murchad Ua Briain” killed “Ua Nechtain” in 1061 “in Corrdam”[991]. The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1068 of "Murchad Ua Briain royal heir of Ireland and the king of Ireland´s son…slain by the men of Tethba”[992]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1068 of "Murchad ua Briain heir designate of Mumu…killed by the men of Tethba”[993]. m ---. The name of Murchad´s wife is not known. Murchad & his wife had one child:

a) BRIAN (-1118). The Annals of Inisfallen record that "the son of Murchad Ua Briain, Brian, went to Leth Cuinn, having been put away by Muirchertach Ua Briain” in 1111[994]. The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Brian son of Murchad” was imprisoned in 1114[995]. The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Brian son of Murchad Ua Briain was slain by Tadc son of Mac Carthaig, the Desmumu, and the Uí Briain” in 1118[996].



The precise relationship between the following persons and the main family of Brian Boroma has not yet been established:

1. DOMNALL Bán (-killed 1052). The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1052 of "Domnall Bán Ua Briain…killed by the Connachta”[997].


2. DOMNALL Ruad Ua Brian (-killed 1055). The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1055 of "Domnall Ruad Ua Briain…slain by the Uí Eidin”[998].


3. FLAITHBERTACH Ua Briain (-killed 1061). The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1061 of "Flaithbertach Ua Briain…slain by Muiredach Ua Muiredaig”[999].


4. CONCHOBAR Ua Briain (-killed Cenél Eógain 1078). The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Conchobar Ua Briain” killed “Tadc Ua Briain” in 1061[1000]. The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1078 of "Conchobar Ua Briain…slain in Cenél Eógain after taking the kingship there”[1001]. The Annals of Ulster record that "Conchobor Ua Briain king of Telach Óc and heir designate of Ireland” was killed in 1078 “with his wife by the Cenél Binnigh of Glenn”[1002]. m --- (-killed Cenél Eógain 1078). The name of Conchobar´s wife is not known. The Annals of Ulster record that "Conchobor Ua Briain king of Telach Óc and heir designate of Ireland” was killed in 1078 “with his wife by the Cenél Binnigh of Glenn”[1003].


5. CENNETIG Ua Briain . The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Cennétig Ua Briain took the kingship [in Cenél Eógain]” after the death of Conchobar Ua Briain in 1078[1004].


6. TADHG Ua Briain (-killed 1061). The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Conchobar Ua Briain” killed “Tadc Ua Briain” in 1061[1005].


7. CONAING Ua Briain (-1072 or after). The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Conaing Ua Briain was blinded by Taidelbach” in 1072[1006].


8. LORCAN Ua Briain (-1078). The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1078 of "Lorcán ua Briain”[1007].


9. MATHGAMAIN Ua Briain (-1129). The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1129 of "Mathgamain Ua Briain”[1008].

Chapter 8. NORSE KINGS



The arrival of the so-called "Dark Foreigners" in Ireland is first recorded in Irish annals in 849 when the Fragmentary Annals of Ireland state euphemistically that "Amlaib [Olaf] Conung, son of the king of Norway, came to Ireland…with a proclamation of many tributes and taxes from his father, and he departed suddenly"[1096]. Clare Downham discusses the various theories of the meaning of the terms "Dark Foreigners" and "Fair Foreigners" used in early primary sources to describe the Viking raiders[1097]. The identity of the "king of Norway" in question is uncertain. A later passage in the Fragmentary Annals of Ireland names him "Gofraid/Gothfraid, son of Ragnall, son of Gothfraid Conung, son of Gofraid"[1098], and the same source records the death in 873 of "the Norwegian king, i.e. Gothfraid…of a sudden hideous disease"[1099]. "Gofraid/Gothfraid" cannot be linked to any of the main contemporary Norwegian rulers who are shown in the document NORWAY KINGS, although it should be borne in mind that the government of Norway was fragmented at the time with numerous local rulers in different parts of the country who probably all referred to themselves as kings.


Whatever their precise origin, the Viking raiders in Ireland quickly settled around Dublin, following the more permanent arrival of Olaf and his presumed brothers Ivar and Asl which is recorded in both the Chronicon Scottorum and the Annals of Ulster in 853[1100]. The Irish resources record numerous raids by these Dublin-based Vikings against their Irish neighbours. However, more surprisingly, they also record Viking alliances with different Irish factions to conduct joint attacks. For example, the Annals of the Four Masters record in 860 that “Aedh Finnlaith son of Niall Caille and Flann son of Conang went with the lord of the foreigners to plunder Meath”[1101]. More specifically, the Annals of Ulster record in 863 that "three kings of the foreigners, Amlaib and Imar and Auisle plundered the land of Flann, son of Conaing, and Lorcan son of Cathal king of Mide was with them in this"[1102]. It is clear from these two contrasting passages that Irish/Viking alliances fluctuated and no doubt were motivated by short-term interest.


Ivar and his descendants are recorded in the Irish annals as kings of Dublin until the end of the 11th century. However, their leadership of the Viking settlers did not go unchallenged. The Annals of Ulster record in 893 "a great dissension among the foreigners of Ath Cliath and they became dispersed, one section following Imar´s son, and the other Sigfrith the jarl”[1103]. The same source records the return to Ireland in 894 of "Imar´s son”[1104], who is presumably identified with "Sitriuc son of Imar killed by other Norsemen” in 896[1105]. The reconstruction of events in succeeding years is unclear from the Irish sources, until the Annals of Ulster record in 903 that "the heathens were driven from Ireland i.e. from the fortress of Ath Cliath by Mael Finnia son of Flannacan with the men of Brega and by Cerball son of Muirican with the Laigin”[1106]. Welsh primary sources record the arrival of Vikings in North Wales around the same time, presumably the consequence of their expulsion from Dublin. The Annales Cambriæ record in 903 that "Igmunt" [Ingmund] arrived "in insula Mon" (presumably referring to Anglesey) and held "maes Osmeliaun"[1107]. The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales dates the event to 900, recording that "Igmond came to the isle of Mona and fought the battle of Rhos Meilon"[1108]. The same Viking group passed on to England, as confirmed by the Fragmentary Annals of Ireland which record in [907] that "the Norwegians left Ireland…their leader was Ingimund", that they were "driven by force out of British territory" by "Cadell son of Rhodri…king of the Britons" [indicating that the passage refers to the Welsh], and that "Aethelflaed Queen of the Saxons [wife of Aethelred]…gave him land near Chester, and he stayed there for a time"[1109]. Ingmund has not yet been identified: he does not feature in the Irish annals. Other Viking exiles from Dublin raided Scotland, as shown by the Annals of Ulster which record the death in 904 of "Imar grandson of Imar” killed by “the men of Foirtriu” [indicating Scotland near the Forth][1110]. The regrouping of Viking forces can be dated to [914/16]. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records in 915 (manuscript D) or 917 (manuscript A) that "a great pirate host came over hither from the south from Brittany under two jarls Ohtor and Hroald, and sailed west about until the estuary of the Severn", and were opposed "by the men from Hereford and Gloucester…[who] slew the jarl Hroald and the other jarl Ohtor´s brother[1111]. The Annals of Ulster record in 914 "a naval battle at Manu between Barid son of Oitir and Ragnall grandson of Imar, in which Barid and almost all his army were destroyed”, and “a great new fleet of the heathens on Loch da Caech”, followed in 915 by "a great and frequent increase in the number of heathens arriving at Loch da Chaech"[1112]. The family of Ivar was able to leverage the situation to its advantage, the Annals of Ulster recording that "Sitriuc grandson of Imar landed with his fleet at Cenn Fuait on the coast of Laigin” and “Ragnall grandson of Imar with his second fleet moved against the foreigners of Loch dá Chaech” in 917[1113].


