Count Bernard of Anhalt, Duke of Saxony

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Bernhard III von Sachsen (Askanier), Herzog von Sachsen, Graf von Askanien und Ballenstedt, Herr zu B

Norwegian: Hertug av Sachsen Bernhard III Albertssøn, Herzog von Sachsen, Graf von Askanien und Ballenstedt, Herr zu B, German: Bernhard von Sachsen-Wittenberg, Herzog von Sachsen, Graf von Askanien und Ballenstedt, Herr zu B
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Dresden, Sachsen, Deutschland (HRR)
Death: February 09, 1212 (67-76)
Ballenstedt, Anhalt, Deutschland(HRR)
Place of Burial: Ballenstedt, Kloster Ballenstedt, Sachsen, Deutschland(HRR)
Immediate Family:

Son of Albrecht I "The Bear", Margrave of Brandenburg and Sophie von Bayern und Sachsen
Husband of Judyta von Anhalt; Brigitte of Denmark, Countess of Anhalt and Sophia von Thüringen
Father of Albrecht I, Duke of Saxony-Wittenberg; Hedwig von Ballenstedt; Magnus von Sachsen-Wittenberg, Prinz; Sister Sophie Adelheid?, Duchess of Saxony-Wittenberg, Prinzessin, Äbtissin zu Gernrode; Heinrich I der Fette von Anhalt-Zerbst, Fürst zu Anhalt and 1 other
Brother of Otto I von Brandenburg, Markgraf; Christine Prinzessin von Sachsen; Gertrud|Sibylle von Brandenburg; Hermann I. Graf von Weimar-Orlamünde; Hedwig von Ballenstedt, Princess of Brandenburg and 7 others

Occupation: Hertig, Greve
Managed by: Günther Kipp
Last Updated:

About Count Bernard of Anhalt, Duke of Saxony

BERNHARD von Ballenstedt, son of ALBRECHT "der Bär" Markgraf von Brandenburg [Ballenstedt] & his wife Sophie von Winzenburg (1140-Bernburg 9 Feb 1212, bur Ballenstedt St Nikolai). A 13th century genealogy names (in order) "Albertum, Berenhardum, Fridericum, Hermannum de Horlamund et Zeifridum Bremensem archiepiscopum" as the five sons of "Albertus de Hanhalde marchio"[568]. "Adelbertus…marchio Brandenburgensis" donated property to the convent at Magdeburg, with the consent of "filiorum meorum Heinrici canonici sancti Mauritii in Magdaburg, Ottonis marchionis, Hermanni, Adelberti, Theoderici et Bernhardi comitum", by charter dated [end May/early Jun] 1151[569]. Graf von Aschersleben und Graf von Anhalt 1170. "Alberto Brandenburgensi marchione, Ottone filio eius…Hermanno comite de Horlemunde filio eius, Theoderico comite de Werben filio eius, Alberto comite de Balstede filio eius, Bernardo comite de Anehalt filio eius…" witnessed the charter dated 1170 under which "Cazimerus…Pomeranorum princeps" donated property to the church of Havelberg, with the consent of "fratre nostro Boguzlao"[570]. "Bernhardus…comes in Aschersleve" confirmed possessions of Marienthal, by charter dated 1174[571]. In 1175, Heinrich "der Löwe" Duke of Saxony invaded Graf Bernhard's territory in support of the claim by Ludwig III Landgraf of Thuringia to the county of Weimar, sacked Gröningen near Halberstadt and captured Aschersleben, although Graf Bernhard was able to retain possession of Weimar[572]. Herzog von Westfalen und Engern 1179. He was installed as BERNHARD Duke of Saxony at Gelnhausen 13 Apr 1180 after Emperor Friedrich I "Barbarossa" deprived Heinrich "der Löwe" Duke of Bavaria and Saxony of his titles, although the territory of the duchy was split with the separated duchy of Westfalia being transferred to the archbishop of Köln[573]. "Bernhardus dux Angarie et Westfalie et comes de Aschersleve" confirmed the donation to Kloster Obernkirchen by "frater noster Theodericus comes de Werbene" by charter dated end-Sep 1181[574]. Bernhard constructed the castle of Lauenburg with material from the fortress of Ertheneburg[575]. m JUDYTA of Poland, daughter of MIESZKO III "Stary/the Old" Prince of Greater Poland, Prince of Krakow & his first wife Erszébet of Hungary (-after 12 Dec 1201). The Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum refers to, but does not name, the daughters of Mieszko III, naming (second in the list) "dux Saxonie" as his son-in-law[576]. A 13th century genealogy refers to the wife of "Berenhardum [filius Albertus de Hanhalde marchio]" as "ducis Polonie filiam"[577]. The Cronica Principum Saxonie names "Iuttam filiam Mesechonis ducis Polonie" as wife of "Bernardus dux Saxonie"[578]. Duke Bernhard & his wife had five children: 1. MAGNUS (-young). The Cronica Principum Saxonie names (in order) "Albertum ducem Saxonie et Henricum comitem de Anahalt et Magonem" as sons of "Bernardus dux Saxonie" & his wife[579]. 2. HEINRICH ([1170]-[8 May 1251/17 May 1252], bur Ballenstedt). The Chronicon Montis Serreni names "Heinricum comitem Ascharie et Albertum ducem" as sons of "Bernhardi ducis"[580]. He succeeded his father in 1212 as HEINRICH I "der Fette" Graf von Anhalt. Graf von Aschersleben 1213. - GRAFEN von ANHALT. 3. ALBRECHT (-[27 Sep/7 Nov] 1260, bur Lehnin). The Chronicon Montis Serreni names "Heinricum comitem Ascharie et Albertum ducem" as sons of "Bernhardi ducis"[581]. He succeeded his father in 1212 as ALBRECHT I Duke of Saxony. - see below. 4. ADELHEID (-16 Jul 1244). The primary source which confirms her parentage has not so far been identified. Abbess of Gernrode 1221. 5. HEDWIG . The Genealogica Wettinens is refers to the wife of "Olricus comes filius Heinrici marchionis" as "filiam Bernhardi ducis Saxonie" but does not name her[582]. The Chronicon Montis Serreni names "filia Bernhardi ducis Hetwige" as wife of "Ulricus comes de Witin, filius Heinrici, filii marchionis Conradi senioris"[583]. m (before 1204) as his second wife, ULRICH Graf von Wettin, son of HEINRICH [I] Graf von Wettin & his wife Sophie --- (-Wettin 28 Sep 1206, bur Petersberg).

