Arnulf, Emperor of the West

How are you related to Arnulf, Emperor of the West?

Connect to the World Family Tree to find out

Arnulf, Emperor of the West's Geni Profile

Share your family tree and photos with the people you know and love

  • Build your family tree online
  • Share photos and videos
  • Smart Matching™ technology
  • Free!

Arnulf of Carinthia, Emperor, King of Germany

German: Arnulf von Kärnten, Kaiser des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, French: Arnulf Arnoul ( Bâtard ) de Carinthie, Emperor, King of Germany
Also Known As: "Arnoul", "Arnulf I of Carinthia", "King of East Francia and Holy Roman Emperor", "King Arnulf of East-Francia", "Arnulf of Germany", "Arnulf Koroški", "Arnulf von Kärnten", "Arnulf of Carinthia", "King Arnulf of /Germany/", "Arnulf Arnold Caroling", "king of East Francia ..."
Birthplace: Carinthia, Sachsen, Germany
Death: November 29, 899 (49-58)
Regensburg, Bayern, Germany
Place of Burial: Saint-Emmeran, Ragensburg (Alemanha)
Immediate Family:

Son of Carloman, king of Bavaria and Litwinde
Husband of Adelaide von Sachsen; Oda; Vinburge and NN de La Forrêt Hercynienne, Mistress of Arnulf
Ex-husband of Ellinrat
Father of Bertha; Louis III / IV, king of East Francia; Otto de Sajonia Hedwige; Zwentibold, king of Lotharingia; Glismonde von Kärnten and 3 others
Brother of Giselle of Bavaria, Abbess

Occupation: King of East Francia, Holy Roman Emperor, Rey de Francia Oriental, Rey de Lotaringia y Roi, de Germanie, de Lotharingie, de Bavière, ruled from 896, King of Bavaria
Managed by: Sharon Doubell
Last Updated:

About Arnulf, Emperor of the West

from,%20Kings.htm#Arnulfdied899B v4.1 Updated 24 May 2018

ARNULF, illegitimate son of KARLOMAN King of the East Franks & his mistress Liutswindis --- ([850]-Regensburg 8 Dec 899, bur Regensburg St Emmeran). The Annales Ducum Bavariæ record the death in 880 of "Karlomannus rex" leaving "regnum cum ducatu Bawarie" to "Arnolfo, filio suo ex concubina nobili de Karinthia"[84]. "Arnolfus…rex" donated the abbey of Herrieden to Eichstätt by charter dated 23 Feb 888 in which he names "Karlomanni patris nostri"[85]. He is called "Arnulfum filium spurium Carolomanni" when recording his accession in 887[86]. He was invested with the March of Pannonia and Carinthia in [870]. During the illness of his father, he administered Bavaria but was obliged to transfer the territory to his uncle Ludwig III on his father's death, in return for receiving the duchy of Carinthia. He led a powerful army of Carinthians and Slavs against Emperor Karl III in early Nov 887, and 27 Nov 887 issued his first charter as ARNULF King of the East Franks. Reuter highlights the absence of evidence concerning the manner in which Arnulf assumed power in place of his uncle[87]. Fulco Archbishop of Reims came to Worms in Jun 888 to invite him to claim the kingdom of the West Franks, challenging Eudes who had recently been elected king. Arnulf won a decisive victory over the Vikings at the River Dyle in 891, after which Viking raids in the east Frankish kingdom all but ceased[88]. Called by the Pope to fight Guido I Duke of Spoleto, Arnulf crossed the Alps in 894 and subjugated northern Italy, but was forced to withdraw by Italian resistance. Returning to Italy after Guido’s death in 895, he was crowned Emperor ARNULF at Rome 22 Feb 896 by Pope Formosus. He marched against Lambert of Spoleto, but was struck by paralysis and obliged to return to Bavaria[89]. Regino records the death "899 III Kal Dec" of "Arnulfus imperator" and his burial "in Odingas ubi et pater eius tumulatus est"[90]. The necrology of Prüm records the death "900 III Kal Dec" of "Arnoldus imperator"[91]. The necrology of Regensburg St Emmeran records the death "V Kal Dec" and "VI Id Dec" of "Arnolfus imperator fundator huius loci"[92].

