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  • Duncan of Atholl, Mormaer of Atholl (c.949 - 1040)
    NOTE: The title of Mormaer designates a regional or provincial ruler in the medieval Kingdom of the Scots. "Mormaer" is not a place. ATHOLL: A mediaeval Scottish province, successively a mormaerdom, ...

Sub-Project of MEDIEVAL SCOTLAND

MEDIEVAL ATHOLL

Atholl was one of the seven original province of Scotland, associated with Gowry, covering the north eastern parts of what was later the county of Perth. The rulers were styled Mormaers in the 10th century. The last recorded Mormaer of Atholl was Maddad, grandson of Duncan I King of Scotland, who was one of the six rulers to be referred to as "comes" in the [1114/15] charter for Scone. Members of his family succeeded him as Earls of Atholl until the earldom was inherited by the Strathbogie family in the mid-13th century. (Cawley's Medlands)

OVERVIEW

1. DUNCAN, son of --- (-killed 965). Abthane of Dule, lay abbot of Dunkeld. From the house of the Kings of Ireland. Governor of Strathclyde.

___

2. CRINAN "the Thane", son of --- (-killed in battle 1045). Abthane of Dule. Lay abbot of Dunkeld. Steward of the Western Isles. Mormaer of Atholl. He was killed fighting King Macbeth.

([1000]) BETHOC, daughter of MALCOLM II King of Scotland & his wife ---.

Crinan & Bethoc had two children:

i) DUNCAN King DUNCAN I 1034-1040; [Donnchad], son of CRINAN "the Thane" Mormaer of Atholl & his wife Bethoc of the Scots ([1001]-killed in battle either Bothganowan/Pitgaveny, near Elgin, or Burghead 14 Aug 1040, buried Isle of Iona).

m ([1030]) SUTHEN [SIBYLLA], [cousin of SIWARD Earl of Northumbria, daughter of ---].

King Duncan I & his wife, Sibylla of Northumbria, had:

1. MALCOLM (1031-killed in battle near Alnwick, Northumberland 13 Nov 1093, buried Tynemouth, later transferred to Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, and later still to Escorial, Madrid). He succeeded in 1058 as MALCOLM III "Caennmor/Bighead" King of Scotland.

[m] [firstly] ([before 1058]) Ingiborg.

King Malcolm III & Ingiborg had two children:

1. DUNCAN ([1060/65]-murdered Monthechim/Mondynes, Kincardineshire 12 Nov 1094, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife).

m ([1090])ETHELREDA of Northumberland, daughter of GOSPATRICK Earl of Northumberland & his wife --- (bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife).

King Duncan II & his wife had one child:

a) WILLIAM FitzDuncan ([1091/94]-[1153/54]).

2. DONALD ([1060/65]-killed in battle 1085).

m ---. The name of Donald's wife is not known.

Donald & his wife had [one possible child]:

a) LADHMANN (-killed in battle 1116).

m[secondly] (Dunfermline Abbey 1070) MARGARET of England, daughter of EDWARD Ætheling of England & his wife Agatha --- ([in Hungary] [1046/53]-Edinburgh Castle 16 Nov 1093, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, transferred to Escorial, Madrid, her head bur Jesuit College, Douai).

King Malcolm III & his second wife, Margaret, had eight children[350]:

3. EDWARD (-Edwardsisle, near Jedburgh 16 Nov 1093, bur Tynemouth St Albans).

4. EDMUND (-after 1097, bur [Montacute]).

5. EDGAR ([1074]-[Dundee or Edinburgh Castle] 6 Jan 1107, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife).

6. ALEXANDER ([1077/78]-Stirling Castle 23, 25 or 27 Apr 1124, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife).

m (before [1114/15]) SIBYL, illegitimate daughter of HENRY I King of England & his mistress [---/Sibyl Corbet] (-Island of the Women, Loch Tay, Perthshire 12/13 Jul 1122, bur Island of the Women, Loch Tay).

King Alexander I had one illegitimate son by an unknown mistress:

a) MALCOLM ([1105/15]-after 1158).

7. ETHELRED (-before [1107], bur [St Andrew´s Church, Kilremont]).


8. EADGYTH (1079-1 Jun 1118).

m (11 Nov 1100) as his first wife, HENRY I "Beauclerc" King of England, son of WILLIAM I "the Conqueror" King of England & his wife Mathilde de Flandre (Selby, Yorkshire Sep 1068-Saint-Denis le Ferment, Forêt d’Angers near Rouen 1/2 Dec 1135, bur Reading Abbey, Berkshire).

9. DAVID ([1080]-Carlisle 24 May 1153, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife).

10. MARY (-31 May 1116 or 18 Apr 1118, bur Bermondsey Priory).

m (1102) EUSTACHE III Comte de Boulogne, son of EUSTACHE [II] "Gernobadatus" Comte de Boulogne and Lens & his second wife Ida of Lotharingia (-after 1125).

2. DONALD (- died in prison Rescobie, Forfarshire 1099, buried Dunkeld Abbey, later transferred to Isle of Iona).

King Donald III & his wife had [one child]:

a) BETHOC (-[1150/70][288]).

[Bethoc & her first husband] had [one child]:

i) HEXTILDA of Tynedale.

3. MAELMUIRE [Melmare] (-died after [1135]).


ii) MALDRED, son of CRINAN "the Thane" Mormaer of Atholl [Scotland] & his wife Bethoc of Scotland Lady of Atholl (-killed in battle [1045]). m ([before 1040]) EALDGYTH [Ælfgifu], daughter and heiress of UHTRED Earl of Northumbria & his third wife Ælfgifu of England (1016 or before-).