Bernhard III, Herzog von Sachsen http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bernhard_III._%28Sachsen%29

Bernard III, Duke of Saxony http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bernard_III,_Duke_of_Saxony&redirect=no

Bernhard, Count of Anhalt http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bernhard,_Count_of_Anhalt

Bernhard, Count of Anhalt (c. 1140 – 2 February 1212) was a member of the House of Ascania and by paternal inheritance, Count of Anhalt and Ballenstedt and Lord of Bernburg. Since 1180 he was also Duke of Saxony as Bernhard III.


Bernhard, Herzog von Sachsen (* 1140; † 9. Februar 1212 in Ballenstedt) war Herzog von Sachsen, Markgraf der Nordmark, Graf von Anhalt und Ballenstedt, Herr zu Bernburg.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bernhard,_Count_of_Anhalt

Bernhard, Count of Anhalt (c. 1140 – 2 February 1212) was a German prince of the House of Ascania, Count of Anhalt and Ballenstedt, and Lord of Bernburg through his paternal inheritance. From 1180 he was also Duke of Saxony as Bernhard III.

Early years

Bernhard was the youngest of the seven sons of Albert the Bear, Margrave of Brandenburg and Duke of Saxony, by his wife Sophie of Winzenburg. In 1157 he was present together with his father and brothers at the funeral of Conrad the Great, a member of the House of Wettin and Margrave of Meissen. In 1159, Bernhard accompanied the emperor Frederick I Barbarossa to Italy with his brother Otto. After the death of his father in 1170, Bernhard inherited the states of Anhalt and the district of Ascaria (Aschersleben) as well as the former Gau Serimunt between the Saalde, Mulde, and Elbe rivers.

After the death of his brother Albert in 1172 without male issue, Bernhard also inherited his County of Ballenstedt. In the same year he solicited the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa in the Reichstag of Goslar for possession of Plötzkau, which passed to him in 1173. A dispute over control over the County of Plötzkau led to a war with Henry the Lion that led to the destruction of Aschersleben and Gröningen and nearly resulted in the destruction of Halberstadt. Bernhard nonetheless was able to confirm his possession of Plötzkau.

[edit] Fall of Henry the Lion

When Henry the Lion was outlawed by the Emperor in 1180, the Reichstag also dispossessed him of his fiefs (Würzburg and the Duchies of Bavaria and Saxony). In Gelnhausen on 13 April 1180, Bernhard was granted the eastern part of the Welf lands, including the Archbishopric of Bremen-Hamburg, which was passed on to his elder brother Siegfried, and the Duchy of Saxony. This latter award was without real value, however, since this duchy was a radically reduced territory consisting of three unconnected parcels of land along the river Elbe: (1) Hadeln around Otterndorf, (2) a parcel around Lauenburg upon Elbe and (3) a parcel around Wittenberg upon Elbe. Previously the duchy had been divided, so that Bernhard could only receive the region between Meissen and the Mark of Brandenburg as his formal possession. Besides these, he also received several small territories: the towns of Aken and Wittenberg and the Burgraviate of Magdeburg. The dignity Duke of Saxony, Angria and Westphalia was only an empty title. The rich lands of Engern and Westphalia, in addition to the ducal title of Highness, were conferred on the Archbishopric-Electorate of Cologne. The counts of Holstein were released from their homage to the Saxon dukes, the County of Stade was taken by the Archbishop of Bremen, Lübeck became an Imperial City, the Saxon Palatinate was bestowed on Count Hermann of Thuringia and, in addition, the Saxon bishops took back their fiefs. Bernhard was forced to support the Emperor in his renewed war against Henry the Lion in 1181. In spite of his defeat, Henry the Lion was able to preserve his Allodial title, from which the Duchy of Brunswick and Lüneburg was later formed.

[edit] Ruling as Duke of Saxony

In Nordalbingien and the areas between the Elbe and the Baltic Sea, Bernhard's vassals soon rebelled against him and gave their support to Henry the Lion. Bernhard tried to assert his claims, thanks to the support of his brothers Otto I of Brandenburg and Siegfried, Archbishop of Bremen. At first the vassals of Artlenburg swore an oath of fidelity. After them, the counts of Ratzeburg, Danneberg, Luckow and Schwerin also swore. However, the most powerful of these vassals, Count Adolf of Holstein, would not accept the Bernhard's lordship and became his adversary. Conflicts broke out around Dithmarschen, in western Holstein, but without success for Adolf.