For wives and children follow link,%20Kings.htm#Arnulfdied899B


Arnulf of Carinthia (German: Arnulf von Kärnten; Slovene: Arnulf Koroški; 850 – December 8 899) was the Carolingian King of East Francia[1] from 887 and Holy Roman Emperor from 896 until his death. [edit] Biography

Arnulf was the illegitimate son of Carloman, King of Bavaria, and his concubine Liutswind,[2] perhaps of Carantanian origin, sister (?) of one Bavarian Count Ernst, count of the Bavarian Nordgau Margraviate in the area of the Upper Palatinate, or perhaps the burgrave of Passau, as some sources say. After Arnulf's birth, Carloman married, before 861, a daughter of that same Count Ernst, who died after August 8, 879. As it is mainly West-Franconian historiography [3] that speaks of Arnulf's illegitimacy, it is quite feasible that the two females are one and the same person and that Carloman later on actually married Liutswind, thus legitimizing his son.[4] Arnulf was given the Duchy of Carinthia, a Frankish vassal state and successor of the ancient Principality of Carantania, by his father when he divided his realm, giving Bavaria to Louis the Younger and the Kingdom of Italy to Charles the Fat, in 880 on his death.

Arnulf spent his childhood on the Mosaburch, which is widely believed to be Moosburg in Carinthia, only a few miles away from one of the imperial residences, the Carlovingian Kaiserpfalz at Karnburg, which before as Krnski grad had been the residence of the Carantanian princes. From later events it may be inferred that the Carantanians, from an early time, treated him as their own Duke.

When, in 882, Engelschalk II rebelled against the Margrave of Pannonia, Aribo, and ignited the so-called Wilhelminer War, Arnulf supported him and even accepted his and his brother's homage. This ruined Arnulf's relationship with his uncle the emperor and put him at war with Svatopluk of Moravia. Pannonia was invaded, but Arnulf refused to give up the young Wilhelminers. Arnulf did not make peace with Svatopluk until late 885, by which time the Moravian was a man of the emperor. Some scholars see this war as destroying Arnulf's hopes at succeeding Charles.

He took the leading role in the deposition of his uncle, the Emperor Charles the Fat. With the support of the nobles, Arnulf held a Diet and deposed Charles in November 887, under threat of military action. Charles peacefully went into his involuntary retirement, but not without first chastising his nephew for his treachery and asking only for a few royal villas in Swabia, which Arnulf mercifully granted him, on which to live out his final months. Arnulf was elected by the nobles of the realm (only the eastern realm, though Charles had ruled the whole of the Frankish lands) and assumed his title of King.

Arnulf was not a negotiator, but a fighter. At the decisive Battle of Leuven in September 891, he defeated an invading force of the Northmen, or Vikings, essentially ending their invasions on that front. The Annales Fuldenses report that the bodies of dead Northmen blocked the run of the river. After his victory, Arnulf built a new castle on an island in the Dijle river (Dutch: Dijle, English and French: Dyle).[5]

In 893 or 894, Great Moravia probably lost a part of its territory — present-day Western Hungary — to him. Arnulf, however, failed to conquer the whole of Great Moravia when he attempted it in 892, 893, and 899. In 895, Bohemia broke away from Great Moravia and became his vassal. An accord was made between him and the Bohemian Duke Borivoj I (reigned 870-95); Bohemia was thus freed from the dangers of invasion.

In 893, Pope Formosus, not trusting the newly crowned co-emperors Guy and Lambert, sent an embassy to Regensburg to request Arnulf come and liberate Italy, where he would be crowned in Rome. Arnulf sent his son Zwentibold with a Bavarian army to join Berengar of Friuli. They defeated Guy, but were bought off and left in autumn. Arnulf then personally led an army across the Alps early in 894. He conquered all of the territory north of the Po, but went no further before Guy died suddenly in late autumn. Lambert and his mother Ageltrude travelled to Rome to receive papal confirmation of his imperial succession, but Formosus, still desiring to crown Arnulf, was imprisoned in Castel Sant'Angelo.

In September 895, a new embassy arrived in Regensburg beseeching Arnulf's aid. In October, Arnulf undertook his second campaign into Italy. He crossed the Alps quickly and took Pavia, but then he continued slowly, garnering support among the nobility of Tuscany. First Maginulf, Count of Milan, and then Walfred, Count of Pavia, joined him. Eventually even the Margrave Adalbert II abandoned Lambert. Finding Rome locked against him and held by Ageltrude, he had to take the city by force on 21 February 896, freeing the pope. Arnulf was there crowned King and Emperor by Formosus on 22 February. He only retained power in Italy as long as he was personally there. Arnulf marched on Spoleto, where Ageltrude had fled to join Lambert, but he suffered a stroke and had to call off the campaign. That same year, Formosus died, leaving Lambert once again in power. Rumours of the time made Arnulf's condition to be a result of poisoning at the hand of Ageltrude. He returned to Germany and had no more control in Italy for the rest of his life.

On Arnulf's death in 899, he was succeeded as a king of the East Franks by his son by his wife Ota (died 903), Louis the Child. Arnulf's illegitimate son Zwentibold, whom he had made King of Lotharingia in 895, continued to rule there until the next year (900).

