Eberhard, duca della marcia del Friuli

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Eberhard

Also Known As: "Évrard", "Marquis", "Eberhard Marchese di Friuli", "Evrard", "Erhard. Also "Everardus" "Eberardus" "Eberard" "Eberhardus" "Eberhard". He wrote his own name "EWRARDUS".", "Eberhard /de Friuli/", "Marquis de Frioul", "(Eberhard I) "Marchese di Friuli" di Friuli former..."
Birthdate:
Death: Died in Italy
Place of Burial: Cysoing, Nord, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, France
Immediate Family:

Son of Unruoch, duke of Friuli and Engeltrude of Paris
Husband of Gisela of Cysoing, daughter of Louis and Judith
Father of Ingeltrude; Eberhard; Judith of Friuli; Rodolf, Abbot of Cysoing and St. Vaast; Berengario I, re d'Italia and 8 others
Brother of Berenger, duke of Septimania; N.N. di Friuli; Bertha and Adalhard, abbé de Saint-Bertin

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About Eberhard, duca della marcia del Friuli

Eberhard (aka Saint Evrard) was the son of Unruoch and wife Engeltrude. Alternate spellings of his name are: Everard, Evrard, Erhard, Eberhard, or Eberard. He spelled it, "Evvrardus".He was born between 805 and 810 and died in Italy December 16, 866. He was buried at Cysoing, Abbey of St Calixtus. This birth date is estimated on the basis of his marriage in 836. He was a nobleman, a soldier, a scholar and a holy man.

Eberhard is credited with stopping the invasion of the Slavs and for this, he received the March of Friulia from Emperor Lothaire I, becoming Eberhard, Duke of the March of Friulia. He swore allegiance to the emperor Charles the Bald in 864.

He took his education at the Palace School founded by Charlemagne and organized by Alcuin, where he studied from the medieval programs known as the trivium and the quadrivium. There he got a taste of the letters and sciences, at the same time that he developed his famous piety. He kept a large library, commissioned works of Latin literature from Lupus Servatus and Sedulius Scottus, and maintained a correspondence with the noted theologians and church leaders Gottschalk, Rabanus Maurus, and Hincmar.

He married Gisela, daughter of Emperor Louis the Pious and his second wife, Judith of Bavaria. Gisela was born between 819 and 822, and died after July 1, 874, and is buried at Cysoing, Abbey of St Calixtus. Depending on the source cited, they had seven to eleven children. Those best documented are listed below.

As part of her dowry, Gisela brought to the marriage the fisc of Cysoing. A fisc, in that era, meant large, rural properties separate from the royal domains. Cysoing was situated at the center of the country of Pèvele, in what today is the French-Belgian border. In the previous century, Cysoing had been the site of the martyrdom of Saint Arnoul. Arnoul's relics were in the small church there. Eberhard and Gisela established a monastery there, later known as Cysoing Abbey.

Eberhard and Gisela used their wealth to relieve the poor and to found churches, chapels, and later the French abbey of Cysoing. A conscientious father, Eberhard gave much attention to his children’s religious and moral formation. He had a special love for the relics of saints. For Cysoing Abbey, he obtained from Rome the body of Pope Saint Callistus I (+222), which was thereupon carried from Italy to France on the shoulders of several priests. Miraculous healings and reconciliations of enemies occurred along the route of this cortege. In his will, Eberhard bequeathed a large number of religious objects, including vestments, thuribles, candlesticks, liturgical books, and prayer books, one of which was a Psalter bearing his signature that is now in the Vatican Library.