After Adolf's defeat, Lauenburg (Polabenburg) on the lower Elbe, became the focal point for opposition to Bernhard's rule. Determined to eliminate the opposition against him in his lands, he leavied high taxes on rebellious territories, which led to an attack against Lauenburg and its destruction in 1182.

In 1183 another of Bernhard's brothers, Count Dietrich of Werben died without surviving male issue. His possessions fell mostly to Bernhard.

Warfare involving Henry the Lion also expanded to the Slavic countries. Henry Borwin I, the son of Pribislav, was a supporter of Henry the Lion like his father, and remained an opponent of Bernhard. His cousin Nicholas I (Niklot), granted Burg Malchow by Henry the Lion in 1164, lost part of it due to his association with Bernhard. Borwin allied himself with Duke Bogislaw I of Pomerania and Nicholas with Prince Jaromir I of Rügen, a faithful vassal of Denmark. But shortly after Bogislaw had to punish Borwin (in response to a secret order of the emperor) with the help of King Canute VI of Denmark for his refusal to render homage, by which his lands were split between the Elbe and Or to the Empire and Denmark. Borwin was taken into captivity by King Canute and was forced, like Nicholas, to accept his lands from the king as fiefs. After incursions of the Danes in Pomerania in 1184 and 1185, Bogislaw shared the same destiny.

With the success of the Danes, the Emperor in 1184 pressed for a political balance between Bernhard and his vassal. Count Adolf of Holstein kept the regions disputed between them, however he had to pay 700 marks to Bernhard and swear the oath of fidelity that he had earlier refused to do. Counts Bernhard of Ratzeburg and Gunzelin of Schwerin were also obliged to make payments. The destroyed Lauenburg had to be rebuilt.

However, after Henry's return in 1188 it came again to discussions with Bernhard, who finally lost the town of Bardowick.

As Duke of Saxony, Bernhard became at the same time Marshal of the Holy Roman empire. He asserted this important post for the first time in 1190 at the coronation of Emperor Henry VI, but spoiled his good terms with the Emperor through his opposition to turning over the hereditary German crown to the House of Hohenstaufen. In 1198 he supported Philipp of Swabia as Emperor. Philipp was killed on 21 June 1208 by Otto of Wittelsbach at Altenburg in Bamberg. Thereupon a new imperial election was held in Halberstadt and (with Bernhard's vote included) Otto of Brunswick was elected on 22 September and crowned immediately in Frankfurt.

With his acquisition of Saxon estates, Bernhard moved his residence and court to Wittenberg. In 1260 (with effect as from 1296 on) his grandsons split the Duchy into the Duchies of Saxe-Wittenberg (German: Herzogtum Sachsen-Wittenberg) and Saxe-Lauenburg (German: Herzogtum Sachsen-Lauenburg), the latter holding the unconnected two northern territories. Wittenberg remained a residence of the House of Ascania until the extinction of this line in 1422. On his death, aged seventy-two, Bernhard was buried beside his father Albert and several of his brothers in the Church of the Benedictine monastery in Ballenstedt.

[edit] Marriage and Issue

Bernhard first married Brigitte (or Jutta), a daughter of Canute V of Denmark; secondly Sophia, daughter of Louis II, the Iron, Landgrave of Thuringia; and thirdly Judith (b. bef. 1154 – d. aft. 12 December 1201), daughter of Mieszko III the Old, Duke of Greater Poland and High Duke of all Poland.

   * First marriage:
  1. Albert I, Duke of Saxony (b. ca. 1175 – d. 7 October / 8 November? 1260).
  2. Sophia (or Adelheid?), (d. 16 July 1244), Abbess of Gernrode (1221–44).
  3. Henry I, Count of Anhalt (b. ca. 1170 – d. 1252).
  4. Magnus (d. young)
  5. Hedwig, married ca. 1204 Count Ulrich of Wettin
   * Second marriage:
  1. John, Provost in Halberstadt (1256)

General Notes:

Da Knud IV i 1182 hadde overtatt makten i Danmark, meldte problemet i forholdet til keiseren seg igjen. Men Frederik Barbarossa var for opptatt av større oppgaver til å kunne ta seg av nordiske forhold. Han krevde derfor etter Valdemar den Stores død at Knud skulle komme ned til ham og avlegge lenseden, slik hans far hadde gjort. Dette ble avvist. Barbarossa truet da med å ta lenet fra Knud og gi det til en annen. Knud svarte at keiseren i så fall først måtte finne en annen. Man mente i Danmark at keiseren ikke kunne begynne et felttog mot nord, eller at noen av hans lendmenn var oppgaven voksen.

Den nye sachserhertug, Bernhard av Anhalt, hadde ikke samme styrke som Henrik Løve, og kunne neppe bli en trussel mot det danske riket.

 Noted events in his life were:

• Acceded: Duke of Saxony, Cir 1170-1180.


Hertig Bernhard III av Sachsen, född omkring 1140, död i Bernburg 9 februari 1212, begravd i Kloster Ballenstedt, greve av Aschersleben, greve av Anhalt 1170-1212, hertig av Sachsen 1180-1212. Son till hertig Albrekt Björnen (död 1170) och Sophie av Winzenburg (död 1160).