He is entombed in St. Emmeram's Basilica at Ratisbon, which is now known as Schloss Thurn und Taxis, the palace of the Princes of Thurn and Taxis.

Reign November 887 – 8 December 899 Coronation Crowned Roman Emperor: 22 February 896, Rome Titles King of Italy Born 850 Died 8 December 899 Predecessor Charles the Fat Successor Louis the Child Consort Ota Offspring Louis the Child

Ratold of Italy Zwentibold Royal House Carolingian Dynasty Father Carloman of Bavaria Mother Liutswind

Arnulf of Carinthia, Holy Roman Emperor was born circa 863. He was the son of Carloman König von Bayern and Litwinde (?).2 He died in 899.1

    Arnulf of Carinthia, Holy Roman Emperor gained the title of King Arnulf of Germany. He succeeded to the title of Emperor Arnulf of the Holy Roman Empire in 887.1 He was crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 896.


Arnulf was illegitimate son of Carloman (?) and grandson of Carloman's father Louis the German, King of the East Franks (d. 880; son of Emperor Louis I - see AEM's Chart 310C:4). Arnulf's wife is Oda, daughter of Theodore of Bavaria.


Über Arnulf von Kärnten, Kaiser des Heiligen Römischen Reiches (Deutsch)

Arnulf von Kärnten

aus Wikipedia, der freien Enzyklopädie

Wechseln zu: Navigation, Suche

Siegel Arnulfs: links um 890, rechts um 896

Spätmittelalterliches Porträt Kaiser Arnulfs aus einer Handschrift des 1387 abgeschlossenen Liber Augustalis des Benvenuto de Rambaldis

Arnulf von Kärnten, auch Arnolf, Arnolph, (* um 850; † 29. November oder 8. Dezember 899 in Regensburg) aus dem Adelsgeschlecht der Karolinger war von 880 bis 899 Herzog von Kärnten, von 887 bis 899 Herzog von Bayern und ostfränkischer König, von 896 bis 899 König von Italien und von 896 bis 899 römisch-deutscher Kaiser.



   * 1 Leben

* 2 Ehe und Nachkommen
* 3 Quellen
* 4 Literatur
* 5 Weblinks
Leben [Bearbeiten]

Arnulf war ein vermutlich unehelicher Sohn des Karolingers Karlmann und der Luitswinda († vor 891), einer Schwester des nordgauischen Grafen Ernst; es ist historisch nicht sicher überliefert, ob Karlmann Arnulfs Mutter zu einem späteren Zeitpunkt noch heiratete. Arnulf wuchs auf der Mosaburch in Moosburg auf. Er wurde 876 zum „Präfekten der östlichen Marken“ (Ostmark) ernannt und war nach dem Tode seines Vaters ab 880 Herzog von Kärnten. Mit Swentopluk von Großmähren führte er jahrelang kriegerische Auseinandersetzungen.

Nach erfolgreichem Kampf gegen seinen Onkel und Vorgänger Karl den Dicken wurde Arnulf am 11. November 887 zum ostfränkischen König gekrönt. 888 zog er nach Italien, um die nach dem Tode Karls an Berengar I. übergegangene italienische Königswürde für sich zu erringen. Berengar leistete ihm den Lehnseid, verlor seinen Thron jedoch 889 an Herzog Wido II. von Spoleto. Nach Widos Tod besetzte Arnulf 894 Oberitalien erneut, verlor es aber 895 wiederum an Berengar und an Widos Sohn Lambert. Erst nach Lamberts Absetzung 896 (er gelangte 897 nochmals an die Macht und starb 898) wurde Arnulf zum römisch-deutschen Kaiser gewählt und Ende Februar desselben Jahres von Papst Formosus gekrönt; allerdings wurde diese Krönung nach seinem Abzug aus Italien und dem Tode von Papst Formosus durch dessen Nachfolger Papst Johannes IX. 898 für „nichtig“ erklärt.

Im Jahre 888 bestätigte Arnulf Odo von Paris als westfränkischen König, billigte aber 893 dessen Ersetzung durch Karl den Einfältigen, um 895 dann doch wieder auf Odos Seite zu schwenken. Erst 898 setzte sich Karl nach Odos Tod mit Arnulfs Billigung im Westfrankenreich durch.

891 (nach anderen Quellen bereits 884) gelang ihm bei Löwen in Flandern ein entscheidender Sieg über die Normannen (Wikinger), der deren Raubzüge auf dem Reichsgebiet weitgehend beendete.