.These are the children of Eberhard and Gisela, as recognized by the Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (MedLands):

  • EBERHARD (837-before 20 Jun 840), died before his third birthday.
  • ENGELTRUDE (837-after 874). Buried at Cysoing. Scholar Eckhardt suggests that Ingeltrudis was the wife of Heinrich dux [alte Babenberger], who died in 886. However, this appears impossible chronologically given that Heinrich's daughter Hedwig gave birth to her third child in 876.
  • UNRUOCH (840-after 1 Jul874). Received the territories of Lombard and Alammian by right of primogeniture. He succeeded his father in 866 as UNRUOCH Marchese di Friulia. According to Europäische Stammtafeln, the wife of Unruoch was the possible daughter of Liutfried, based solely on her name being the same as that of her supposed paternal grandmother. The primary source which confirms the name of Unruoch's wife has not yet been identified.
  • RUDOLF (d. May 892). He was invested as lay Abbot of Cysoing and St Vaast at Arras by Carloman King of the West Franks in 883 and charged with the defence of the counties of Artois and Ternois. After his death, his lands were seized by Baudouin II Count of Flanders
  • BERENGAR (c.840-murdered Verona 7 Apr 924). He succeeded his brother in 874 as BERENGARIO I Marchese di Friulia. He was elected in 888 as BERENGARIO I King of Italy, supported principally by the German faction in Italy. He was defeated by Guido of Spoleto in 889. He re-emerged as sole king in Italy in 898 after the death of Lambert of Spoleto. Louis King of Provence was elected as king of Italy in 900, with support particularly from Anscario Marchese d'Ivrea. Berengario defeated Louis twice, the second time conclusively in 905 when he had his rival blinded. He was crowned Emperor BERENGAR at Rome in 916. He allied himself with the Hungarians to defeat Rudolf II King of Upper Burgundy, who emerged as another rival candidate for the Italian throne, but was later forced back to Verona by Rudolf, and finally defeated by him at Firenzuola 29 Jul 923. Berengario returned to Verona with the intention of calling for further help from the Hungarians, who meanwhile had burned Pavia. He was murdered at Verona soon after. Married (1) BERTILA di Spoleto, daughter of SUPPO II Duke of Spoleto & his wifeShe was executed for alleged adultery. He married (2) ANNA, parentage unknown. Her marriage is confirmed by the charter dated 920.
  • ADALHARD (died after 1 Jul 874). He was bequeathed property in Cisonio et Cansinium.
  • ALPAIS Died young and was buried at Cysoing. The primary source which confirms her existence has not yet been identified.
  • HEILWIG (-after 895). She married (1) HUCBALD Comte [d'Ostrevant], which is confirmed by the Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines. She married (2) ROGER [I] Comte de Laon. Her second marriage is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln but the primary source on which this is based has not been identified.
  • GISELA (-Apr 863). Nun at San Salvatore at Brescia.
  • JUDITH (-after [874]).

Medlands includes this daughter as speculative

  • [daughter] . Wegener] speculates that the wife of Arnulf Duke of Bavaria was the daughter of Eberhard Duke of the March of Friulia, ostensibly for onomastic reasons on the basis of the transmission of the names Eberhard and Judith into the Luitpoldinger family, used first for Duke Arnulf's children. If this is correct, she must have been the daughter Judith named in her parents´s testament. However, from a chronological point of view, it is unlikely that the wife of Arnulf Duke of Bavaria was the daughter of Duke Eberhard. The latter's children must have been born between 840 and 860, whereas Duke Arnulf's children were probably born between 910 and 930, suggesting that their mother was born between 880-890].

Links to additional material:

-----------------------------------

MARCHESI di FRIULIA, "UNRUOCHINGI" (family of UNRUOCH) http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/NORTHERN%20ITALY%20900-1100.htm#_Toc442430254