Lord Maldred & his wife had two children:

1. GOSPATRICK ([1040/48]-[1075])

2. MALDRED.

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DETAILED DESCENT OF THE MORMAERS OF ATHOLL

1. DUNCAN, son of --- (-killed 965). Abthane of Dule, lay abbot of Dunkeld. From the house of the Kings of Ireland. Governor of Strathclyde. (Cawley's Medlands)

The Annals of Ulster record that"Donnchad the abbot of Dún Caillen" was killed in 965 in "a battle between the men of Scotland themselves"[129].


The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that "Niger filius Maelcolaim" defeated "Caniculum super Dorsum Crup", in which battle "Duchad abbas Duncalden et Dubdon satrapas Athochlach" were killed, after which Niger was expelled and "Caniculus" reigned for a short time[130]. Alex Woolf tells us that this is a scribe showing off his Latin - and 'Niger' & "Caniculus' mean 'black' & 'little dog' - also the translations of 'Dub'(d967) & 'Cuilen' (d971). So: a battle on Dorsum Crup between these two, resulted in the death of a satrap (mormaer?) of Atholl, and an abbot of Dunkeld. (Woolf, Alex: From Pictland to Alba, 789-1070: Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh 2007 pp201-202)

Woolf mentions that it was common for senior churchmen to lead the forces of their church estates into combat. Most secondary sources also point out the importance of the Church of St Columba in Dunkeld, & debate the likelihood of the Abbacy being an hereditary post – given that Crinan’s grandson Aethelred inherits it. Woolf, Cawley & Bill Robertson on the Clan Donnachad page say that this would mean Duncan & Crinan are likely to be descended from the Tir Conaill royalty of Ireland, in descent from the kin of St. Columba. However, the fact that the post became hereditary after the era in which Malcolm had successfully changed the succession policy by making his own kingship hereditary, doesn’t automatically mean it was hereditary before – anymore than the Kingship in Scotland had been.

Stewart Baldwin points out that if Duncan's purported son, Crinan, was conceived in the year of his father's death 965, that would still make Crinan 80 yrs old when he dies in battle in 1045. This is, however, not impossible – Brian Boru dies in the Battle of Clontarf in his 70’s – but it does seem unlikely.

Burke’s Peerage, amongst others, appears to try & solve this problem by adding in an extra Duncan who “Commanded the Scottish left wing at the battle of Luncarty (c990) where the Danes were so crushingly defeated that their raids on that part of what subsequently became Perthshire, hitherto periodic and devastating, were terminated..[He] had (Crinan), with two younger sons ((1) Grim, Thane (hereditary tenant of the Crown) of Strathearn (west of Perth) and Baille (functionary with judicial powers) of Dule, killed 1010 at Battle of Mortlach, where Malcolm II King of Scots defeated invading Norsemen; (2) Duncan, ancestor of the Irving's of Dumfries and Forbes Irvine's of Drum)." [Burke's Peerage & Baronetage, 106th Edition, Charles Mosley Editor-in-Chief, 1999]

However much this makes pragmatic sense, I cannot find the primary evidence for it, and some of the veracity of this is brought into question by the fact that the Luncarty Battle is now considered to be an invention by Boece

Nowhere can I find an exploration of the significance of there being two men (Duchad ,the Abbot Of Dunkeld & Dubdon, the chieftain of Atholl) killed in the 965 battle, given that by the time of Crinan it is assumed that he embodied both roles. The Catholic Encyclopaedia definition of a 'lay abbot' at this time appears to apply to the Carolingian Empire mostly. It also doesn't shed light on the hereditary nature of such a title:"A name used to designate a layman on whom a king or someone in authority bestowed an abbey as a reward for services rendered; he had charge of the estate be longing to it, and was entitled to part of the income... It existed principally in the Frankish Empire from the eighth century till the ecclesiastical reforms of the eleventh."

in 'Clans and Families of Ireland and Scotland -An Ethnography of the Gael A.D. 500 - 1750, C. Thomas Cairney' provides this description. "The Cineal Conaill in Scotland were known as the Kindred of St. Columba, the great saint who founded lona. This epithet was applied to all the descendants of St. Columba’s great-grandfather, Conall Gulban, but was especially applied to branches within the clan devoted to ecclesiastical pursuits, especially in Scotland. Thus the Kindred was comprised of several early saints, and also of the hereditary abbots of Iona, Kells, Derry and Dunkeld, some of whom were descended from the Saint Columba’s brother. The Kindred of St. Columba remained closely connected to the Abbey at lona despite changes in political control and the distance from the Cineal Conall homeland in Donegal."

An interesting addition is Bill Robertson on the Clan Donnachad page attempt to link Crinan to the Karl Hundi of the Orkney Sagas, by describing his Arms as of St. Columba enthroned on two wolves. (Unfortunately, citing no sources) However, Cairney' mentions the wolves on the clan arms too.

2. CRINAN "the Thane", son of --- (-killed in battle 1045). Abthane of Dule. Lay abbot of Dunkeld. Steward of the Western Isles. Mormaer of Atholl. He was killed fighting King Macbeth. m ([1000]) BETHOC, daughter of MALCOLM II King of Scotland & his wife ---.