Bernhard erhöll vid faderns död och den påföljande delningen av det askaniska arvet 1170 grevskapet Aschersleben. 1171 ärvde han Ballenstedt efter brodern Adalbert. Bernhard deltog i rikskriget mot welfiske hertig Henrik Lejonet varunder Henrik lät bränna Aschersleben. Efter att Henrik störtats 1180 förlänade kejsar Fredrik I "Barbarossa" Bernhard östra halvan av hertigdömet Sachsen (Sachsen-Wittenberg), dock ej utan motstånd från såväl andliga som världsliga furstar och grevar vilka eftersträvade större autonomi. Västra halvan av hertigdömet Sachsen förlänades kyrkan i Köln. Medan Bernhard i Westfalen och Engern avstod från utövande av inflytande gjorde han anspråk på högheten över grevskapen Holstein, Ratzeburg, Schwerin, Lüchow och Dannenberg, utan att helt lyckas med sina avsikter. Welfernas växande inflytande och kejsarens inkonsekventa hållning förorsakade Bernhard svårigheter, och 1189/1190 förjagades han ur Holstein och Schwerin av den återvändande Henrik Lejonet. Bernhard lyckades efter detta hävda sin hertigliga makt i Ostfalen.

1197 föreslogs Bernhard till tysk tronkandidat, detta på inrådan av ärkebiskop Adolf av Köln. Bernhard avböjde dock kandidaturen och förblev staufern Philip av Schwaben trogen i kampen mot welfiske motkungen Otto IV. Först efter Philips död 1208 övergick Bernhard till Otto IV:s parti. Såsom varande Ottos anhängare kunde Bernhard hävda de gamla sachsiska länsanspråken över Pommern, Mecklenburg och Polen, dock ej utan att råka i gräl med sina kusiner i Brandenburg vilka förde samma anspråk.

1203 vann Bernhard Ratzeburg-Lauenburg men miste det omgående till Danmark. Han ingrep i de danska brödrakrigen och understödde ärkebiskop Valdemar av Schleswig-Bremen. Det var under ett fälttåg till Bremen till stöd för Valdemar som den högt ansedde hertig Bernhard avled.

De askaniska stamlanden utgjorde kärnan i hertig Bernhards besittningar. Efter Bernhards död 1212 tillföll de askaniska besittningarna mellan Harz och mellersta Elbe äldste sonen Henrik (linjen Anhalt). Yngre sonen Albrekt blev hertig av Sachsen i Wittenberg.


Hertug av Sachsen 1170 (1180?) - 1212.

Da Knud IV i 1182 hadde overtatt makten i Danmark, meldte problemet i forholdet til keiseren seg igjen. Men Frederik Barbarossa var for opptatt av større oppgaver til å kunne ta seg av nordiske forhold. Han krevde derfor etter Valdemar den Stores død at Knud skulle komme ned til ham og avlegge lenseden, slik hans far hadde gjort. Dette ble avvist. Barbarossa truet da med å ta lenet fra Knud og gi det til en annen. Knud svarte at keiseren i så fall først måtte finne en annen. Man mente i Danmark at keiseren ikke kunne begynne et felttog mot nord, eller at noen av hans lendmenn var oppgaven voksen.

Den nye sachserhertug, Bernhard av Anhalt, hadde ikke samme styrke som Henrik Løve, og kunne neppe bli en trussel mot det danske riket.

Tekst: Tore Nygaard

Kilder:

Politiken's Danmarks Historie, Bind 3 (1969), side 338. Erich Brandenburg: Die Nachkommen Karls des Grossen, Leipzig 1935. Allgemeine deutsche Biographie. Mogens Bugge: Våre forfedre, nr. 1116. Bent og Vidar Billing Hansen: Rosensverdslektens forfedre, side 20.


Bernhard, Count of Anhalt

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 (Redirected from Bernard III, Duke of Saxony)

Bernhard, Count of Anhalt (c. 1140 – 2 February 1212) was a German prince of the House of Ascania, Count of Anhalt and Ballenstedt, and Lord of Bernburg through his paternal inheritance. From 1180 he was also Duke of Saxony as Bernhard III or Bernhard I.[1]

Life

[edit]Early years

Bernhard was the youngest of the seven sons of Albert the Bear, Margrave of Brandenburg and Duke of Saxony, by his wife Sophie of Winzenburg. In 1157 he was present together with his father and brothers at the funeral of Conrad the Great, a member of the House of Wettin and Margrave of Meissen. In 1159, Bernhard accompanied the emperor Frederick I Barbarossa to Italy with his brother Otto. After the death of his father in 1170, Bernhard inherited the states of Anhalt and the district of Ascaria (Aschersleben) as well as the former Gau Serimunt between the Saale, Mulde, and Elbe rivers.

After the death of his brother Albert in 1172 without male issue, Bernhard also inherited his County of Ballenstedt. In the same year he solicited the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa in the Reichstag of Goslar for possession of Plötzkau, which passed to him in 1173. A dispute over control over the County of Plötzkau led to a war with Henry the Lion that led to the destruction of Aschersleben and Gröningen and nearly resulted in the destruction of Halberstadt. Bernhard nonetheless was able to confirm his possession of Plötzkau.