After that time, the descendants of Ivar established themselves once more in Dublin: the Annals of the Four Masters record that “Godfrey grandson of Imhar took up his residence at Ath-Cliath” in 919[1114]. After that time, Viking settlers were not confined to Dublin. Downham lists 19 places throughout Ireland, ranging from Ulster in the north to Galway in the west, Limerick in the south-west and Waterford and Wexford in the south-east, in which 10th century chronicles record Viking settlements during the period 917 to 968[1115]. The same family group diversified their field of activity into northern England: Simeon of Durham records that "King Inguald stormed York" in 919[1116]. Family members continued to rule as kings of York until they were finally driven out in 952.




A. KINGS of DUBLIN



Five possible brothers:

1. OLAF [Amlaib] (-after 871). The Fragmentary Annals of Ireland record in 849 that "Amlaib Conung, son of the king of Norway, came to Ireland…with a proclamation of many tributes and taxes from his father, and he departed suddenly"[1117]. A later, undated, passage in the same source names his father "Gofraid" when recording that "Amlaib went from Ireland to Norway to fight the Norwegians and help his father, Gofraid, for the Norwegians were warring against him"[1118]. The Chronicon Scottorum and Annals of Ulster both record that "Amlaib son of the king of Lochlann came to Ireland" in 853 and "the foreigners of Ireland submitted to him and he took tribute from the Irish"[1119]. The Fragmentary Annals of Ireland record in 853 that "Amlaib, son of the king of Norway came to Ireland and the foreigners of Ireland gave him hostages"[1120]. The Annals of Ulster record in 857 that "Imar and Amlaib inflicted a rout on Caitil the Fair and his Norse-Irish in the lands of Munster"[1121]. The Annals of Ulster record in 859 that "Amlaib and Imar and Cerball led a great army into Mide"[1122]. The Annals of the Four Masters record in 860 that “Aedh Finnlaith son of Niall Caille and Flann son of Conang went with the lord of the foreigners to plunder Meath”[1123]. The Fragmentary Annals of Ireland record in 862 that "Aed son of Niall and his son-in-law Amlaib went with great armies of Irish and Norwegians to the plain of Mide and they plundered it…"[1124]. King [of Dublin]. The Annals of Ulster record in 863 that "three kings of the foreigners, Amlaib and Imar and Auisle plundered the land of Flann, son of Conaing, and Lorcan son of Cathal king of Mide was with them in this"[1125]. The Annals of Ulster record in 864 that "Conchobar son of Donnchaid, one of two kings of Mide, was put to death in water at Cluain Iraird by Amlaib king of the foreigners"[1126]. The Annals of Ulster record in 866 that "Amlaib and Auisle went with the foreigners of Ireland and Scotland to Fortriu, plundered the entire Pictish country and took away hostages from them"[1127]. The Fragmentary Annals of Ireland record in 871 that "Amlaib and Imar came back from Alba to Ath Cliath, bringing many British and Scottish and Saxon prisoners with them. They numbered two hundred ships"[1128]. The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that, in the second year of the reign of Constantine I King of Scotland [1065], "Amlaib cum gentibus suis" wasted "Pictaviam" which they occupied from 1 Jan to 17 Mar, but that in the third year "Amlaib" was killed by King Constantine[1129]. m [firstly] ---. The name of Olaf´s [first] wife is not known. m [secondly] ---, daughter of AEDH Finnliath & his wife ---. Her parentage and marriage are indicating by the Fragmentary Annals of Ireland which state in 862 that "Aed´s daughter was Amlaib´s wife"[1130]. [m thirdly (before 867) ---, daughter of CINAED & his wife ---. The Fragmentary Annals of Ireland record in 867 "an encounter between Oisle son of the king of Norway and Amlaib his brother", adding that "the king had three sons, Amlaib, Imar and Oisle, Oisle was the least of them in age", recounting a lengthy romanticised account of the killing of Asl by his brother Olaf which includes Asl suggesting to Olaf that "if your wife i.e. the daughter of Cinaed does not love you, why not give her to me"[1131]. There is no way to judge the accuracy of the information concerning Olaf´s wife. Clare Downham refers to works which attempt to identify "Cinaed" either as Kenneth I King of Scotland, as "Cinaed mac Conaing king of Brega, an ally of Olaf who was killed in 851" or "indeed yet another Cinaed", concluding that "either identification is possible, if the lady is not a figure of fiction"[1132].] Olaf & his [first] wife had two children:

a) CARLUS (-killed in battle 866). The Annals of the Four Masters record in 866 “Carlus son of Amhlaeibh” among those killed in a battle fought between "Flann son of Conaing lord of all Breagh…the men of Breagh and Leinster and the foreigners" and Aedh King of Ireland at "Cill Ua nDaighre"[1133].

b) EYSTEIN [Oistin] (-killed 875). [The Fragmentary Annals of Ireland record in [871/72] that "Imar son of Gothfraid son of Ragnall son of Gothfraid Conung son of Gofraid" and "the son of the man who left Ireland" [Olaf/Amlaib] "plundered from west to east and from south to north"[1134]. It is possible that this passage refers to Eystein or another son.] The Annals of Ulster record in 875 that "Oistin son of Amlaib, king of the Norsemen, was deceitfully killed by Albann"[1135].

2. [IVAR [Imar] (-873). The Fragmentary Annals of Ireland record in 849 that "Amlaib Conung, son of the king of Norway, came to Ireland…with a proclamation of many tributes and taxes from his father, and he departed suddenly. Then his younger brother Imar came after him to levy the same tribute"[1136]. The Annals of Ulster record in 857 that "Imar and Amlaib inflicted a rout on Caitil the Fair and his Norse-Irish in the lands of Munster"[1137]. The Fragmentary Annals of Ireland, recording in 858 "a victory by Cerball son of Dunlang and Imar over the Gall-Gaedil in Ara Tire"[1138], indicate that Ivar was acting in alliance with native Irish forces in this battle. The Annals of Ulster record in 859 that "Amlaib and Imar and Cerball led a great army into Mide"[1139]. King [of Dublin]. The Annals of Ulster record in 863 that "three kings of the foreigners, Amlaib and Imar and Auisle plundered the land of Flann, son of Conaing, and Lorcan son of Cathal king of Mide was with them in this"[1140]. [The Chronicle of Æthelweard records that "the fleets of the tyrant Inwær arrived in the land of the English from the north, and they wintered among the East Angles", dated to [866/67][1141]. It is not certain that Ivar recorded in this chronicle was the same person as Ivar King of Dublin.] The Fragmentary Annals of Ireland record in 871 that "Amlaib and Imar came back from Alba to Ath Cliath, bringing many British and Scottish and Saxon prisoners with them. They numbered two hundred ships"[1142]. [The Chronicle of Æthelweard records the death of "Inwær" in the same year as Edmund King of East Anglia, dated to 869[1143].] The Fragmentary Annals of Ireland record in [871/72] that "Imar son of Gothfraid son of Ragnall son of Gothfraid Conung son of Gofraid" and "the son of the man who left Ireland" [Olaf/Amlaib] "plundered from west to east and from south to north"[1144]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 873 of "Imar king of the Norsemen of all Ireland and Britain"[1145].] m ---. The name of Ivarr´s wife or wives is not known. Ivarr & his wife had [six] children:

a) BARDR [Barith] (-881). He succeeded his father as King [of Dublin]. The Annals of Innisfallen record in 873 that "Barid with a great fleet from Ath Cliath [went] by sea westwards, and he plundered Ciarraigne Luachra under ground [i.e. the raiding of the caves]"[1146]. The Chronicon Scottorum records the death in 881 of "Barith son of Imar, head of the Norsemen…by a miracle of God and Ciannan"[1147]. The Annals of Ulster record in 881 that "the oratory of Cianan was destroyed by the foreigners…afterwards Barith, a great despot of the Norsemen, was killed by St. Ciannan"[1148].