The "Genealogy of King William the Lyon" dated 1175 names "Betoch filii Malcolmi" as parent of "Malcolmi filii Dunecani"[131]. The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177 names "Cran Abbatis de Dunkelden et Bethok filia Malcolm mac Kynnet" as parents of King Duncan[132]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that King Malcolm II had "an only daughter…Beatrice who married Crynyne Abthane of Dul and Steward of the Isles…in some annals, by a blunder of the writer…abbot of Dul"[133]. Lady of Atholl.(Cawley's Medlands)

Crinan & Bethoc had two children:

i) DUNCAN King DUNCAN I 1034-1040; [Donnchad], son of CRINAN "the Thane" Mormaer of Atholl & his wife Bethoc of the Scots ([1001]-killed in battle either Bothganowan/Pitgaveny, near Elgin, or Burghead 14 Aug 1040, buried Isle of Iona). His parentage is confirmed by the Annals of Ulster which record the death of "Donnchad son of Crínán, king of Scotland" in 1040[265]. He is not named as king in the 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum king-list[266]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun names "Duncan" as son of "Crynyne Abthane of Dul and Steward of the Isles" and his wife[267]. He succeeded in 1018 as King of Strathclyde. [This is disputed by Duncan, A. A. M., The Kingship of the Scots 842–1292: Succession and Independence. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 2002. ISBN 0-7486-1626-8 - Sharon] He succeeded his maternal grandfather in 1034 as DUNCAN I King of Scotland. The Orkneyinga Saga records that “Karl Hundason” succeeded King Malcolm in Scotland and records his battles with Thorfinn Jarl of Orkney[268]. No other record has been identified of this alleged person. The Annales Dunelmenses record that "Dumechanus rex Scotorum" besieged Durham in 1039 with a large army but retreated from the siege[269]. He was killed in battle by his first cousin, Macbeth, who succeeded as King of Scotland. The Chronicon of Marianus Scottus records that "Donnchal rex Scotiæ" was killed "1040 XIX Kal Sep" by "duce suo Macbethad mac Finnloech" who succeeded as king for 17 years[270]. The Annals of Ulster record that "Donnchad son of Crínán, king of Scotland, was killed by his own people" in 1040[271]. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Donncadh mac Crínan, airdrí Alban” was killed “immaturo etate a suis” in 1040[272]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that Duncan was killed by "Machabeus son of Finele…at Bothgofnane" and buried in the island of Iona[273]. The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177 records that "Donchath mac Cran Abbatis de Dunkelden et Bethok filia Malcolm mac Kynnet" reigned for 6 years, was killed "a Maketh mac Fyngel in Bothngouane" and was buried "in Yona insula"[274]. Cawley’s Medlands

m ([1030]) SUTHEN [SIBYLLA], [cousin of SIWARD Earl of Northumbria, daughter of ---]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that the mother of Malcolm and Donald Bane, Duncan´s sons, was "the cousin of Earl Siward"[275]. This information is not included in any earlier source and should be considered dubious. In one earlier king list, King Malcolm III's mother is named "Suthen"[276]. No reference has been found in primary sources to her being named Sibylla, the name found in many secondary sources. Cawley’s Medlands

King Duncan I & his wife, Sibylla of Northumbria, had:

1. MALCOLM (1031-killed in battle near Alnwick, Northumberland 13 Nov 1093, buried Tynemouth, later transferred to Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, and later still to Escorial, Madrid). He succeeded in 1058 as MALCOLM III "Caennmor/Bighead" King of Scotland. Cawley’s Medlands

The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum names "Malcolaim filii Donnchada" in one of its lists[307]. The Chronicon of Marianus Scottus records that "Moelcol…filius Donchael" succeeded Lulach in 1058[308]. [Florence of Worcester records that "dux Northhymbrorum Siwardus" defeated "rege Scottorum Macbeotha" in battle, dated to 1054, and installed "Malcolmum regis Cumbrorum filium" in his place[309]. The Annales Dunelmenses record that "Siwardus" put "Macbeth" to flight in 1054 and installed "Malcolmum rege" in the following year[310]. It is not clear that these two accounts refer to the future King Malcolm III: it is uncertain why King Malcolm would be called "regis Cumbrorum filium".] The Annals of Tigernach record that “Lulach rí Alban” was killed by “Mael-Coluimb, son of Donnchad” in 1058[311]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that Malcolm recaptured his kingdom with the help of "Siward Earl of Northumberland" and killed "Machabeus" 5 Dec 1056[312]. He succeeded in 1058 as MALCOLM III "Caennmor/Bighead" King of Scotland, crowned 25 Apr 1058 at Scone Abbey, Perthshire. Duncan cites sources which demonstrate that this nickname was first applied to King Malcolm III in the 13th century[313]. He suggests[314] that it was originally applied to King Malcolm IV who, he asserts, suffered from Paget's disease, involving a deformation of the bones particularly observable in the skull, and was later misapplied to King Malcolm III. King Malcolm supported the claim to the English crown of Edgar ætheling, whose sister he had married, and led plundering raids into England. Florence of Worcester records that he did homage to William I King of England at Abernethy in Aug 1072[315]. The same source records that King Malcolm invaded Northumberland in 1091, but did fealty to Willam II King of England after peace was negotiated between the two kings[316]. Florence of Worcester records that "rex Scottorum Malcolmus et primogenitus filius suus Eadwardus" were killed in battle in Northumbria "die S Bricii" [13 Nov] by the army of "Rotberti Northymbrorum comitis"[317]. William of Malmesbury records that he was killed, with his son Edward, by Morael of Bamborough, steward of Robert Mowbray Earl of Northumberland, while leading a raid into England[318]. The Annals of Ulster record that "Mael Coluim son of Donnchad, over-king of Scotland, and Edward his son, were killed by the French in Inber Alda in England"[319]. Cawley’s Medlands