[edit]Fall of Henry the Lion

When Henry the Lion was outlawed by the Emperor in 1180, the Reichstag also dispossessed him of his fiefs (Würzburg and the Duchies of Bavaria and Saxony). In Gelnhausen on 13 April 1180, Bernhard was granted the eastern part of the Welf lands, including the Archbishopric of Bremen-Hamburg, which was passed on to his elder brother Siegfried, and the Duchy of Saxony. This latter award was without real value, however, since this duchy was a radically reduced territory consisting of three unconnected parcels of land along the river Elbe: (1) Hadeln around Otterndorf, (2) a parcel around Lauenburg upon Elbe and (3) a parcel around Wittenberg upon Elbe. Previously the duchy had been divided, so that Bernhard could only receive the region between Meissen and the Mark of Brandenburg as his formal possession. Besides these, he also received several small territories: the towns of Aken and Wittenberg and the Burgraviate of Magdeburg. The dignity Duke of Saxony, Angria and Westphalia was only an empty title. The rich lands of Engern and Westphalia, in addition to the ducal title of Highness, were conferred on the Archbishopric-Electorate of Cologne. The counts of Holstein were released from their homage to the Saxon dukes, the County of Stade was taken by the Archbishop of Bremen, Lübeck became an Imperial City, the Saxon Palatinate was bestowed on Count Hermann of Thuringia and, in addition, the Saxon bishops took back their fiefs. Bernhard was forced to support the Emperor in his renewed war against Henry the Lion in 1181. In spite of his defeat, Henry the Lion was able to preserve his Allodial title, from which the Duchy of Brunswick and Lüneburg was later formed.

[edit]Ruling as Duke of Saxony

In Nordalbingien and the areas between the Elbe and the Baltic Sea, Bernhard's vassals soon rebelled against him and gave their support to Henry the Lion. Bernhard tried to assert his claims, thanks to the support of his brothers Otto I of Brandenburg and Siegfried, Archbishop of Bremen. At first the vassals of Artlenburg swore an oath of fidelity. After them, the counts of Ratzeburg, Danneberg, Luckow and Schwerin also swore. However, the most powerful of these vassals, Count Adolf of Holstein, would not accept the Bernhard's lordship and became his adversary. Conflicts broke out around Dithmarschen, in western Holstein, but without success for Adolf.

After Adolf's defeat, Lauenburg (Polabenburg) on the lower Elbe, became the focal point for opposition to Bernhard's rule. Determined to eliminate the opposition against him in his lands, he levied high taxes on rebellious territories, which led to an attack against Lauenburg and its destruction in 1182, followed by the restoration of the fortress.[2]

In 1183 another of Bernhard's brothers, Count Dietrich of Werben died without surviving male issue. His possessions fell mostly to Bernhard.

Warfare involving Henry the Lion also expanded to the Slavic countries. Henry Borwin I, the son of Pribislav, was a supporter of Henry the Lion like his father, and remained an opponent of Bernhard. His cousin Nicholas I (Niklot), granted Burg Malchow by Henry the Lion in 1164, lost part of it due to his association with Bernhard. Borwin allied himself with Duke Bogislaw I of Pomerania and Nicholas with Prince Jaromir I of Rügen, a faithful vassal of Denmark. But shortly after Bogislaw had to punish Borwin (in response to a secret order of the emperor) with the help of King Canute VI of Denmark for his refusal to render homage, by which his lands were split between the Elbe and Or to the Empire and Denmark. Borwin was taken into captivity by King Canute and was forced, like Nicholas, to accept his lands from the king as fiefs. After incursions of the Danes in Pomerania in 1184 and 1185, Bogislaw shared the same destiny.

With the success of the Danes, the Emperor in 1184 pressed for a political balance between Bernhard and his vassal. Count Adolf of Holstein kept the regions disputed between them, however he had to pay 700 marks to Bernhard and swear the oath of fidelity that he had earlier refused to do. Counts Bernhard of Ratzeburg and Gunzelin of Schwerin were also obliged to make payments. The destroyed Lauenburg had to be rebuilt.

However, after Henry's return in 1188 it came again to discussions with Bernhard, who finally lost the town of Bardowick.

As Duke of Saxony, Bernhard became at the same time Marshal of the Holy Roman empire. He asserted this important post for the first time in 1190 at the coronation of Emperor Henry VI, but spoiled his good terms with the Emperor through his opposition to turning over the hereditary German crown to the House of Hohenstaufen. In 1198 he supported Philipp of Swabia as Emperor. Philipp was killed on 21 June 1208 by Otto of Wittelsbach at Altenburg in Bamberg. Thereupon a new imperial election was held in Halberstadt and (with Bernhard's vote included) Otto of Brunswick was elected on 22 September and crowned immediately in Frankfurt as Otto IV.

Otto IV, who meanwhile had fallen out with Pope Innocent III over Sicily, supported the reascension of Valdemar, the papally dismissed Prince-Archbishop of Bremen.[3] So in 1211 Bernhard escorted his brother-in-law Valdemar into the city of Bremen, de facto regaining the see.

With his acquisition of Saxon estates, Bernhard moved his residence and court to Wittenberg. In 1260 (with effect as from 1296 on) his grandsons split the Duchy into the Duchies of Saxe-Wittenberg (German: Herzogtum Sachsen-Wittenberg) and Saxe-Lauenburg (German: Herzogtum Sachsen-Lauenburg), the latter holding the unconnected two northern territories. Wittenberg remained a residence of the House of Ascania until the extinction of this line in 1422. On his death, aged seventy-two, Bernhard was buried beside his father Albert and several of his brothers in the Church of the Benedictine monastery in Ballenstedt.

[edit]Marriage and issue

Bernhard first married Brigitte (or Jutta), a daughter of Canute V of Denmark; secondly Sophia, daughter of Louis II, the Iron, Landgrave of Thuringia; and thirdly Judith (b. bef. 1154 – d. aft. 12 December 1201), daughter of Mieszko III the Old, Duke of Greater Poland and High Duke of all Poland.

First marriage:

Albert I, Duke of Saxony (b. ca. 1175 – d. 7 October / 8 November? 1260).