b) SIGFRITH (-killed 888). He presumably succeeded his brother as King [of Dublin]. The Annals of Innisfallen record in 883 "the burning of Les Mor by the son of Imar"[1149]. It is supposed that this passage refers to Sigfrith who had (presumably) succeeded his brother two years earlier. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 888 of "Sigfrith son of Imar king of the Norseman…killed by his kinsman"[1150].

c) SIHTRIC (-killed 896). He presumably succeeded his brother as King [of Dublin]. The Annals of Ulster record in 893 "a great dissension among the foreigners of Ath Cliath and they became dispersed, one section following Imar´s son, and the other Sigfrith the jarl”[1151]. The Annals of Ulster record in 894 that "Imar´s son came again to Ireland”[1152]. It is assumed that this passage refers to Sihtric whose departure is implied by the passage dated 893 in the same source. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 896 of "Sitriuc son of Imar killed by other Norsemen”[1153].

d) OLAF (-killed 896). The Annals of Ulster record the death in 896 of "Amlaíb son of Imar", killed by “the Conaille and Laigne´s son”[1154].

e) [--- . The context suggests that the father of the unnamed son who is recorded below was a different person from the father of the other grandsons of Ivar who are shown in the next section of the present document.] m ---. One child:

i) son . The Annals of the Four Masters record in 929 that “Godfrey went into Osraighe to expel the grandson of Imhar from Magh-Roighne”[1155].

f) [UATHMHARAN . Downham indicates that Uathmharan was the son of Ivar, but this relationship is not indicated in any of the primary sources which she cites[1156]. The name of his son Sigfrith indicates a close family relationship with Ivar. m ---, daughter of DOMNALL & his wife ---. Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the Annals of Ulster which record that "Fergal son of Domnall son of Aed and Sicfrith son of Uathmarán, the son of Domnall´s daughter” defeated “Muirchertach son of Niall” in 933[1157]. Uathmharan & his wife had one child:

i) SIGFRITH (-after 933). The Annals of Ulster record that "Fergal son of Domnall son of Aed and Sicfrith son of Uathmarán, the son of Domnall´s daughter” defeated “Muirchertach son of Niall” in 933[1158]. The Annals of the Four Masters record in 931 that “a battle was gained in Magh-Uatha by Fearghal, son of Domnall; and Sichfraidh son of Uathmharan i.e. the son of the daughter of Domhnall, over Muircheartach, son of Niall”[1159].

3. [ASL [Auisle] (-killed 867). The Annals of Ulster record in 863 that "three kings of the foreigners, Amlaib and Imar and Auisle plundered the land of Flann, son of Conaing, and Lorcan son of Cathal king of Mide was with them in this"[1160]. The Annals of Ulster record in 864 that "Conchobar son of Donnchaid, one of two kings of Mide, was put to death in water at Cluain Iraird by Amlaib king of the foreigners"[1161]. The Annals of Ulster record in 866 that "Amlaib and Auisle went with the foreigners of Ireland and Scotland to Fortriu, plundered the entire Pictish country and took away hostages from them"[1162]. The Annals of Ulster record in 867 that "Auisle, one of three kings of the heathens, was killed by his kinsmen in guile and parricide"[1163]. The Fragmentary Annals of Ireland record in 867 "an encounter between Oisle son of the king of Norway and Amlaib his brother", adding that "the king had three sons, Amlaib, Imar and Oisle, Oisle was the least of them in age", recounting a lengthy romanticised account of the killing of Asl by his brother Olaf[1164].] m ---. The name of Asl´s wife or wives is not known. Asl & his wife had one child:

a) son (-killed 883). The Annals of Ulster record in 883 "death of Auisle´s son at the hands of Iergne´s son and the daughter of Mael Sechnaill"[1165].

4. [HALFDAN (-after 876). His relationship with Ivar is confirmed by the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle which records in 878 that "a brother of Ivar and Halfdan was in Wessex in Devon with twenty-three ships" and was killed[1166]. It is not certain that Halfdan´s brother Ivar was the same person as Ivar who is named above, as the death of the latter is recorded five years earlier. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that "Bagsecg and Halfdan, the heathen kings" were in one division of Danes who fought Æthelred I King of Wessex at Ashdown in 871, adding that "Bagsecg" was killed[1167]. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that "Halfdan went with a part of the host into Northumbria, and took winter-quarters on the river Tyne" in 874[1168]. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records in 876 that "Halfdan shared out the lands of Northumbria, and they were engaged in ploughing and in making a living for themselves"[1169]. same person as…? ALBAN (-killed in battle Loch Cuan 877). The Annals of Ulster record in 875 that "Oistin son of Amlaib, king of the Norsemen, was deceitfully killed by Albann"[1170]. It is not certain that this passage refers to Halfdan, who is recorded in Northumbria in 874 and 876 by the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (see above), although it is not known of course whether he spent all his time there. The Annals of Ulster record in 877 "a skirmish at Loch Cuan between the fair heathens and the dark heathens, in which Albann king of the dark heathens fell"[1171].]

5. [brother (-killed in battle Devon 878). The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records in 878 that "a brother of Ivar and Halfdan was in Wessex in Devon with twenty-three ships" and was killed and (Manuscript E only) "there the banner which they called the Raven was captured"[1172].



The following [five] persons are recorded as grandsons of Imar, but it is not known whether they were sons of one or more of the sons of Ivar who are shown above, or sons of other unrecorded sons or daughters, nor whether all [five] were brothers or first cousins:


1. IVAR [Imar] (-killed 904). The Annals of Ulster record the death in 904 of "Imar grandson of Imar” killed by “the men of Foirtriu”[1173].