[m] [firstly] ([before 1058]) Ingiborg. The identity of the mother of King Malcolm's sons Duncan and Donald is uncertain. The absence of any reference to her in Scottish sources is best explained if her relationship with the king ended before his accession in 1058. However, this is not totally consistent with the estimated birth dates of her sons as shown below. It should be noted that King Duncan II, in his charter dated 1093, makes no reference to his mother, which implies that his father's relationship with her may have been short-lived and informal. Orkneyinga Saga records that “Ingibjorg the Earls´-Mother” (Ingibjörg Finnsdatter, widow of Thorfinn "the Black" Jarl of Orkney and Caithness, daughter of Finn Arnisson [later Jarl of Halland in Denmark]) married “Malcolm King of Scots, known as Long-neck” and that “their son was Duncan, King of Scots, father of William”[320]. There must be considerable doubt about whether this can be correct. Ingibjörg's [first] husband died in [1060/65]. King Malcolm's marriage to Queen Margaret is dated to 1070, three years after her arrival at the Scottish court. Although this provides sufficient time after the death of her first husband for the king to have married Ingebjörg, and for Ingebjörg to have died, the chronology for the birth of two sons would be tight. In addition, it is unlikely that either of these sons was born after [1065], as explained further below. If the king had really married Ingibjörg during this time, and if she had given birth to two sons, the absence of any reference to her in either Scottish or English sources is all the more surprising. It is possible that King Malcolm's marriage to Ingibjörg (if it did take place) was more Danico, implying concubinage rather than regular marriage, but this does not change the chronological difficulties. The one puzzle which remains, if the Saga is not correct, is why the author would have fabricated this detail. Cawley’s Medlands

King Malcolm III & Ingiborg had two children:

1. DUNCAN ([1060/65]-murdered Monthechim/Mondynes, Kincardineshire 12 Nov 1094, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife). William of Malmesbury names Duncan as illegitimate son of King Malcolm, when recording that he was knighted by William II King of England[327]. There is no indication of the identity of Duncan's mother, as explained above. His birth date is estimated on the assumption that he was a child when given as a hostage in 1072, which precludes his being the son of Queen Margaret. It is possible that he was illegitimate, although there is no indication that he was thereby excluded from succession to the throne. "Dunecanus fili regii Malcolum constans hereditarie rex Scotie" donated property to the monks of St Cuthbert for the souls of his father, "fratri mei, uxore mea et infans mei" (all unnamed), by charter dated 1093, witnessed by "Eadgari, [Etheread], Aceard, Ulf, Malcolub[328], Hormer, Heming, Ælfric, Teodbold, Earnulf"[329]. The copy in Early Scottish Charters lists the witnesses in a different order, and adds "Grentonis…Vinget"[330]. He was given as a hostage to William I King of England at Abernethy in 1072 to guarantee his father's good behaviour[331]. The Annals of Ulster record that the "French went into Scotland and brought away the son of the king of Scotland as hostage" in 1072[332], which presumably refers to Duncan as any of his half-brothers (if then born) would have been infants at the time. He was kept in Normandy. Florence of Worcester records that Robert III "Curthose" Duke of Normandy released "Ulfam Haroldi quondam regis Anglorum filium, Dunechaldumque regis Scottorum Malcolmi filium" from custody after his father's death in Sep 1087, knighted them and allowed them to leave Normandy[333]. He joined William II King of England and remained at his court in England[334]. Florence of Worcester records that Duncan served in the army of King William II, who supported his bid to depose his uncle, and to whom Duncan swore fealty before leaving for Scotland[335]. He deposed his uncle in 1094 and proclaimed himself DUNCAN II King of Scotland[336]. Florence of Worcester records that "Dufenaldum regis Malcolmi fratrem" was elected king after his brother's death but that "filius regis Malcolmi Dunechain" expelled "patruum suum Dufenaldum"[337]. The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Domnall son of Donnchadh” killed “Donnchadh son of Mael Coluim king of Alba” in 1094 and “took the kingship of Alba”[338]. The Annals of Ulster record that "Donnchad son of Mael Coluim, king of Scotland, was treacherously killed by his own brothers Domnall and Edmond" in 1094[339]. William of Malmesbury records that King Duncan was "murdered by the wickedness of his uncle Donald"[340]. Florence of Worcester records that "Scotti regem…Dunechan" was killed in [1094][341]. The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 records that "Donechat mac Malcolm" was killed "a Malpeder Mackcolm comite de Merns in Monacheden" through the treachery of "Donald mac Donehat"[342]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that "Duncan, King Malcolm´s illegitimate son" was "slain at Monthechin by the Earl of Mernys…Malpetri, in Scottish, Malpedir, through the wiles of his uncle Donald" as was buried "in the island of Iona"[343]. Cawley’s Medlands

m([1090]) ETHELREDA of Northumberland, daughter of GOSPATRICK Earl of Northumberland & his wife --- (bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife). The Cronicon Cumbriæ records that “Waldevus filius comitis Cospatricii” enfeoffed “Waldeve filio Gileminii” with property and “Ethreda sorore sua”[344]. The Cronicon Cumbriæ records that “Ethreda sorore Waldevi patris sui” married “Doncani comes de Murrayse” and that their son “Willielmus” succeeded her nephew “Alanus filius Waldevi”[345]. It is assumed that Duncan was Ethelreda´s first husband and Waltheof her second husband. She married secondly Waltheof. Cawley’s Medlands

King Duncan II & his wife had one child:

a) WILLIAM FitzDuncan ([1091/94]-[1153/54]). His parentage is confirmed by the Chronicle of John of Fordun (Continuator - Annals) which records the rebellion of his son "Macwilliam whose real name was Donald Bane…son of William son of Duncan the bastard" against King William[346]. That William was his father's only child is shown by King Duncan's charter dated to 1093 referring to "infans mei". As the actual date of the charter is more likely to be 1094, this leaves little time for the birth of any more children before the king's murder. "…Willelmo nepote comitis…" witnessed the charter dated to [1120] under which "David comes filius Malcolmi Regis Scottorum" founded the abbey of Selkirk[347]. Lord of Skipton and Craven, by right of his [second] wife. Cawley’s Medlands

2. DONALD ([1060/65]-killed in battle 1085). There is no indication of the name of Donald's mother. His birth date is estimated on the assumption that he was an adult when killed, and old enough to have had a son himself at that time, but this precludes his being the son of Queen Margaret. It is possible that he was illegitimate. The Annals of Ulster record that "Domnall son of Mael Coluim, king of Scotland…ended [his] life unhappily" in 1085[348]. Cawley’s Medlands

m ---. The name of Donald's wife is not known.