Sophia (or Adelheid?), (d. 16 July 1244), Abbess of Gernrode (1221–44).

Henry I, Count of Anhalt (b. ca. 1170 – d. 1252).

Magnus (d. young)

Hedwig (ca. 1175–after 1206), in ca. 1204 she became the second wife of Count Ulrich I of Wettin, son of Sophia of Sommerschenburg and Henry I, Count of Wettin (27 February 1142–30 August 1181[4])

Second marriage:

John, Provost in Halberstadt (1256)

[edit]Notes

^ Different counting traditions developed, following the arguments, that Bernhard's dukedom was either (1) a successor of the old stem duchy of Saxony, with its two prior dukes named Bernhard or (2) the sharply belittled territorial rest of Saxony remaining after the carve-up of the old duchy in 1180 formed the so-called Younger Duchy of Saxony, whose first duke of this name was then Count Bernhard of Anhalt. Bernhard's great-great-great-great grandson of the same name is thus counted as Bernhard II. Both traditions compete, more so with Bernard sometimes counted I or III, less so with his son Albert I, who is usually counted first, although his grandfather Albert the Bear was the first Saxon duke of that name between 1138 and 1142, however, before the carve-up.

^ Cordula Bornefeld, "Die Herzöge von Sachsen-Lauenburg", in: Die Fürsten des Landes: Herzöge und Grafen von Schleswig, Holstein und Lauenburg [De slevigske hertuger; German], Carsten Porskrog Rasmussen (ed.) on behalf of the Gesellschaft für Schleswig-Holsteinische Geschichte, Neumünster: Wachholtz, 2008, pp. 373-389, here p. 383. ISBN 978-3-529-02606-5

^ Adolf Hofmeister, "Der Kampf um das Erbe des Stader Grafen zwischen den Welfen und der Bremer Kirche (1144–1236)", In: Geschichte des Landes zwischen Elbe und Weser: 3 vols., Hans-Eckhard Dannenberg and Heinz-Joachim Schulze (eds.) on behalf of the Landschaftsverband der ehemaligen Herzogtümer Bremen und Verden, Stade: Landschaftsverband der ehem. Herzogtümer Bremen und Verden, 1995 and 2008, (Schriftenreihe des Landschaftsverbandes der ehem. Herzogtümer Bremen und Verden; No. 7), vol. II: Mittelalter (1995), pp. 105–157, here p. 119. ISBN 978-3-9801919-8-2

^ Ulrich's maternal grandmother was Queen Dowager Lutgard of Salzwedel and his paternal grandfather was Margrave Conrad the Great.


http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bernhard_III._%28Sachsen%29

Bernhard, Herzog von Sachsen (* 1140; † 9. Februar 1212 in Ballenstedt) war Herzog von Sachsen, Markgraf der Nordmark, Graf von Anhalt und Ballenstedt, Herr zu Bernburg.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

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   * 1 Leben
         o 1.1 Zeitraum des Sturzes von Heinrich dem Löwen
         o 1.2 Bernhards Wirken als Sachsenherzog
         o 1.3 Wirkung
   * 2 Ehe und Kinder
   * 3 Literatur
   * 4 Weblinks

Leben [Bearbeiten]

Bernhard war der jüngste Sohn Albrechts des Bären aus dem Geschlecht der Askanier und der Sophie von Winzenburg. Er wurde 1140 geboren. Im Jahre 1157 wohnte er zusammen mit seinem Vater und seinen Brüdern dem Begräbnis Konrads des Großen bei. Im Jahre 1159 begleitet Bernhard nebst seinem Bruder Otto, Kaiser Friedrich I. Barbarossa auf dessen Italienzug. Nach dem Tod seines Vaters erhielt er 1170 als anhaltische Hausbesitzungen den Bezirk von Ascaria (Aschersleben) sowie den ehemaligen Gau Serimunt zwischen Saale, Mulde und Elbe.

Nach dem Tode seines Bruders Adalbert (Albert) von Ballenstedt, wurde er 1171 Graf von Ballenstedt. Im selben Jahr erhielt er von Friedrich Barbarossa auf dem Reichstage zu Goslar das Heimfallsrecht auf die Herrschaft Plötzkau (Plötzke), die 1173 in seinen Besitz überging. Die Grafschaft Plötzkau wurde ihm von Heinrich dem Löwen mit einem Krieg streitig gemacht. Dabei zerstörte dieser Aschersleben und Gröningen und verwüstete Halberstadt. Dennoch konnte sich Bernhard in dieser Auseinandersetzung behaupten.

Zeitraum des Sturzes von Heinrich dem Löwen [Bearbeiten]

Als Heinrich der Löwe 1180 durch Kaiser Friedrich Barbarossa geächtet wurde, verlor dieser auf dem Reichstag zu Würzburg seine Lehen, die Herzogtümer Bayern und Sachsen. Daraufhin erhielt Bernhard am 13. April 1180 auf dem Hoftag zu Gelnhausen mit der Gelnhäuser Urkunde den östlichen Teil der welfischen Lande und das Bistum Bremen mit der sächsischen Herzogswürde. Diese Verleihung des Herzogtums Sachsen war jedoch ohne reellen Wert.