2. RÆGNALD (-921). Simeon of Durham records that "King Reingwald and earl Oter and Osvul Cracabane" broke into and plundered "Dunbline" in 912[1174]. The Annals of Ulster record that "Ragnall grandson of Imar” defeated “Barid son of Oitir” in “a naval battle at Manu” in 914[1175]. He descended on the Northumbrian coast between 913 and 915, and at Corbridge defeated an army led by Constantine King of the Scots and Ealdred ealdorman of Bernicia. The Annals of Ulster record that "Sitriuc grandson of Imar landed with his fleet at Cenn Fuait on the coast of Laigin” and “Ragnall grandson of Imar with his second fleet moved against the foreigners of Loch dá Chaech” in 917[1176]. The Annals of Ulster record that "the foreigners of Loch dá Chaech i.e. Ragnall king of the dark foreigners and the two jarls Oitir and Gragabai forsook Ireland and proceeded…against Scotland” in 918, “Gothfrith grandson of Imar” leading a battalion in a battle “on the bank of the Tyne in northern Saxonland” where Oitir and Gragabai were killed[1177]. Following an expedition against the Scots in 918, he stormed York in 919 and declared himself King of York. Simeon of Durham records that "King Inguald stormed York" in 919[1178]. Florence of Worcester records that "rex Scottorum…Reignoldus rex Danorum…rex Streatcledwalorum" submitted to King Eadward and signed a treaty, undated but dateable to [920/22] from the context[1179]. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle dates this event to 923[1180], which is not compatible with Rægnald´s date of death in 921 as recorded in the Annals of Ulster. In accepting Edward "the Elder" King of Wessex as overlord, Rægnald gained acceptance of his new kingdom. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 921 of "Ragnall grandson of Imar, king of the fair foreigners and the dark foreigners”[1181].


3. GUTHFRITH (-934). The Annals of Ulster record that "the foreigners of Loch dá Chaech i.e. Ragnall king of the dark foreigners and the two jarls Oitir and Gragabai forsook Ireland and proceeded…against Scotland” in 918, “Gothfrith grandson of Imar” leading a battalion in a battle “on the bank of the Tyne in northern Saxonland” where Oitir and Gragabai were killed[1182]. King of Dublin: the Annals of the Four Masters record that “Godfrey grandson of Imhar took up his residence at Ath-Cliath” in 919[1183]. The Annals of Ulster record that of "Gothfrith grandson of Imar entered Ath Cliath” in 921[1184]. The Annals of the Four Masters record in 925 that “Godfrey with his foreigners left Ath-cliath but came back after six months”[1185]. The Annals of Ulster record in 926 that "Gothfrith king of the foreigners came from Ath Cliath to relieve" the remaining army of "Alpthann son of Gothfrith” besieged at “Ath Cruithne”[1186]. The Annals of Ulster record in 927 that "Gothfrith abandoned Ath Cliath, and Gothfrith returned again within six months" in the passage after the one reporting the death of "Sitruic grandson of Imar, king of the dark foreigners and the fair foreigners”[1187], suggesting that Guthfrith left for York to claim the succession of King Sihtric. The Annals of the Four Masters record in 929 that “Godfrey went into Osraighe to expel the grandson of Imhar from Magh-Roighne”[1188]. The Annals of Ulster record that in 930 "Gothfrith grandson of Ímar with the foreigners of Áth Cliath razed Derc Ferna"[1189]. Florence of Worcester records that he was expelled by Æthelstan King of Wessex[1190], and William of Malmesbury that he sought refuge with Constantine King of the Scots[1191]. After returning to lay siege briefly to York, he surrendered to Æthelstan and was allowed to return to Ireland. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 934 of "Gothfrith grandson of Ímar…of a sickness"[1192]. m ---. The name of Guthfrith's wife is not known. Guthfrith & his wife had four children:

a) OLAF Guthfrithson (-end 940). Adam of Bremen names "Analaph, Sigtrih et Reginold" as sons of Gudred, ruling in England[1193], although this is of uncertain accuracy as the undated paragraph is anachronistic as it follows that recording the succession of Emperor Otto III in 983. The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Amhlaeibh son of Godfrey” plundered “the province of Ulster” in 931 but defeated by “Muircheartach son of Niall”[1194]. He succeeded his father 934 as King of Dublin. The Annals of Ulster record that "Amlaíb grandson of Imar” sacked “the island of Loch Gabor” in 935[1195]. In 937, he sailed with a large fleet for England to reconquer York, joining forces with his father-in-law Constantine King of the Scots and Owen King of Strathclyde, but was defeated by Æthelstan King of Wessex at Brunanburh, and returned to Ireland[1196]. Simeon of Durham records that "Anlaf the pagan king of the Irishmen…stirred up by his father-in-law Constantine king of the Scots" and entered the mouth of the Humber river in 937[1197]. The Annals of Ulster record that "Amlaíb son of Gothfrith” was “in Ath Cliath again” in 938[1198]. He invaded England in 939 and by the end of that year had occupied York, installing himself as King of York. Simeon of Durham records that "King Onlaf first came to York" in 939[1199]. In raids on northern Mercia the following year, he took Tamworth and nearby land, and by treaty with Edmund took the whole of modern Leicestershire, Derbyshire, Nottinghamshire and Lincolnshire. He continued by invading Northumbria over the Tees before he died. The Chronicon Scottorum records the death in 941 of "Amlaib son of Gothfrith, king of the fair foreigners and the dark foreigners"[1200]. The Annals of Clonmacnoise record in 934 the death of "Awley m´Godfrey king of the Danes"[1201]. Edmund regained the lost territories from his successor Olaf Sitrihcson in 942. m (937) --- of the Scots, daughter of CONSTANTINE II King of the Scots & his wife --- . King Constantine was Olaf's father-in-law according to Florence of Worcester[1202]. Olaf [& his wife] had two children:

i) SIHTRIC "Caman" (-after 960). The Annals of Ulster record that "Camán son of Amlaíb son of Gothfrith was defeated at Dub” in 960[1203]. The Annals of the Four Masters record in 960 “a prey by Sitric Cam from the sea to Ui-Colgain, but he was overtaken by Amhlaeibh, with the foreigners of Ath-cliath and the Leinstermen”[1204].

ii) GUTHFRITH (-963). The Annals of Ulster record the death in 963 of "Guthfrith son of Amlaíb”[1205].

b) HALFDAN (-killed in battle Cluain na Cruimther 28 Dec 926). The Annals of Ulster record that "the fleet of Loch Cuan under Alpthann son of Gothfrith landed at Linn Duachaill” 4 Sep 926[1206]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 926 of "Alpthann son of Gothfrith” 28 Dec 926 by “Muirchertach son of Niall” at “the bridge of Cluain na Cruimther”[1207].

c) BLACAIR (-killed in battle 948). King of Dublin: the Annals of the Four Masters record in 938 that “Blacaire son of Godfrey came to Ath-cliath”[1208]. The Annals of the Four Masters record the death 26 Mar 941 of “Muirchertach of the Leather Cloaks, son of Niall Glundubh, lord of Aileach…slain at Ath-Fhirdiath” by “Blacaire son of Godfrey lord of the foreigners”[1209]. The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Blacaire one of the chiefs of the foreigners was expelled from Dublin” in 943 and “Amhlaeibh remained after him there”[1210]. The Annals of Ulster record that "Blacair gave up Áth Cliath” in 945 and that “Amlaíb succeeded him”[1211]. The Annals of Ulster record that "Blacair son of Gothfrith king of the foreigners” was killed in 948 by “Congalach son of Mael Mithig”[1212].

d) RÆGNALD Guthfrithson (-after 944). After his cousin Olaf was deposed, he succeeded 942 as King of York. He was expelled by Edmund King of Wessex in 944[1213]. Simeon of Durham records that King Edmund expelled "king…Anlaf the son of Sihtric and [king] Reignold the son of Guthferth" from Northumbria in 944[1214]. Florence of Worcester records that Eadmund King of Wessex expelled "duos reges, Anlafum regis…Sihtrici filium, et Reignoldum Guthferthi filium" from Northumbria, undated but dateable to [944] from the context[1215].