EBERHARD, son of UNRUOCH & his wife Engeltrude --- ([805/10]-in Italy 16 Dec 866, bur Cysoing, Abbey of St Calixtus). His origin is stated in the poem by Sedulius addressed to "Everhardum comitem…Hunroci proles"[249]. His birth date is estimated on the basis of his marriage in [836]. Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names "Walach…abbas et Rihhardus perfidus et Eberhardus fidelis" as legates of Lothar, son of Emperor Louis I, in Italy in May [836][250]. Eberhard stopped the invasion of the Slavs and received the March of Friulia from Emperor Lothaire I, becoming EBERHARD Duke of the March of Friulia. The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records that "comes Everardus cognomento Radulfus" was made "dux Foroiulii" by Emperor Lothaire[251]. An agreement between Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks and his brother Ludwig II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks dated Jun 860 names "nobilis ac fidelibus laicis…Chuonradus, Evrardus, Adalardus, Arnustus, Warnarius, Liutfridus, Hruodolfus, Erkingarius, Gislebertus, Ratbodus, Arnulfus, Hugo, item Chuonradus, Liutharius, Berengarius, Matfridus, Boso, Sigeri, Hartmannus, Liuthardus, Richuinus, Wigricus, Hunfridus, Bernoldus, Hatto, Adalbertus, Burchardus, Christianus, Leutulfus, Hessi, Herimannus, item Hruodulfus, Sigehardus"[252]. The Annales Alamannicorum record "Eberhart" among those who swore allegiance in 864[253]. With his wife, he founded the abbey of St Calixtus at Cysoing, Flanders[254]. The Annales Xantenses record the death in 866 of "Everwinus gener Ludewici regis" in Italy[255]. Assuming that this refers to Eberhard, it is surprising that the text refers to "Ludewici regis" rather than "Ludewici imperatoris". Eberhard's father-in-law is not known to have used the title king after his imperial coronation, although in a previous part of the same text the Annales refer to his mother-in-law as "Iuthit regina". It is improbable that the Annales could refer to Louis "le Jeune" King of Italy (who was reigning in 866 and died in 875) as his daughters were probably under marriageable age at the time and in any case no other reference has been found to one of them marrying "Everwinus". The Historia Ecclesiæ Cisoniensis records the testament of “Evrardus comes cum coniuge mea Gisla”, dated “Hludovico Augusto anno regni eius XXIV” and witnessed by “Adalroch nepos noster”, which bequeathes property “in Langobardia et in Alamannia” to “primogenitus…noster Unroch”, property “cortem in Anaspio…præter Grecinam et cortem nostrum Hildiolam in Hasbannis…et…in pago Condustrim” to “secundus…Berengarius”, property “in Cisonio et Cansinium” to “tertius Adalardus”, property “Vitrei…Mesrucha…in Cisonio…et…in Sceleburd…quod Matridus…habuit” to “quartus Rodulfus”, and to “filiabus…nostris…Ingeldrud…Ermen et Mareshem, Judith…[in] Balgingam et cortem nostrum in pago Moila…Helisheim…Heilvinch…Hattrenheim et Luisinga et Wendesse et unum manum in Engerestheim”, and also lists a large number of books[256].

m ([836]) GISELA, daughter of Emperor LOUIS I "der Fromme/le Pieux" & his second wife Judith [Welf] ([819/822]-after 1 Jul 874, bur Cysoing, Abbey of St Calixtus). The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Karolum et Gislam" children of "Hludovicus ymperator…ex Iudith ymperatrice"[257]. Her marriage is deduced from a charter in which Gisela states that their eldest son Unruoch brought back the body of Eberhard from Italy[258]. It is also confirmed by the Historia Ecclesiæ Cisoniensis which records that “Gisla” donated property to Cysoing abbey naming “Rex Karolus…germanus”, dated “XVII Kal Mai…in anno XXIX regnante Carolo Rege”[259]. She founded the abbey of St Calixtus at Cysoing, Flanders, where she lived as a widow. "Gisle" granted "le fisc de Somain en Ostrevant" to "filii…Adelarde" by charter dated 14 Apr 869, which names "rex Karolus meus…germanus…senioris mei dulcis memorie Evrardi…tres infantes meos Rodulfum…et Berengarium…et…Adelarde"[260]. The Historia Ecclesiæ Cisoniensis records that “Gisla” donated property to Cysoing abbey for her burial next to “coniugis mei dulcis memoriæ Evrardi”, by charter dated 2 Apr 870 which names “filiæ meæ Ingiltrudis…filius meus Rodulfus”, and by charter dated “Kal Jul anno XXXV regnante Carolo Rege”, naming “filii mei Unroch…filiorum meorum Adalardo atque Rodulfo” and signed by “Odelrici Comitis”[261]. "Gisle" donated property to Cysoing for the anniversaries of "Ludovico imperatore patre meo et…Judith imperatrice matre mea et…rege Karolo…germano et…prole mea…Hengeltrude, Hunroc, Berengario, Adelardo, Rodulpho, Hellwich, Gilla, Judith" by charter dated to [874][262].