Zuvor war das Herzogtum aufgeteilt worden, so dass es als Länderbesitz nur den Landstrich zwischen der Mark Meißen und der Mark Brandenburg ausmachte. Dabei wurden ihm die Gebiete um Aken und Wittenberg sowie einige andere Besitzungen wie die Burggrafschaft Magdeburg übertragen. Die Würde eines Herzogs von Sachsen war nur ein „leerer“ Titel, denn die einst von Heinrich dem Löwen besessenen Länder Engern und Westfalen nebst den herzoglichen Hoheitsrechten hatte sich der Erzbischof von Köln verschafft. Die Grafen von Holstein wurden von der Lehnshoheit der sächsischen Herzöge entbunden, die Grafschaft Stade kam an das Erzbistum Bremen, Lübeck wurde Reichsstadt, die Pfalzgrafschaft Sachsen ging 1179 an Ludwig III. von Thüringen; zusätzlich nahmen die sächsischen Bischöfe ihre Lehen zurück. Dafür musste Bernhard 1181 den Kaiser bei der Reichsheerfahrt gegen Heinrich den Löwen unterstützen. Im November 1181 unterwarf sich Heinrich dem Kaiser auf dem Reichstag von Erfurt. Erst zu diesem Zeitpunkt erhielt Bernhard von Sachsen neben dem Territorium auch den sächsischen Herzogstitel zugesprochen. Nach der Niederwerfung Heinrichs konnte dieser seine Allodialgüter retten, aus denen später das Herzogtum Braunschweig gebildet wurde.

Bernhards Wirken als Sachsenherzog [Bearbeiten]

In Nordalbingien und den Gebieten zwischen Elbe und Ostsee lehnten sich die Lehnsleute bald gegen ihn auf. Nachdem dieser zurückgekehrt war, fanden sie in Heinrich dem Löwen Unterstützung. Bernhard versuchte seine Ansprüche durchzusetzen und wurde dabei von seinen Brüdern, vor allem Otto I., Markgraf von Brandenburg, und Siegfried, nunmehr Erzbischof von Bremen, unterstützt. Als erstes sollten die Vasallen seines Gebietes, bei einem Tag zu Artlenburg, den Eid der Treue schwören. Es kamen die Grafen zu Ratzeburg, Danneberg, Luckow und Schwerin. Der mächtigste aber, Graf Adolf von Holstein, kam nicht und wurde in dessen Folge zunächst sein Widersacher. Streitereinen um die Dithmarschen, das westliche Holstein, entbrannten, welches er von seinem Bruder Siegfried als bremisches Lehen erhielt, welcher es so aus der Gewalt des Grafen von Holstein zu entreißen hoffte, allerdings ohne Erfolg.

Bernhard begann nun mit dem Bau der Lauenburg (Polabenburg) an der unteren Elbe, um wenigstens einen festen Punkt am rechten Elbufer zu haben. Bestimmte, ihm feindlich gesinnte Gebiete, belastete er mit hohen Steuern, wodurch es zu einem Angriff gegen die Lauenburg kam und diese 1182 zerstört wurde.

Im Jahr 1183 starb Bernhards Bruder Dietrich von Werben ohne Erben, sein Besitz fiel zum größten Teil an Bernhard.

Der Streit weitete sich nun auch auf die Slawenländer aus. Heinrich Borwin I., der Sohn von Pribislaw, war wie sein Vater ein Anhänger Heinrichs des Löwen, zudem Gemahl von dessen Tochter Mathilde, hielt es somit mit Bernhards Gegnern. Sein Vetter Nikolaus I. (Niklot), der Sohn von Wratislaw von Mecklenburg, den Heinrich 1164 in seiner erstürmten Burg Malchow hatte hängen lassen, ergriff Partei für Bernhard. Um die Freunde Bernhards zu schwächen fielen die aufrührerischen Vasallen in slawische Gebiete ein und verjagten Niclot. Borwin verband sich mit dem Pommernherzog Bogislaw I. und Niclot mit den Fürsten Jaromir I. von Rügen, der ein treuer Lehnsmann der Dänen war. Bogislaw hatte nun den heimlichen Auftrag vom Kaiser den Dänenkönig Knut VI. für seine Huldigungsverweigerung zu bestrafen, wodurch das Land zwischen der Elbe und Oder in eine dänische und deutsche Partei gespalten wurde. Borwin geriet in Gefangenschaft des Dänenkönigs und musste, wie Niclot, sein Land vom Dänenkönig zu Lehen nehmen. Nach verheerenden Einfällen der Dänen in Pommern in den Jahren 1184 und 1185, ereilte Bogislaw dasselbe Schicksal.

Durch den Erfolg der Dänen drängte der Kaiser 1184 zu einem Ausgleich zwischen Bernhard und seinen Vasallen. Graf Adolf III. von Holstein sollte die strittigen Landstriche behalten, musste dafür aber 700 Mark an Bernhard bezahlen und den verweigerten Lehnseid leisten. Graf Bernhard von Ratzeburg und Graf Gunzelin von Schwerin wurden auch zu Zahlungen verpflichtet. Die zerstörte Lauenburg sollte von allen gemeinsam wieder aufgebaut werden. Spätestens nach der zweiten Verbannung Heinrich des Löwen 1188, hielt es Graf Adolf mit dem neuen Oberherren, in der Hoffnung mit ihm sein verlorenes Land wieder zu bekommen.

Nach Heinrichs Rückkehr 1188 kam es erneut zu Auseinandersetzungen, bei denen Bernhard Bardowick (im Lüneburgischen) verlor.