4. [NIEL (-killed in battle 914). Simeon of Durham records that "King Niel was slain by his brother Sihtric" in 914[1216]. This reference is puzzling. It may refer to the death of Niall Glundubh King of Ireland, which is dated to 919 in Irish sources[1217]. However, no relationship with Sihtric is identified. “Niel” would seem to be an Irish rather than a Norse name.]

5. SIHTRIC "Caoch" (-[926/27]). The Annals of Ulster record that "Sitriuc grandson of Imar landed with his fleet at Cenn Fuait on the coast of Laigin” and “Ragnall grandson of Imar with his second fleet moved against the foreigners of Loch dá Chaech” in 917[1218]. King of Dublin: the Annals of Ulster record that "Sitriuc grandson of Imar” defeated “Niall son of Aed king of Ireland…in the battle of Cenn Fuait” in 917 and that he “entered Ath Cliath” in the same year[1219]. The Annals of Ulster record that "Sitriuc grandson of Imar abandoned Ath Cliath” in 920[1220]. He invaded Mercia in 920 with an army from Dublin, destroying Davenport in Cheshire[1221]. Simeon of Durham records that "King Sihtric stormed Devonport" in 920[1222]. He succeeded his [first cousin] in 921 as SIHTRIC King of York. He proposed an alliance to Æthelstan King of Wessex, which was sealed in 926 by his marriage to King Æthelstan's sister. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 927 of "Sitriuc grandson of Ímar, king of the dark foreigners and the fair foreigners…at an immature age"[1223]. The comment relating to his age is difficult to explain. Assuming that the birth date of Sihtric´s son Olaf is correctly estimated to [900] as shown below, it is likely that Sihtric would have been in his forties or early fifties when he died. Simeon of Durham records the death of "Sihtric king of the Northumbrians" died in 926[1224]. The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 925 of “Sitric son of Imhar lord of the Dubhghoill and Finnghoill”[1225]. The Annals of Clonmacnoise record in 922 the death of "Sittrick o´Himer prince of the new and old Danes"[1226]. Florence of Worcester records the death of "Northanhymbrorum rex Sihtricus", undated but dateable to [926/27] from the context[1227]. m firstly ---. The name of Sihtric's first wife is not known but the fact of this earlier marriage is dictated by the chronology of his son Olaf. m secondly (Tamworth 30 Jan 926) EADGYTH of Wessex, daughter of EDWARD I “the Elder” King of Wessex & his first wife Ecgwynn ([895/902]-, bur Tamworth). The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle states that "King Athelstan [gave] Sihtric king of Northumbria…his sister in marriage" at Tamworth 30 Jan 925[1228]. The Book of Hyde names "Athelstanum…et Elfredum et Edgytham" as the children of King Eadweard "ex concubina Egwynna", specifying that Eadgyth married "Sirichio regi Northanhymbrorum" and was buried at Tamworth[1229]. Her marriage was arranged to seal the alliance which Sihtric King of York proposed to her brother. After her husband's death, she became a nun at Polesworth Abbey, Warwickshire in 927, transferring to Tamworth Abbey, Gloucestershire where she was elected Abbess. Later canonised as St Edith of Polesworth or St Edith of Tamworth, her feast day is 15 or 19 July[1230]. King Sihtric & his first wife had four children:

a) OLAF [Amlaib] ([900]-Iona [978/80]). [The Annals of Clonmacnoise record in 922 that "Maceilgi with the sons of Sittrick tooke Dublyn on Godfrey"[1231]. The source does not name Sihtric´s sons who were involved in this campaign.] His parentage is confirmed by Simeon of Durham who records that "the son of Sihtric named Onlaf reigned over the Northumbrians" in 941 but was driven out in 943[1232]. He was accepted as King of York by the Northumbrians in 927. King of Dublin.

- see below.

b) SIGFRITH (-killed in battle Brunanburh 937). The Annals of Clonmacnoise record in 931 "Sithfrey and Oisle ye 2 sones of Sithrick" among those killed by the Saxons "on the plaines of Othlyn"[1233], identified as Brunanburh, dated to 937 in other sources.

c) ASL (-killed in battle Brunanburh 937). The Annals of Clonmacnoise record in 931 "Sithfrey and Oisle ye 2 sones of Sithrick" among those killed by the Saxons "on the plaines of Othlyn"[1234], identified as Brunanburh, dated to 937 in other sources.

d) GUTHFRITH (-[951/52]). The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Godfrey son of Sitric with the foreigners of Ath-cliath” plundered “churches of Meath” in 949[1235]. The Annals of Ulster record that "Gothfrith son of Sitriuc with the foreigners of Ath Cliath” plundered churches in 951[1236]. King of Dublin: the Chronicon Scottorum records in 951 that "Gothfrith son of Sitruic took Ath Cliath and plundered Cenannas and…he died in a short time"[1237].



OLAF [Amlaib] Sihtricsson, son of SIHTRIC King of York & his first wife --- ([900]-Iona [978/80]). Given the date of his death, and the record of activities of the sons of King Sihtric in 922, it is likely that Olaf was born in [900]. [The Annals of Clonmacnoise record in 922 that "Maceilgi with the sons of Sittrick tooke Dublyn on Godfrey"[1238]. The source does not name Sihtric´s sons who were involved in this campaign.] He was accepted as King of York by the Northumbrians in 927 after the death of his father, and was supported by his uncle Guthfrith who came from Dublin. However, Æthelstan invaded Northumbria and expelled Olaf, who joined his father's former associates in Ireland[1239]. The Annals of the Four Masters record in 938 that “Amhlaeibh Cuaran went to Cair-Abroc”[1240]. Florence of Worcester records that Olaf joined his cousin at York in 940 and was elected King of York[1241]. Simeon of Durham records that "the son of Sihtric named Onlaf reigned over the Northumbrians" in 941 but was driven out in 943[1242]. He lost the territories gained by Olaf Guthfrithson to Edmund King of Wessex in 942, and he was driven out of York and deposed in favour of his cousin Rægnald. He returned to Northumbria in 944, reasserting himself as king in opposition to Rægnald, but he was expelled by Edmund King of Wessex later that year[1243]. Simeon of Durham records that King Edmund expelled "king…Anlaf the son of Sihtric and [king] Reignold the son of Guthferth" from Northumbria in 944[1244]. Florence of Worcester records that Eadmund King of Wessex expelled "duos reges, Anlafum regis…Sihtrici filium, et Reignoldum Guthferthi filium" from Northumbria, undated but dateable to [944] from the context[1245]. King of Dublin: the Annals of the Four Masters record that “Blacaire one of the chiefs of the foreigners was expelled from Dublin” in 943 and “Amhlaeibh remained after him there”[1246]. The Annals of Ulster record that "Blacair gave up Áth Cliath” in 945 and that “Amlaíb succeeded him”[1247]. He returned to York once more in 949, expelling King Erik "Blodøks/Blood-axe", but was finally driven out in his turn by Erik in 952, when he returned to Dublin to take over from his brother Guthfrith. The Annals of the Four Masters record in 962 “a victory…over Amlaeibh, son of Sitric, by the Osraighi i.e. at Inis-Teoc”[1248]. The Annals of the Four Masters record in 965 that “Muireadhach, son of Faelan, Abbot of Cill-dara, and royal heir of Leinster, was slain by Amhlaeibh, lord of the foreigners, and by Cearbhall, son of Lorcan”[1249]. The Annals of the Four Masters record in 975 that “Muircheartach, son of Domhnall Ua Neill, and Conghalach, son of Domhnall, son of Conghalach, two heirs to the monarchy of Ireland, were slain by Amhlaeibh, son of Sitric”[1250]. The Annals of the Four Masters record in 978 "the battle of Teamhair…gained by Maelseachlainn, son of Domhnall, over the foreigners of Ath-cliath and of the Islands, and over the sons of Amhlaeibh in particular", where "Ragnhall son of Amhlaeibh heir to the sovereignty of the foreigners” was killed, adding that "after this Amhlaeibh went across the sea and died at l-Coluim-Cille"[1251]. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Olaf son of Sitric high-king over the Foreigners of Dublin” died in Iona in [978/79] after being defeated by “Mael-Sechnaill the Great”[1252], the battle being dated between 978 and 980 in different sources (see below).