Duke Eberhard & his wife had [eleven] children:

1. EBERHARD ([837]-before 20 Jun 840). The Epitaphio de filio Eberhardi comitis by Sedulius names "natus Eberhardi patrio cognomina dictus" and his mother Gisela[263].

2. ENGELTRUDE ([837/40]-after [874]). The Historia Ecclesiæ Cisoniensis records the testament of “Evrardus comes cum coniuge mea Gisla”, which bequeathes property to “filiabus…nostris…Ingeldrud…Ermen et Mareshem…”[264]. Eckhardt[265] suggests that Ingeltrudis was the wife of Heinrich dux [alte Babenberger] (who died in 886). However, this appears difficult chronologically given that Heinrich's daughter Hedwig gave birth to her third child in 876. The Historia Ecclesiæ Cisoniensis records that “Gisla” donated property to Cysoing abbey for her burial next to “coniugis mei dulcis memoriæ Evrardi”, by charter dated 2 Apr 870 which names “filiæ meæ Ingiltrudis…filius meus Rodulfus”[266]. "Gisle" donated property to Cysoing for the anniversaries of "Ludovico imperatore patre meo et…Judith imperatrice matre mea et…rege Karolo…germano et…prole mea…Hengeltrude, Hunroc, Berengario, Adelardo, Rodulpho, Hellwich, Gilla, Judith" by charter dated to [874][267].

3. UNRUOCH ([840]-874 after 1 Jul). The Historia Ecclesiæ Cisoniensis records the testament of “Evrardus comes cum coniuge mea Gisla”, which bequeathes property “in Langobardia et in Alamannia” to “primogenitus…noster Unroch”[268]. The Andreæ Bergomatis Chronicon records that "Unhrich filio suo [=Ebherardo]" succeeded his father in 866 as UNRUOCH Marchese di Friulia[269]. "Gisle" donated property to Cysoing for the anniversaries of "Ludovico imperatore patre meo et…Judith imperatrice matre mea et…rege Karolo…germano et…prole mea…Hengeltrude, Hunroc, Berengario, Adelardo, Rodulpho, Hellwich, Gilla, Judith" by charter dated to [874][270]. m AVA, daughter of [LIUTFRIED Signor di Monza, Lay abbot of Moutier-Grandval & his wife ---]. According to Europäische Stammtafeln[271], the wife of Unruoch was the possible daughter of Liutfried [I]. This affiliation is suggested presumably only for onomastic reasons, her name being the same as that of her supposed paternal grandmother. The primary source which confirms the name of Unruoch's wife has not yet been identified. Unruoch & his wife had [one possible child]:

a) [daughter . The Annales Fuldenses record that the emperor's men invaded "monasterium puellarum in Brixia civitate" in 887 and abducted "filiam Unruochi comitis, propinquam imperatoris" and married her to "suoque nepoti"[272]. No other reference has so far been found to a daughter of Unruoch who died in 874. However, it is chronologically improbable that the reference can relate to a daughter of the senior Count Unruoch, who was this Unruoch's paternal grandfather. m ([887]) ---, nepos of Emperor KARL III "der Dicke", daughter of ---.]

4. RUDOLF (-1 May 892). The Historia Ecclesiæ Cisoniensis records the testament of “Evrardus comes cum coniuge mea Gisla”, which bequeathes property “Vitrei…Mesrucha…in Cisonio…et…in Sceleburd…quod Matridus…habuit” to “quartus Rodulfus”[273]. The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "abbas Rodulfus" as son of "marchionis Evrardi"[274]. "Gisle" granted "le fisc de Somain en Ostrevant" to "filii…Adelarde" by charter dated 14 Apr 869, which names "rex Karolus meus…germanus…senioris mei dulcis memorie Evrardi…tres infantes meos Rodulfum…et Berengarium…et…Adelarde"[275]. "Gisle" donated property to Cysoing for the anniversaries of "Ludovico imperatore patre meo et…Judith imperatrice matre mea et…rege Karolo…germano et…prole mea…Hengeltrude, Hunroc, Berengario, Adelardo, Rodulpho, Hellwich, Gilla, Judith" by charter dated to [874][276]. Comte. He was invested as lay Abbot of Cysoing and St Vaast at Arras by Carloman King of the West Franks in 883 and charged with the defence of the counties of Artois and Ternois. After his death, his lands were seized by Baudouin II Count of Flanders[277]. The Annales Vedastini record the death "Non Ian 892" of "Rodulfus abba", that "castellani Egfridum comitem" was sent to announce the news to the king, and that in his absence "Balduinum a Flandris…per consilium Evreberti qui nimis fuerat versutissimus" seized the abbacy against the wishes of the king who had promised it to Egfrid[278].