Mit der Herzogswürde an Sachsen fiel ihm auch die Kurwürde zu, womit er zugleich Erzmarschall des Heiligen Römischen Reiches wurde. Dieses wichtige Kurrecht konnte er erstmalig 1190 bei der Krönung Kaiser Heinrich des VI. anwenden. Auch machte er dessen Unterfangen durch seinen Widerspruch zunichte, die deutsche Krone an sein Haus erblich zu binden. 1198 wählte er Philipp von Schwaben zum Kaiser. Dieser wurde jedoch am 21. Juni 1208 von Otto von Wittelsbach auf der Altenburg in Bamberg erschlagen. Daraufhin wurde eine neue Kaiserwahl anberaumt und man einigte sich mit der Stimme Bernhards in Halberstadt am 22. September auf Otto den IV. als Kaiser, der darauf in Frankfurt gekrönt wurde.

Bernhard begründete das sächsische Wappen. Dazu legte er über den alten Schild des askanischen Hauses die fünf schwarzen Balken im goldenen Felde und zum Zeichen der jüngeren Geburt und Linienabzweigs den schrägen Lilienbalken. Den später so genannten Rautenkranz erhielt er von Friedrich Barbarossa auf dem Reichstage zu Gelnhausen 1180. Durch die erworbenen sächsischen Besitzungen verlegte Bernhard seinen Sitz und Hoflager nach Wittenberg, welches bis zum Aussterben der askanischen Linie 1422 als Residenz der Askanier bestehen blieb. Bernhard verstarb am 9. Februar 1212, als letzter von Albrechts vielen Söhnen und wurde in Ballenstedt in der Kirche des Benediktinerklosters beigesetzt.

Wirkung [Bearbeiten]

Mit der Belehnung Bernhards durch Kaiser Friedrich Barbarossa wurde der lebenslange Kampf des zehn Jahre zuvor verstorbenen Albrecht des Bären um die Macht in Sachsen für die Askanier letztlich erfolgreich beendet. Albrecht selbst war nach der Krönung des Stauferkönigs Konrad III. von diesem mit dem Herzogtum Sachsen belehnt worden, hatte dieses Amt jedoch nur für vier Jahre zwischen 1138 und 1142 inne und konnte sich gegen den Herrschaftsanspruch der Welfen nicht auf Dauer durchsetzen. Barbarossa wiederum unterstützte den Welfen Heinrich den Löwen und zwang Albrecht, dies hinzunehmen. Erst als sich Barbarossa mit Heinrich dem Löwen 1175 überwarf, wurde der Weg für einen askanischen Herzog von Sachsen Wittenberg frei.

Ehe und Kinder [Bearbeiten]

Bernhard war in erster Ehe mit der Tochter des Königs Knut von Dänemark Brigitte (Jutta), in zweiter Ehe mit Sophia, Tochter des Landgrafen Ludwig II. (des Eisernen) von Thüringen und in dritter Ehe mit Judith, der Tochter Herzog Miecislaus III. von Polen, verheiratet.

   * 1. Ehe:
         o Albrecht, Herzog von Sachsen
         o Sophie, Äbtissin zu Gernrode
         o Heinrich I., Fürst von Anhalt
         o Magnus
         o Hedwig ∞ 1204 Graf Ulrich von Wettin
   * 2. Ehe:
         o Johann, Propst in Halberstadt

Nach dem Tode Bernhards wurde der Besitz aufgeteilt: Bernhards Sohn Albrecht I. wurde Herzog von Sachsen. Seinem Sohn Heinrich I., Fürst von Anhalt, fielen die anhaltischen Stammgüter zu.

Literatur [Bearbeiten]

   * Otto von Heinemann: Bernhard (Herzog von Sachsen). In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Band 2. Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1875, S. 437–439.
   * Heinrich Kühne: Die Askanier. Drei Kastanien Verlag 1999. ISBN 3-933028-14-0
   * Georg Hirschfeld: Geschichte der Sächsisch-Askanischen Kurfürsten. Julius Sittenfeld, Berlin 1884
   * Hahn: "Die Söhne Albrechts des Bären 1170-1184", in: Jahresbericht über die Louisenstädtische Realschule, Berlin 1869. (Die Vorgänge um das Ringen zwischen den Askaniern, Heinrich dem Löwen und Kaiser Friedrich I. werden hier detailliert und mit ausführlicher Quellenangabe dargestellt)

Weblinks [Bearbeiten]

   * genealogie-mittelalter.de

Vorgänger Amt Nachfolger

Heinrich III. Herzog von Sachsen

1180–1212 Albrecht I.

Albrecht Fürst von Anhalt

1173–1212 Heinrich I.

Normdaten: Personennamendatei (PND): 119121468


Prince of the House of Ascania. Count of Anhalt and Ballenstedt. Lord of Bienburg.

In 1180 he becomes Duke of Saxony as either Bernard 1st or Bernard 3rd.

Marries Brigette (Jutta) of Denmark.

Marries Sophia of Thuringia upon Brigette's demise.

Marries Judith (Judyta), daughter of Mieszco the 1st, Duke of All Poland and former House enemy.

For furthur info see Wikipedia article.

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Count Bernard of Anhalt, Duke of Saxony's Timeline

1140
1140
Dresden, Sachsen, Deutschland (HRR)
1170
1170
Age 30
Deutschland(HRR)
1170
- 1212
Age 30
1175
October 7, 1175
Age 35
Aschersleben, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany
1175
Age 35
Saxony, Germany
1180
1180
Age 40
Saxony - Duke of Saxony
1180
- 1212
Age 40
1185
1185
Age 45
Dresden, Sachsen, Deutschland(HRR)
1194
1194
Age 54
Saxony, Germany
1196
1196
Age 56
Saxony, Germany