Donald & his wife had [one possible child]:

a) LADHMANN (-killed in battle 1116). The Annals of Ulster record that "Ladhmann son of Domnall, grandson of the king of Scotland, was killed by the men of Moray"[349]. It is not known with certainty to whom this refers, but a son of Donald, son of King Malcolm, is the most likely possibility.] Cawley’s Medlands

m [secondly] (Dunfermline Abbey 1070) MARGARET of England, daughter of EDWARD Ætheling of England & his wife Agatha --- ([in Hungary] [1046/53]-Edinburgh Castle 16 Nov 1093, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, transferred to Escorial, Madrid, her head bur Jesuit College, Douai). Although Margaret's birth is often placed in [1045/46][321], a later birth would be more consistent with the "German" theory of her mother's origin (as discussed in the document ANGLO-SAXON KINGS). Margaret's birth as late as 1053 would still be consistent with her having given birth to four children before her daughter Edith/Matilda (later wife of Henry I King of England), whose birth is estimated to have taken place in [1079/80]. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that Margaret left England with her mother in Summer 1067 and found refuge at the court of Malcolm King of Scotland[322]. Florence of Worcester records that "clitone Eadgaro et matre sua Agatha duabusque sororibus suis Margareta et Christina" left England for Scotland, in a passage which deals with events in mid-1068[323]. Florence of Worcester records that "regina Scottorum Margareta" died from grief after learning of the death of her husband and oldest son[324]. The Annals of Ulster record that "his queen Margaret…died of sorrow for him within nine days" after her husband was killed in battle[325]. She was canonised in 1250, her feast day in Scotland is 16 Nov[326]. Cawley’s Medlands

King Malcolm III & his second wife, Margaret, had eight children[350]:

3. EDWARD (-Edwardsisle, near Jedburgh 16 Nov 1093, bur Tynemouth St Albans). Florence of Worcester records that "rex Scottorum Malcolmus et primogenitus filius suus Eadwardus" were killed in battle in Northumbria "die S Bricii" [13 Nov] by the army of "Rotberti Northymbrorum comitis"[351]. He is named, and his parentage given, by Roger of Hoveden, who lists him first of the sons[352]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun names "Edward, Edmund, Ethelred, Edgar, Alexander and…David" as the sons of King Malcolm and his wife[353]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that, according to "William", "Edmund…was privy to his brother Duncan´s death, having…bargained with his uncle [Donald] for half the kingdom" but was captured and "kept in fetters for ever"[354]. He died from wounds received at the battle of Alnwick during a raid on England led by his father. The Annals of Ulster record that "Mael Coluim son of Donnchad, over-king of Scotland, and Edward his son, were killed by the French in Inber Alda in England"[355]. Matthew Paris reports that the remains of "regis Scotorum Malcolmi et Edwardi filii sui" were found at Tynemouth, commenting that both had been killed fighting "Robertus de Mumbrai"[356]. Cawley’s Medlands

4. EDMUND (-after 1097, bur [Montacute]). He is named, and his parentage given, by Roger of Hoveden, who lists him second of the sons[357]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun names "Edward, Edmund, Ethelred, Edgar, Alexander and…David" as the sons of King Malcolm and his wife, adding in a later passage that Edmund "was buried at Montacute in England"[358]. He succeeded in 1094 as EDMUND joint King of Scotland, jointly with his uncle King Donald III "Bane", ruling south of the Forth/Clyde. He was deposed in 1097 by his brother Edgar, and became a monk at Montacute Abbey. Edmund is not mentioned either by Orderic Vitalis in his brief account of the usurpation of King Donald "Bane"[359], or by Florence of Worcester in his account of the deposition of King Donald in 1097[360]. If Edmund was older than his brother Edgar, it is not clear why their uncle Edgar Ætheling, who led the English army which deposed their uncle, would have supported the accession of Edgar in place of Edmund. The Annals of Ulster record that he was involved in the killing of his half-brother King Duncan[361]. William of Malmesbury records that "Edmund was the only degenerate son of Margaret", that he "[partook] in his uncle Donald's crime and…had been accessory to his brother's death", was "doomed to perpetual imprisonment", and "on his near approach of death, ordered himself to be buried in his chains"[362]. The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum records that "Edmundus" was buried "apud Montem Acutum in…cella Cluniacensi"[363]. Cawley’s Medlands