m firstly ---. No record has been found in any primary sources which confirms this supposed first marriage. However, given Olaf´s estimated birth date, it is likely that he was married before his marriage to the widow of Domnall.

m [secondly] (after 952) as her second husband, ---, widow of DOMNALL, daughter of ---. Her marriages are confirmed by the Annals of Tigernach which record that “MaelSechnaill son of Domnall and Glún iarainn (Ironknee) son of Olaf, son of MaelSechnail´s mother” defeated “Domnall Clóen, son of Lorcán, and Imar of Waterford” in [981/82][1253].

m [thirdly] as her first husband, GORMLAITH, daughter of MURCHAD MacFinn King of Leinster & his wife --- (-1030). She married secondly Brian Boru, and thirdly, as his [third] wife, Maelsechnaill King of Ireland. The Annals of Tigernach record the death in 1030 of “Gormlaith, daughter of Murchad son of Fland” mother of “Sitric son of Olaf king of the Foreigners and of Donnchad son of Brian king of Munster”[1254]. The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1030 of “Gormlaith daughter of Murchadh son of Finn, mother of the king of the foreigners Sitric, Donnchadh son of Brian king of Munster, and Conchobhar son of Maeleachlainn king of Teamhair”[1255].

Olaf & his [first] wife had [two] children:

1. [SIHTRIC (-after 967). The Annals of the Four Masters record in 967 that “Ceanannas was plundered by Sitric, son of Amhlaeibh, lord of the foreigners, and by Murchadh, son of Finn, king of Leinster; but Domhnall Ua Neill king of Ireland overtook and defeated them”[1256]. It is unlikely that this passage refers to Sihtric King of Dublin, son of Olaf, who is named below. King Sihtric´s death is recorded in 1042, which appears inconsistent with his participation in a battle fought in 967. It is therefore probable that this Sihtric was an older son of King Olaf who diedsoon after 967. Another possibility is that there is an error in the text and that "Sitric son of Amhlaebh" should read "Amhlaebh son of Sitric".]

2. RÆGNALD (-killed in battle Temair [978/80]). The Annals of Ulster record the death in 980 of "Ragnall son of Amlaíb" at the battle of Temair[1257]. The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Ragnhall son of Amhlaeibh heir to the sovereignty of the foreigners” was killed in 978 in “the battle of Teamhair”[1258]. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Ragnall, son of Olaf, crownprince of the Foreigners” was killed in battle by “Mael Sechnaill the Great, son of Domnall, son of Donnchad, son of Fland” at “Tara” in [978/79][1259].

Olaf & his [second] wife had one child:

3. --- “Glun iaraind/Iron knee” (-murdered [987/89]). The Annals of Tigernach record that “MaelSechnaill son of Domnall and Glún iarainn (Ironknee) son of Olaf, son of MaelSechnail´s mother” defeated “Domnall Clóen, son of Lorcán, and Imar of Waterford” in [981/82][1260]. The Annals of the Four Masters record that in 982 “Maelseachlainn son of Domhnall and Gluniairn son of Amhlaeibh” defeated “Domhnall Claen and Imhar of Port-Lairge” in which “Gilla-Padraig son of Imhar” was killed[1261]. King of Dublin. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 989 of "Glún Iarn king of the foreigners…killed when drunk by his own slave"[1262]. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Glún iarainn (Ironknee) son of Olaf king of the Foreigners” was killed “by his own slave…Colbain” in [987/88][1263]. m ---. The name of his wife is not known. One child:

a) GILLA Ciaráin (-killed in battle Clontarf 23 Apr 1014). The Annals of Ulster record that "Brian son of Ceinnéitig son of Lorcán king of Ireland and Mael Sechnaill son of Domnall king of Temair" led an army to “Áth Cliath” in 1014, adding that “Gilla Ciarráin son of Glún Iairn, heir designate of the foreigners” was killed in the battle[1264].

Olaf & his [third] wife had one child:

4. SIHTRIC (-1042). King of Dublin. The Annals of Ulster record that "Sitriuc son of Amlaíb was expelled from Áth Cliath" in 994[1265]. The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Imhar came to Ath-Cliath after Sitric, son of Amblaeibh” in 994[1266]. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Ragnall was killed by the Leinstermen, Imar again fled, and Sitric reigned in his place” in [993/94][1267]. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Sitriuc son of Olaf king of the Foreigners” plundered “into Ulster…Cell Cleithe and Inis Cumscraig” in [1000/01][1268]. Orkneyinga Saga records that Sigurd Jarl of Orkney went to Ireland “five years after the Battle of Svoldur” to support “King Sigtrygg Silk-Beard” against “King Brian of Ireland”, and left “his elder sons in charge of the earldom”, but was killed in the battle in which King Brian was killed[1269]. The Annals of Ulster record that "Sitriuc grandson of Amlaíb king of the foreigners" went to Rome in 1028[1270]. m ---. The name of Sihtric´s wife is not known. Sihtric & his wife had five children:

a) ARTALACH (-killed in battle Glenn Mama 30 Dec [996/97]). The Annals of Tigernach name “Artalach son of Sitric and Harald son of Olaf, and Cuilen son of Erigen” among those killed in battle in [996/97] by “Mael Sechlainn and Brian son of Kennedy” at “Glenn Mama”[1271].

b) OLAF (-killed in battle 1013). The Annals of Ulster record that "Amlaíb son of Sitriuc…the son of the king of the foreigners and Mathgamain son of Duibgilla son of Amlaíb" were killed in 1013 by “Cathal son of Donnchad son of Dub dá Bairenn”[1272].

c) --- “Glun iaraind/Iron knee” (-killed 1031). The Annals of Tigernach record that “Iron-knee son of Sitric” was killed by “the (folk of) the south of Bregia” in 1031[1273]. m ---. The name of his wife is not known. One child:

i) son . The Annals of Tigernach record that “Gofraidh son of Sitric” was killed in Wales “by the son of Iron-Knee” in 1036[1274].

d) OLAF ([after 1013]-murdered 1034). The Annals of Ulster record that "Amlaíb son of Sitriuc king of the foreigners was held prisoner by Mathgamain ua Riacáin king of Brega" in 1029 and ransomed for "1,200 cows and six score Welsh horses and sixty ounces of gold…"[1275]. He was presumably born after the death of his brother Olaf in 1013, unless one or other of these sons was illegitimate. The Annals of Ulster record that "Amlaíb son of Sitriuc was killed by the Saxons on his way to Rome"[1276]. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Olaf son of Sitric was killed by Englishmen as he was going to Rome” in 1034[1277]. m ---. The name of Olav´s wife is not known. Olav & his wife had one child:

i) SIHTRIC (-killed in battle Isle of Man 1073). The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1073 of "Sitriuc son of Amlaib and two grandsons of Brian…killed in Man”[1278].

e) GODFRID (-killed Wales 1036). The Annals of Tigernach record that “Gofraidh son of Sitric” was killed in Wales “by the son of Iron-Knee” in 1036[1279].