5. BERENGAR ([840/45]-murdered Verona 7 Apr 924). The Historia Ecclesiæ Cisoniensis records the testament of “Evrardus comes cum coniuge mea Gisla”, which bequeathes property “cortem in Anaspio…præter Grecinam et cortem nostrum Hildiolam in Hasbannis…et…in pago Condustrim” to “secundus…Berengarius”[279]. The Chronica Mon. Casinensis names "Berengarius Foroiulensis, filius Everardi marchionis Italiæ"[280]. "Gisle" granted "le fisc de Somain en Ostrevant" to "filii…Adelarde" by charter dated 14 Apr 869, which names "rex Karolus meus…germanus…senioris mei dulcis memorie Evrardi…tres infantes meos Rodulfum…et Berengarium…et…Adelarde"[281]. "Gisle" donated property to Cysoing for the anniversaries of "Ludovico imperatore patre meo et…Judith imperatrice matre mea et…rege Karolo…germano et…prole mea…Hengeltrude, Hunroc, Berengario, Adelardo, Rodulpho, Hellwich, Gilla, Judith" by charter dated to [874][282]. He succeeded his brother in 874 as BERENGARIO I Marchese di Friulia. The Gesta regum Francorum records "Berengarius…consanguineus imperator" being sent to expel "Wito comes Tuscianorum" in 883[283]. He was elected in 888 as BERENGARIO I King of Italy, supported principally by the German faction in Italy. "Berengarius rex" confirmed grants of property to "Angilbergæ…imperatrici", at the request of "…Vualfredus…marchio", by charter dated 8 May 888[284]. He was defeated by Guido of Spoleto in 889. He re-emerged as sole king in Italy in 898 after the death of Lambert of Spoleto. Louis King of Provence was elected as king of Italy in 900, with support particularly from Anscario Marchese d'Ivrea. Berengario defeated Louis twice, the second time conclusively in 905 when he had his rival blinded. He was crowned Emperor BERENGAR at Rome in 916. He allied himself with the Hungarians to defeat Rudolf II King of Upper Burgundy, who emerged as another rival candidate for the Italian throne, but was later forced back to Verona by Rudolf, and finally defeated by him at Firenzuola 29 Jul 923. Berengario returned to Verona with the intention of calling for further help from the Hungarians, who meanwhile had burned Pavia. He was murdered at Verona soon after. m firstly ([880/3 Nov 890]) BERTILA di Spoleto, daughter of SUPPO II Duke of Spoleto & his wife --- (-executed before Dec 915). "Berengarius rex" confirmed grants of property "Mercoriatico in territorio [comitatu] Regiensi" to "Iohanne presbiter", at the request of "Berchtilæ…coniugis et consortis regni nostri", by charter dated 3 Nov 890[285]. Berengario I King of Italy "conjugis nostreque Regni consortis Berchtile" granted property "in comitatu Veronense" to "Anselmo…Comite, nostroque Compatre et Consiliario" by charter dated 26 Jul 910[286]. The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified. She was executed for alleged adultery. m secondly (before Dec 915) ANNA, daughter of --- (-after May 930). "Berengarius…rex" granted "mansum in villa Evurio…de comitatu Oxilense de corticella…Beura" to "fideli nostro…Hervino nepoti…Dagiberti episcopi", at the request of "Anna…coniuncx nostram", by charter dated to [915][287]. Her marriage is confirmed by the charter dated 920 under which "Berengarius…Imperator Augustus" granted "curtem…de Prato Plano finibus Placentinis" to "Annæ…coniugi nostræ"[288]. King Berengario I & his first wife had three children:

a) daughter . The primary source which confirms the origin of this daughter and her marriage has not yet been identified. m (887) ---, nepos of LIUTWARD Bishop of Vercelli, daughter of ---.