Wie andere Karolinger auch litt Arnulf wahrscheinlich an Epilepsie. Er starb 899 an den Folgen eines Schlaganfalls und wurde im Kloster St. Emmeram in Regensburg beigesetzt; hier wurden später auch seine Gemahlin Oda und sein Sohn Ludwig das Kind bestattet.

Eine Gedenktafel für ihn fand Aufnahme in die Walhalla bei Regensburg.

Ehe und Nachkommen [Bearbeiten]

Arnulf heiratete um 888 Oda aus dem Geschlecht der Konradiner (* um 873; † nach 30. November 903), die ihm einen Sohn gebar:

   * Ludwig IV., das Kind (* 893; † 911), 900 König des Ostfrankenreiches

Zudem hatte er mindestens vier uneheliche Kinder:

   * Glismut (* um 866; † 26. April 924), ∞ um 880 Konrad der Ältere († 906), Graf im Oberlahngau, Wormsgau, Hessengau, Gotzfeldgau und der Wetterau, Vater des späteren Königs Konrads I. aus dem Geschlecht der Konradiner

* Zwentibold (* 870/871; † 13. August 900), 895–900 König von Lotharingien, ∞ 27. März oder 13. Juni 897 Oda von Lothringen (* 875/880; † 2.Juli nach 952), Tochter des sächsischen Herzogs Otto des Erlauchten aus dem Geschlecht der Liudolfinger
* Ratold (* um 889), 896 parvulus filius, Ahnherr der Grafen von Meran
* Ellinrat († nach 24. Mai 914), entführt von Engelschalk II., Markgraf der Ostmark; ihre Mutter hieß ebenfalls Ellinrat († nach 23. Mai 914).
Quellen [Bearbeiten]

   * Paul Kehr (Bearb.): Die Urkunden der deutschen Karolinger, 3. Die Urkunden Arnulfs (MGH Diplomata regum Germaniae ex stirpe Karolinorum 3), Berlin 1940.

Literatur [Bearbeiten]

   * Matthias Becher: Arnulf von Kärnten – Name und Abstammung eines (illegitimen?) Karolingers. In: Uwe Ludwig/ Thomas Schilp (Hrsg.): Nomen et Fraternitas, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, New York, 2008, S. 665−682, ISBN 978-3-11-020238-0.

* Ernst Dümmler: Geschichte des Ostfränkischen Reiches. Dritter Band. Die letzten Karolinger, Konrad I. Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 1960 (Nachdruck der 2. Auflage, Leipzig 1888).
* Franz Fuchs und Peter Schmid (Hrsg.): Kaiser Arnolf. Das ostfränkische Reich am Ende des 9. Jahrhunderts. Regensburger Kolloquium 9.–11.12.1999, München 2002, ISBN 3-406-10660-9. (Rezension bei H-Soz-u-Kult) und (Rezension bei Sehepunkte)
* Hagen Keller: Zum Sturz Karls III. Über die Rolle Liutwards von Vercelli und Liutberts von Mainz, Arnulfs von Kärnten und der ostfränkischen Großen bei der Absetzung des Kaisers, in: Deutsches Archiv für Erforschung des Mittelalters 22, 1966, S. 333–384; auch in: Königswahl und Thronfolge in fränkisch-karolingischer Zeit, herausgegeben von Eduard Hlawitschka (Wege der Forschung 247) Darmstadt 1975, S. 432–494.
* Max Büdinger: Arnulf (ostfränkischer König). In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Band 1. Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1875, S. 599–605.
Weblinks [Bearbeiten]

   * Literatur von und über Arnulf von Kärnten im Katalog der Deutschen Nationalbibliothek (Datensatz zu Arnulf von Kärnten • PICA-Datensatz • Apper-Personensuche)

* Veröffentlichungen zu Arnulf von Kärnten im Opac der Regesta Imperii
Vorgänger Amt Nachfolger

Karlmann Herzog von Kärnten

880–899 Ludwig das Kind

Karl III. König des Ostfrankenreiches


Herzog von Bayern


Lambert von Spoleto König von Italien

896–899 Ludwig der Blinde

Römischer Kaiser (Gegenkaiser)


Normdaten: PND: 118650440 | VIAF: 10639440 | WP-Personeninfo

Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am 17. Juli 2010 um 10:12 Uhr geändert.

view all 26

Arnulf, Emperor of the West's Timeline

Carinthia, Sachsen, Germany
Regensburg, Upper Palatinate, BY, Germany
- December 8, 899
Age 37
Ducato di Baviera, Ratisbona, Baviera, Germany
November 17, 887
- December 8, 899
Age 42
Regno dei Franchi orientali, Ratisbona, Baviera, Germany
September 893
Altötting, Bavaria