Olaf & his [---] wife had five children:

5. HARALD (-killed in battle Glenn Mama 30 Dec [996/97]). The Annals of Ulster record that "Aralt son of Amlaíb" was killed in battle at Glenn Mama "III Kal Jan" 999[1280]. The Annals of Tigernach name “Artalach son of Sitric and Harald son of Olaf, and Cuilen son of Erigen” among those killed in battle in [996/97] by “Mael Sechlainn and Brian son of Kennedy” at “Glenn Mama”[1281]. m ---. The name of Harald´s wife is not known. Harald & his wife had one child:

a) IVAR (-1054). King of Dublin. The Annals of the Four Masters record that “the son of Aralt was expelled by the foreigners” in 1046 and “the son of Raghnall was elected king”[1282]. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Imar son of Harald” slaughtered “Ragnall Húa Eochada” in “Rathlin of the Ulaid”[1283]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1054 of "Ímar son of Aralt, king of the foreigners"[1284]. m ---. The name of Imar´s wife is not known. Imar & his wife had one child:

i) GODFRID “Meranach” (-1095). King of Dublin. The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Goffraidh, son of Harald´s son” became king of Dublin in 1091[1285]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1095 of "Gofraidh Meranach, king of the foreigners"[1286]. The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record the death in 1095 of “Gobfraidh rex Dormanorom”[1287]. [From a chronological point of view, it is possible that he was the same person as GODRED “Crovan/white-handed” King of Man, whose exploits are recorded in the Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum[1288].]

6. DUBGAL (-killed in battle Clontarf 1014). The Annals of Ulster record that "Dubgall son of Amlaíb" was killed in battle at Clontarf in 1014[1289].

7. GYDA . Snorre records the betrothal and marriage of Olaf Trygvason to "a queen called Gyda…a sister of Olaf Kvaran who was king of Dublin in Ireland [who] had been married to a great earl in England" after whose death "she was at the head of his dominions"[1290]. In a later passage, Snorre refers to "King Olaf Kvaran" as his wife's father[1291]. m firstly ---. m secondly (in England 988) as his second wife, OLAV Trygveson, son of TRYGVE Olavsson [Norway] & his wife Åstrid Eiriksdatter (posthumously [968][1292]-drowned Øresund o. b. Svold, near Rügen 9 Sep [1000]). He imposed himself as OLAV I King of Norway in [995].

8. MAELMAIRE (-1021). The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1021 of “Maelmaire daughter of Amhlaeibh, wife of Maelseachlainn son of Domhnall”[1293]. m as his third wife, MAELSECHNAILL King of Ireland, son of DOMNALL & his wife --- ([949/50]-Cró Inis of Lough Ennell 2 Sep 1022).

9. [RAGNHILD . The 13th century History of Gruffydd ap Cynan records that he was born in Dublin, son of "Cynan king of Gwynedd and his mother Ragnaillt daughter of Olaf King of the city of Dublin", adding that his maternal grandmother was "Mailcorcre daughter of Dunlang son of Tuathal King of Leinster"[1294]. m CYNAN ap Iago, son of IAGO ap Idwal King of Gwynedd & his wife ---.]



1. RÆGNALD . It is possible that this is the same person as Rægnald King of Waterford, who died in 1031, see below Part C. Clare Downham suggests that he may have been the same person as Rægnald King of the Hebrides (son of Godfrid King of the Hebrides, see the document SCOTLAND MORMAERS, EARLS, LORDS)[1295]. m ---. The name of Rægnald´s wife is not known. Rægnald & his wife had [four] children:

a) ECHMARCACH (-Rome 1064). The Annals of the Four Masters record that “the son of Aralt was expelled by the foreigners” in 1046 and “the son of Raghnall was elected king”[1296]. King of Dublin. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Echmarcach son of Ragnall king of the Foreigners went oversea” in 1052 and “the son of Mael na mbó assumed the kingship after him”[1297]. The Annals of Ulster record that "Echmarcach son of Ragnall, king of the foreigners was banished by the king of Laigin Diarmait son of Mael na mBó" in 1052, the latter making himself king[1298]. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Murchad son of Diarmait son of Mael na mbó” invaded “Mann…and defeated Ragnall´s son” in 1061[1299]. His deposition was presumably temporary, as the Annals of Ulster record the death in 1064 of "Echmarcach king of the Foreigners"[1300]. The Chronicon of Marianus Scottus records the death in 1064 of "Echmarcach rex Innarenn" at Rome[1301]. Downham interprets "rex Innarenn" as "king of the Rhinns of Galloway"[1302].

b) OLAF . m ---. The name of Olaf´s wife is not known. Olaf & his wife had one child:

i) GODFRID (-1075). King of Dublin. The Annals of Inisfallen record that "the son of Conchobair Ua Mail Sechnaill (king of Temuir), Gofraid grandson of Ragnall king of Áth Cliath, and Domnall son of Gilla Pátraic king of Osraige…submitted to Tairdelbach Ua Briain king of Mum” in 1072 and “gave acknowledgement and high-kingship to him”[1303]. The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Gofraid grandson of Ragnall king of Áth Cliath was banished oversea by Taidelbach Ua Briain” in 1075 and “died beyond the sea having assembled a great fleet [to come] to Ireland”[1304]. The Annals of Ulster record that "Gofraidh son of Amlaíb or son of Ragnall, king of Áth Cliath" died in 1075[1305]. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Gofraidh king of the Foreigners” died in 1075[1306].

c) CACHT (-1054). The Annals of Tigernach record that “Cacht daughter of Ragnall queen of Ireland” died in 1054[1307]. No indication has been found in the Annals concerning the identity of Cacht´s husband as there is no mention in the text of any “king of Ireland” during that period. m ---.

d) [--- . It is not known which of the children of Ragnall may have been the parent of the sons referred to below. m ---.] children:

i) sons (-killed in battle Isle of Man 1087). The Annals of Ulster record that "the grandsons of Ragnall and the son of the king of Ulaid" led a sea expedition “into Man” in 1087 during which the grandsons of Ragnall were killed[1308].



1. THORKIL . m ---. The name of Thorkil´s wife is not known. Thorkil & his wife had two children:

a) RÆGNALD (-killed 1146). The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Ragnall son of Thorkill king of the Foreigners of Dublin” was killed in 1146 by “[people of] South of Bregia”[1309]. m ---. The name of Rægnald´s wife is not known. Rægnald & his wife had one child:

i) ASCALL (-killed in battle Dublin 1171). The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record the “battle of Dublin” in 1171 between “Miles Cogan” and “Ascall son of Ragnall king of the Foreigners” in which Ascall was killed[1310].

b) BRODAR (-killed 1160). The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Brodar son of Thorkill king of Dublin” was killed in 1160 by “the (men of) the south of Bregia”[1311].



1. OTTIR (-killed 1148). The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Ottir king of the Foreigners of Dublin” was killed in 1148 by “the sons of Thorkill”[1312].