b) GISELA ([880/85]-[910/15]). Liutprand names "Gislam Berengarius filiam suam" as wife of "Adelbertus Eporegiæ civitatis marchio"[289]. "Berengarius rex" donated property to the church of Vercelli, at the request of "Adelberti…marchionis et…generi nostri et Grimaldi…comitis", by charter dated 26 Jan 913[290]. m ([898/900]) as his first wife, ADALBERTO d´Ivrea, son of ANSCARIO I Marchese d'Ivrea & his wife [Volsia di Susa] (-[17 Jul 923/8 Oct 924]). He succeeded his father [898/902] as ADALBERTO I Conte e Marchese d'Ivrea.

c) BERTA (-after 952). "Berengarius rex" granted property "viam publicam in circuitu castelli…Sendali…comitatus Brixiensis in pago et fundo Temolina" to "Berchtam…monasterii Sanctæ Iulie abbatissam…filiam nostram" by charter dated 4 Mar 915[291]. "Berengarius…imperator augustus" permitted "Berchtam…filiam nostrum…abbatissam" to build a castle "super ripam Ticini iuxta portum…Sclavaria" by charter dated 25 May 916[292]. Her parentage is confirmed by a charter dated 27 Aug 917 under which "Berengarius Imperator Augustus" confirmed the rights of Placentia monastery of which "Bertæ filie nostre" was abbess[293].

6. ADALHARD (-after 1 Jul [874]). The Historia Ecclesiæ Cisoniensis records the testament of “Evrardus comes cum coniuge mea Gisla”, which bequeathes property “in Cisonio et Cansinium” to “tertius Adalardus”[294]. Abbot of Cysoing. "Gisle" granted "le fisc de Somain en Ostrevant" to "filii…Adelarde" by charter dated 14 Apr 869, which names "rex Karolus meus…germanus…senioris mei dulcis memorie Evrardi…tres infantes meos Rodulfum…et Berengarium…et…Adelarde"[295]. The Historia Ecclesiæ Cisoniensis records that “Gisla” donated property to Cysoing abbey by charter dated “Kal Jul anno XXXV regnante Carolo Rege”, naming “filii mei Unroch…filiorum meorum Adalardo atque Rodulfo”[296]. "Gisle" donated property to Cysoing for the anniversaries of "Ludovico imperatore patre meo et…Judith imperatrice matre mea et…rege Karolo…germano et…prole mea…Hengeltrude, Hunroc, Berengario, Adelardo, Rodulpho, Hellwich, Gilla, Judith" by charter dated to [874][297].

7. ALPAIS (-young, bur Cysoing). The primary source which confirms her existence has not yet been identified.

8. HEILWIG (-after 895). The Historia Ecclesiæ Cisoniensis records the testament of “Evrardus comes cum coniuge mea Gisla”, which bequeathes property to “filiabus…nostris…Heilvinch…Hattrenheim et Luisinga et Wendesse et unum manum in Engerestheim”[298]. Her first marriage is confirmed by Flodoard´s Historia Remensis Ecclesiæ which names “Hucboldus...sororis...Rodulfi maritus”[299]. The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Hucbaldus de Hainacq" as "huius [=abbas Rodulfus] sororius"[300]. The marriage appears to be corroborated by a later passage in the same source which records that "comes Rodulfus" (referring to Heilwig's grandson) was "nepos…ex sorore" of Louis IV King of France[301]. It appears chronologically unlikely for any of King Louis's sisters, whose dates of birth can be estimated to [908/17], to have been the mother of Raoul [II] who was killed in battle in 944, presumably when he was already adult. It appears more likely that the family relationship was one generation further back, and that a member of the Unruochingi family, descended from the sister of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks and who originated in the same area in northern France, would provide a good match. Her second marriage is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[302] but the primary source on which this is based has not been identified. Another table in Europäische Stammtafeln only names the wife of Comte Roger as "Helvide" but does not give her origin[303]. "Gisle" donated property to Cysoing for the anniversaries of "Ludovico imperatore patre meo et…Judith imperatrice matre mea et…rege Karolo…germano et…prole mea…Hengeltrude, Hunroc, Berengario, Adelardo, Rodulpho, Hellwich, Gilla, Judith" by charter dated to [874][304]. m firstly (before 874) HUCBALD Comte [d'Ostrevant], son of --- (-after 890). The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Hucbaldus de Hainacq" as "huius [=abbas Rodulfus] sororius"[305]. m secondly (after 890) ROGER [I] Comte de Laon, son of --- (-926).