5. EDGAR ([1074]-[Dundee or Edinburgh Castle] 6 Jan 1107, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife). He is named, and his parentage given, by Roger of Hoveden, who lists him third of the sons[364]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun names "Edward, Edmund, Ethelred, Edgar, Alexander and…David" as the sons of King Malcolm and his wife[365]. He succeeded in 1097 as EDGAR King of Scotland. Florence of Worcester records that "clitorem Eadgarum" led an army to Scotland in [1097] to place "consobrinum suum Eadgarum Malcolmi regis filium" on the Scottish throne after expelling "patruo suo Dufenaldo"[366]. The reign of Edgar is ignored by Orderic Vitalis, who says that Alexander succeeded when King Donald was deposed[367]. "Edgarus filius Malcolmi Regis Scottorum" made grants for the souls of "fratrum meorum Doncani et Edwardi" by charter dated 30 Aug 1095, subscribed by "Egeri regis, Alexandri fratri eius, Manyanium, Agulfi, filii Doncani, Eyluerti, filii Eghe Omani, Uhtredi, filii Magdufe, Constantini, Rodberti de humet, Ætele, A. gulfi, Alimoldi filii sui, David"[368]. The precise dating of this charter and the unusual list of subscribers suggest that it may be spurious. "Edgarus…Rex Scottorum" made grants for the souls of "Malcolmi patris nostri et Margaretæ matris nostræ…ac Edwardi et Duncani fratrum nostrorum" by charter dated 1095[369]. Robert of Torigny records the death in 1107 of "Edgarus rex Scotiæ"[370]. Florence of Worcester records the death "VIII Id Jan" in [1107] of "Eadgarus rex Scottorum"[371]. The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 records that "Edgar mac Malcolm" reigned for 9 years, died "in Dunedin", and was buried "in Dumferline"[372]. Cawley’s Medlands

6. ALEXANDER ([1077/78]-Stirling Castle 23, 25 or 27 Apr 1124, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife). He is named, and his parentage given, by Roger of Hoveden, who lists him fourth of the sons[373]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun names "Edward, Edmund, Ethelred, Edgar, Alexander and…David" as the sons of King Malcolm and his wife[374]. Robert of Torigny records that "Alexander frater eius" succeeded in 1107 on the death of "Edgarus rex Scotiæ"[375]. He succeeded his brother in 1107 as ALEXANDER I "the Fierce" King of Scotland. Florence of Worcester records that "Alexanderfrater eius" succeeded his brother King Edgar in [1107][376]. The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the marriage "VII Kal Mai" [1124] of "Alexander rex Scottorum"[377]. "Alexander…rex Scottorum filius regis Malcolmi et regine Margerete et…Sibilla regina Scottorum filia Henrici regis Anglie" reformed Scone Abbey by charter dated to [1114/15], witnessed by "Alexander nepos regis Alexandri, Beth comes, Gospatricius Dolfini, Mallus comes, Madach comes, Rothri comes, Gartnach comes, Dufagan comes, Willelmus frater regine, Edwardus constabularius, Gospatricius filius Walthef, Ufieth Alfricus pincerna"[378]. The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 records that "Alexander" reigned for 17 years and 3 months, died "in Crasleth", and was buried "in Dumferline"[379].

m (before [1114/15]) SIBYL, illegitimate daughter of HENRY I King of England & his mistress [---/Sibyl Corbet] (-Island of the Women, Loch Tay, Perthshire 12/13 Jul 1122, bur Island of the Women, Loch Tay). William of Malmesbury records the marriage of Alexander to the unnamed illegitimate daughter of King Henry, but adds "there was…some defect about the lady either in correctness of manners or elegance of person"[380], which appears to imply mental retardation. "Alexander…rex Scottorum filius regis Malcolmi et regine Margerete et…Sibilla regina Scottorum filia Henrici regis Anglie" reformed Scone Abbey by charter dated to [1114/15][381]. Her name is confirmed by various charters, including the charter dated to [1120] under which "Alexander…Rex Scottorum filius Regis Malcolmi et Reginæ Margaretæ et…Sibilla regina Scottorum filia Henrici regis Angliæ" made grants[382]. Considering the date of her marriage, it is unlikely that she was born much later than [1095]. The Complete Peerage[383] suggests that she was the daughter of Sibyl Corbet, both because of her name and also because of the possible co-identity between "…Willelmo fratre reginæ…", who witnessed the charter dated 1124 under which "Alexander…Rex Scottorum" granted jurisdiction to the prior of Scone[384], and "…Willielmo fratre meo…" who witnessed the charter dated to [1163/75] under which "Reginaldus, Henrici Regis filius, comes Cornubiæ" granted property to "Willielmo de Boterell, filio Aliziæ Corbet, materteræ meæ"[385]. However, this co-identity is not ideal from a chronological point of view. William, brother of Renaud Earl of Cornwall, died after 1187. If he was the same person as the brother of Sibyl Queen of Scotland, he could only have been a child when he subscribed the Scottish charters in which he is named. In addition, as noted in the document ENGLAND KINGS, it is possible that William, brother of Earl Renaud, may have been his uterine brother, in which case it is unlikely that he would have been chosen to accompany the queen to Scotland. Another factor is that the birth of Herbert FitzHerbert, son of Sibyl Corbet by her marriage, is estimated to [1125/35] (see the document UNTITLED ENGLISH NOBILITY). This means that he could only have been Sibyl´s half-brother if she had been a young girl at the time of her marriage. On the other hand, "Robert Corbet" witnessed charters in Scotland which are dated to late in the reign of King Alexander and the early years of the reign of his brother King David (see UNTITLED ENGLISH NOBILITY). If Robert Corbet was Queen Sibyl´s maternal grandfather or her maternal uncle, this could account for his presence at the Scottish court at the time. The Extracta ex Cronicis Scocie records the death in 1122 "apud Lochtay cellam canonicorum de Scona" of "Sibilla…regine Scocie uxor regis Alexandri, filia Henrici Beuclerk regis Anglie"[386]. Cawley’s Medlands