B. KINGS of LIMERICK



1. SIHTRIC . Sihtric is only recorded in the chronicle entries which report the death of his son Harold, which are contradictory. He could either be the same person as Sihtric, son of Ivar, who was killed in 896 or as Sihtric "Caoch" King of Dublin and York (both of whom are shown in Part A above). m ---. The name of Sihtric´s wife is not known. Sihtric & his wife had one child:

a) HARALD (-killed 940). King of Limerick: the Annals of the Four Masters record that “Aralt grandson of Imhar, the son of Sitric, lord of the foreigners of Luimneach” was killed in 938 “in Connaught by the Caenraighi of Aidhne”[1313]. The Chronicon Scottorum records the death in 939 of "Aralt son of Imar´s grandson, i.e. the son of Sitric king of the foreigners of Luimnech…killed by the Connachta"[1314]. The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 940 of "Aralt grandson of Ímar at the hands of the Connachta”[1315]. same person as…? HARALD . Several sources name Harald as the father of the late 10th century Kings of the Hebrides. The co-identity with Harald King of Limerick is one of three possibilities (see the document SCOTLAND MORMAERS, EARLS, LORDS for a discussion of the different cases). It is the possibility which is supported by Collingwood[1316] and Clare Downham[1317].



1. IVAR (-killed Scattery Island 975). The parentage of Ivar is unknown. He could have been the son of Harald King of Limerick, but this hypothesis is not confirmed by any of the primary sources. Another possibility is that the two were unrelated, as suggested by the reference in the Annals of the Four Masters, quoted below, which records that attack on Limerick by "Maghnus son of Aralt" on the assumption (as posited above) that "Aralt" was the same person as Harald King of Limerick, in which case the attack might have been an attempt by Magnus to reassert his legitimate rights to the Norse kingdom of Limerick. King of Limerick. The Annals of the Four Masters record in 968 that “the foreigners of Luimneach were driven from inis-Ubhdain by Mathghamhai son of Ceinneidigh”[1318]. The Annals of Innisfallen record in 972 "the banishment of the foreigners from Luimnech and the burning of the fortress…enacted by the counsel of the nobles of Mumu, namely Mathgamain and Faelan and the son of Bran, and others"[1319]. The Annals of the Four Masters record in 972 “the plundering of Inis-Cathaigh by Maghnus son of Aralt, with the Lag-manns of the islands along with him, and Imhar lord of the foreigners of Luimneach was carried off from the island, and the violation of Seanan thereby”[1320]. The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Inis-Cathaigh was violated by Brian son of Ceinneidigh, against the foreigners of Luimneach, with Imhar and his two sons…Amhlaeibh and Duibhchenn” in 975[1321]. The Annals of Innisfallen record in 977 that "Imar king of the foreigners and his two sons were killed on Inis Cathaig by Brian son of Cennetig"[1322]. m ---. The name of Ivar´s wife is not known. Ivar & his wife had two children:

a) OLAF (-killed Scattery Island 975). The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Inis-Cathaigh was violated by Brian son of Ceinneidigh, against the foreigners of Luimneach, with Imhar and his two sons…Amhlaeibh and Duibhchenn” in 975[1323]. The Annals of Innisfallen record in 977 that "Imar king of the foreigners and his two sons were killed on Inis Cathaig by Brian son of Cennetig"[1324].

b) DUIBCHENN (-killed Scattery Island 975). The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Inis-Cathaigh was violated by Brian son of Ceinneidigh, against the foreigners of Luimneach, with Imhar and his two sons…Amhlaeibh and Duibhchenn” in 975[1325]. The Annals of Innisfallen record in 977 that "Imar king of the foreigners and his two sons were killed on Inis Cathaig by Brian son of Cennetig"[1326].




C. KINGS of WATERFORD



1. IVAR (-1000). King of Waterford. The Annals of Tigernach record that “MaelSechnaill son of Domnall and Glún iarainn (Ironknee) son of Olaf, son of MaelSechnail´s mother” defeated “Domnall Clóen, son of Lorcán, and Imar of Waterford” in [981/82][1327]. The Annals of the Four Masters record that in 982 “Maelseachlainn son of Domhnall and Gluniairn son of Amhlaeibh” defeated “Domhnall Claen and Imhar of Port-Lairge” in which “Gilla-Padraig son of Imhar” was killed[1328]. The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Imhar came to Ath-Cliath after Sitric, son of Amblaeibh” in 994[1329]. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Ragnall was killed by the Leinstermen, Imar again fled, and Sitric reigned in his place” in [993/94][1330]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1000 of "Imar king of Port Láirge"[1331]. m ---. The name of Ivar´s wife is not known. Ivar & his wife had [five] children:

a) GILLA PADRAIG (-killed in battle 982). The Annals of the Four Masters record that in 982 “Maelseachlainn son of Domhnall and Gluniairn son of Amhlaeibh” defeated “Domhnall Claen and Imhar of Port-Lairge” in which “Gilla-Padraig son of Imhar” was killed[1332].

b) [RÆGNALD (-killed in battle 994). The Annals of Innisfallen record in 990 that "the son of Imar abandoned Port Lairge"[1333]. The Annals of Ulster record that "Ragnall son of Imar was killed by Murchad in 994"[1334]. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Ragnall was killed by the Leinstermen, Imar again fled, and Sitric reigned in his place” in [993/94][1335]. The Annals of Innisfallen record in 995 the "death of Ragnall grandson of Imar king of the foreigners"[1336]. It is not known whether this Ragnall was in fact the son or grandson of Ivar, although the mention of another son of Ivar called Ragnall (see below) suggests that this earlier Ragnall may have been his grandson.]

c) RÆGNALD (-1018). King of Waterford. The Annals of Innisfallen record in 1018 the death of "Ragnall, son of Imar king of Port Lairge"[1337]. m ---. The name of Rægnald´s wife is not known. Rægnald & his wife had two children:

i) son (-killed 1014). The Annals of the Four Masters record that “the son of Raghnall son of Imhar lord of Port-Lairge” was killed in 1014 by “the Ui-Liathain”[1338].

ii) RÆGNALD (-killed 1031). King of Waterford. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Ragnall mac Raghnaill meic Imuir king of Waterford” was killed in Dublin in 1031[1339]. m ---. The name of Rægnald´s wife is not known. Rægnald & his wife had one child:

(a) [daughter . The Annals of Inisfallen record the marriage in 1032 of "Donnchadh son of Brian” and “the daughter of Ragnall”[1340]. It is not certain that King Donnchad´s father-in-law was the king of Waterford. m (1032) as his second wife, DONNCHAD King of Munster, son of BRIAN Boroma King of Munster, High King of Ireland & his [second/third] wife [Gormlaith of Leinster/Dub of Connaught] (-Rome after 1064).]

d) SIHTRIC (-killed 1022). The Annals of Tigernach record that “Ragnall was killed by the Leinstermen, Imar again fled, and Sitric reigned in his place” in [993/94][1341]. King of Waterford. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Sitric son of Imar king of Waterford” was killed in 1022 by “the king of Ossory”[1342].

e) DONNDUBHAN . The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Diarmaid son of Domhnall lord of Ui-Ceinnsealaigh” was killed in 995 by “Donndubhan son of Imhar”[1343].

[http://www.archive.org/stream/northmeninbritai00hull/northmeninbritai00hull_djvu.txt