King Alexander I had one illegitimate son by an unknown mistress:

a) MALCOLM ([1105/15]-after 1158). Orderic Vitalis names Malcolm as bastard son of King Alexander[387]. Robert of Torigny records that "Aragois comes Morefie cum Melcolmo notho filio Alexandri fratri regis David" invaded Scotland in 1130[388]. same person as …? MALCOLM MacHeth (-23 Oct 1168[389]). Duncan suggests that Malcolm, son of King Alexander I, and Malcolm MacHeth were two different persons, the latter being the son of "Aed" or "Heth" who witnessed two charters in the early years of the reign of King David I[390]. He was reconciled with King Malcolm IV in 1157. Malcolm MacHeth was created Earl of Ross in 1162 or before[391]. Cawley’s Medlands

7. ETHELRED (-before [1107], bur [St Andrew´s Church, Kilremont]). He is named, and his parentage given, by Roger of Hoveden, who lists him fifth of the sons[392]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun names "Edward, Edmund, Ethelred, Edgar, Alexander and…David" as the sons of King Malcolm and his wife, adding in a later passage that Ethelred "as some assert…lies buried in St Andrew´s church at Kilremont"[393]. Lay abbot of Dunkeld. "Edelradus…filius Malcolmi Regis Scotiæ Abbas de Dunkeldense et insuper Comes de Fyf" made donations to the Keledei of Loch Leven by undated charter, witnessed by "duo fratres Hedelradi…David et Alexander…Constantini comitis de Fyf et Nesse et Cormac filii Macbeath et Malnethte filii Beollani sacerdotum de Abyrnethyn et Mallebride alterius sacerdotis"[394]. Cawley’s Medlands


8. EADGYTH (1079-1 Jun 1118). Orderic Vitalis records that their mother sent Eadgyth and her sister Mary to be brought up by their maternal aunt Christina, nun at Romsey Abbey[395]. Florence of Worcester records the marriage of King Henry and "regis Scottorum Malcolmi et Margaretæ reginæ filiam Mahtildem" and her coronation as queen in a passage dealing with events in late 1100[396]. She adopted the name MATILDA on her marriage. Crowned Queen Consort of England 11 or 14 Nov 1100. The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "Kal Mai" of "MatildisAnglorum regina"[397]. The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the death "Kal Mai " at Westminster of "Mahthildis regina Anglorum", and her burial at Westminster Abbey[398].

m (11 Nov 1100) as his first wife, HENRY I "Beauclerc" King of England, son of WILLIAM I "the Conqueror" King of England & his wife Mathilde de Flandre (Selby, Yorkshire Sep 1068-Saint-Denis le Ferment, Forêt d’Angers near Rouen 1/2 Dec 1135, bur Reading Abbey, Berkshire). Cawley’s Medlands

9. DAVID ([1080]-Carlisle 24 May 1153, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife). He is named, and his parentage given, by Roger of Hoveden, who lists him as the sixth son of his parents[399]. He succeeded his brother in 1124 as DAVID I King of Scotland. Cawley’s Medlands

10. MARY (-31 May 1116 or 18 Apr 1118, bur Bermondsey Priory). Orderic Vitalis records that their mother sent Mary and her sister Eadgyth to be brought up by their maternal aunt Christina, nun at Romsey Abbey[400]. Florence of Worcester records that Henry I King of England arranged the marriage of "Mariam reginæ sororem" and "Eustatio Bononensium comiti" in [1102][401]. Her marriage is also recorded by Orderic Vitalis, who also names her daughter[402]. The Genealogica comitum Buloniensium records that "Eustachius, frater Balduini regis Iheruslame" married "Mariam filiam regis Scotiæ"[403]. The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum records the death "II Kal Jun" in 1116 of "Maria…comitissa" and her burial "apud Bermundseiam"[404]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that "Mary countess of Bouillon" died in "the third year before her sister´s death"[405].

m (1102) EUSTACHE III Comte de Boulogne, son of EUSTACHE [II] "Gernobadatus" Comte de Boulogne and Lens & his second wife Ida of Lotharingia (-after 1125). Cawley’s Medlands

2. DONALD (- died in prison Rescobie, Forfarshire 1099, buried Dunkeld Abbey, later transferred to Isle of Iona). Matthew Paris names him as brother of King Malcolm, and records that he was elected by the Scots to succeed his brother in 1093 as DONALD III "Bane", King of Scotland 1093-1097 [278]. Florence of Worcester records that "Dufenaldum regis Malcolmi fratrem" was elected king after his brother's death but that "filius regis Malcolmi Dunechain" expelled "patruum suum Dufenaldum"[279]. According to Florence of Worcester, he expelled all the English from the Scottish court[280]. "Douenald filius Conchat Regis" made donations "cum ceteris regibus…Duncano rege Edgaro et Alexandro et David fratribus"[281]. This charter is undated and the reference to the four brothers all as kings indicates that it is probably spurious. Florence of Worcester records that King Donald was deposed in 1094 by his nephew Duncan, with help from the English and Normans[282]. The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Domnall son of Donnchadh” killed “Donnchadh son of Mael Coluim king of Alba” in 1094 and “took the kingship of Alba”[283]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that "his uncle Donald…again usurped the kingship" after the death of "Duncan, King Malcolm´s illegitimate son" and reigned for three years[284]. Florence of Worcester records that "clitorem Eadgarum" led an army to Scotland in [1097] to place "consobrinum suum Eadgarum Malcolmi regis filium" on the Scottish throne after expelling "patruo suo Dufenaldo"[285]. William of Malmesbury records that King Duncan II "was murdered by the wickedness of his uncle Donald" and that the latter was "dispatched by the contrivance of David, the youngest brother and the power of [King] William [II]"[286]. He was imprisoned. The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 records that "Donald mac Donchat" was captured "a Edgar mac Malcolm", blinded, died in "Rosolpin" and was buried "in Dunkelden", transferred to Iona[287]. m ---. The name of Donald's wife is not known. Cawley’s Medlands King Donald III & his wife had [one child]:

a) BETHOC (-[1150/70][288]). The sources are contradictory regarding the supposed child of King Donald. The proofs relating to the claim to the Scottish throne in 1291 made by "dñi Johannis Comyn" name "Gothrik" as the son of "Dovenald filius Duncani filii Erici", and trace John Comyn´s descent from him[289]. However, in the Great Roll, John Comyn traced his descent from Bethoc, daughter and heiress of Donald[290]. Bethoc´s first marriage is confirmed by a charter of King Henry III dated 1261 which confirmed to John Comyn the land inherited from Hextildis, wife of Richard Comyn and daughter of Uhtred son of Waltheof[291]. Her second marriage is referred to by Young but he does not cite the corresponding primary source, which has not yet been identified[292]. Altogether the chronology for Bethoc is stretched almost to beyond credibility. Her supposed father King Donald Bane must have been born before 1040, and yet his daughter is supposed to have been living more than 100 years later, and her supposed second husband living in the last quarter of the 12th century. It is suggested that this supposed descent of Hextilda, wife of Richard Comyn, from King Donald Bane should be treated with caution. m firstly ([1085]) UHTRED Lord of Tynedale, son of [293] WALTHEOF ---. The 1130 Pipe Roll records "Uctred fil Walleof" in Northumberland[294]. m secondly RADULF, son of DUNEGALL Lord of Nithsdale (-[1185]).] Cawley’s Medlands [Bethoc & her first husband] had [one child]:

i) HEXTILDA of Tynedale. The proofs relating to the claim to the Scottish throne in 1291 made by "dñi Johannis Comyn" name "Hextilde" as daughter and heiress of "Gothrik", son of "Dovenald filius Duncani filii Erici", and "Willelmo" as her son and heir[295]. “R. Cumin” donated property to Hexham Priory, with the consent of “uxoris meæ Hextildis”, by undated charter which names “fratrem meum Walterum”[296]. "Ric Cymyn" donated "ecclesiam de Lyntunruderie" to Kelso monastery, for the souls of "Henrici comitis dni mei et…Johis filii mei quorum corpa apud eos tumulant", by charter dated to [1160], witnessed by "Hextild sponsa mea, Od filio meo…"[297]. "Ricardus Cumin" donated [Slapfeld] to Holyrood Abbey, with the consent of "Hestild uxoris mee et heredum meorum", by charter dated to [1166] witnessed by "…Odinello et Simone filiis meis…"[298]. Her second marriage is confirmed by the undated charter under which “Hextildis comitissa de Eththetela” donated property to Rievall Abbey, for the soul of “domini mei Richardi Cumin”[299]. "Malcolmus comes de Athoil" donated "ecclesiam de Dul" to St Andrew´s priory by undated charter witnessed by "Dunecano comite de Fif, Hextilda comitissa sponsa mea…Henrico et Dunecano filiis meis…"[300]. The Liber Vitæ of Durham lists (in order) "Hextild, Willelmus, Odenellus, Simon, Ricardus Cumin…", and in a later passage "Malcolmus filius Mal. et comes Athodlie, Hextilda filia Ucthredi uxor eius…"[301]. m firstly ([1144/50]) RICHARD Comyn, son of --- Cumin [Comyn] & his wife --- (-[1179]). m secondly (after 1179) as his second wife, her second cousin, MALCOLM Earl of Atholl, son of MADDAD Earl of Atholl & his first wife --- (-[1186/Aug 1198]).] Cawley’s Medlands

3. MAELMUIRE [Melmare] (-died after [1135]). According to the Complete Peerage, Melmare, who it says was the father of Madach Earl of Atholl, was the son of Duncan I King of Scotland & his wife ---, but it cites no corresponding primary source[302]. The primary source which confirms that this is correct has not yet been identified. The only primary source reference to Maelmuire which has so far been found is the undated charter under which David I King of Scotland granted protection to the clerics of Deer, which is witnessed by "Donchado comite de Fib et Malmori d´Athotla et Ggillebrite comite d´Engus et Ghgillcomded Mac Aed…"[303]. From the names of the earls of Fife and Angus, it is unlikely that this document can be dated to before 1135 at the earliest. If that is correct, it is evidently impossible from a chronological point of view that Maelmuire could have been the son of King Duncan I.] Cawley’s Medlands


ii) MALDRED, son of CRINAN "the Thane" Mormaer of Atholl [Scotland] & his wife Bethoc of Scotland Lady of Atholl (-killed in battle [1045]). He is named son of Crinan by Roger of Hoveden[1346]. Lord of Allerdale. Regent of Strathclyde 1034/35. Cawley’s Medlands

m ([before 1040]) EALDGYTH [Ælfgifu], daughter and heiress of UHTRED Earl of Northumbria & his third wife Ælfgifu of England (1016 or before-). Simeon of Durham names "Algiva daughter of earl Uchtred [and] of Algiva daughter of king Agelred" when recording that her father arranged her marriage to "Maldred the son of Crinan"[1347], although her father was long since dead when she married. Named daughter of Uhtred and Elgiva by Roger of Hoveden, who also names her husband and his father[1348]. Cawley’s Medlands

Lord Maldred & his wife had two children:

1. GOSPATRICK ([1040/48]-[1075]). Simeon of Durham names "Cospatric son of Maldred son of Crinan" when recording that he was appointed Earl of Northumberland[1349]. Earl of Northumberland from Dec 1067. Cawley’s Medlands

2. MALDRED. Balfour Paul names "Maldred" as second son of Maldred but does not cite the corresponding primary source[1350]. The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. m ---. The name of Maldred´s wife is not known. Cawley’s Medlands

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