9. GISELA (-Apr 863). The necrology of Brixen records that "Domnus Eberardus Dux tradidit filiam suam Gisla"[306]. "Gisle" donated property to Cysoing for the anniversaries of "Ludovico imperatore patre meo et…Judith imperatrice matre mea et…rege Karolo…germano et…prole mea…Hengeltrude, Hunroc, Berengario, Adelardo, Rodulpho, Hellwich, Gilla, Judith" by charter dated to [874][307]. Nun at San Salvatore at Brescia.

10. JUDITH (-after [874]). The Historia Ecclesiæ Cisoniensis records the testament of “Evrardus comes cum coniuge mea Gisla”, which bequeathes property to “filiabus…nostris…Judith…[in] Balgingam et cortem nostrum in pago Moila…Helisheim…”[308]. "Gisle" donated property to Cysoing for the anniversaries of "Ludovico imperatore patre meo et…Judith imperatrice matre mea et…rege Karolo…germano et…prole mea…Hengeltrude, Hunroc, Berengario, Adelardo, Rodulpho, Hellwich, Gilla, Judith" by charter dated to [874][309].

11. [daughter . Wegener[310] speculates that the wife of Arnulf Duke of Bavaria was the daughter of Eberhard Duke of the March of Friulia [Unruochingi], ostensibly for onomastic reasons on the basis of the transmission of the names Eberhard and Judith into the Luitpoldinger family, used first for Duke Arnulf's children. If this is correct, she must have been the daughter Judith named in her parents´s testament. However, from a chronological point of view, it is unlikely that the wife of Arnulf Duke of Bavaria was the daughter of Duke Eberhard. The latter's children must have been born between [840] and [860], whereas Duke Arnulf's children were probably born between [910] and [930], suggesting that their mother was born in [880/90]. m ARNULF Graf im Nordgau, son of Markgraf LUITPOLD Graf in Carinthia & his wife Kunigunde [Ahalolfinger] (-14 Jul 937, bur Regensburg St Emmeran). He was installed in 908 as ARNULF Duke of Bavaria.]

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Eberhard of Friuli

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Eberhard (c. 815 – 16 December 866) was the Frankish Duke of Friuli from 846. His name is alternatively spelled Everard, Evrard, Erhard, or Eberard; in Latinized fashion, Everardus, Eberardus, or Eberhardus. He wrote his own name "Evvrardus".[1] He was an important political, military, and cultural figure in the Carolingian Empire during his lifetime. He kept a large library, commissioned works of Latin literature from Lupus Servatus and Sedulius Scottus, and maintained a correspondence with the noted theologians and church leaders Gottschalk, Rabanus Maurus, and Hincmar.[1]

A note on notability

"Saint Evrard, Duke of Frioul and son-in-law of Louis le Débonaire, was one of the principal personages of the Carolingian period. As his name belongs to a great history, our region could, in right name, be re-vindicated as one of his glories. Cysoing, above all, has the right to call itself Saint Evrard's village. The past of Saint Evrard and of the village of Cysoing are themselves intimately tied such that it is impossible to separate them. One would excuse us for therefore reuniting them."[2]

So reads the preface of an ecclesiastic work on Evrard and Cysoing. There was a flurry of research and publishing associated with the discovery of Evrard's body at Cysoing early in the twentieth century, mostly limited to Lille/Roubaix and within elements of the Church.

Family

He inherited the title of Duke of Friuli from his father Unruoch II. His mother was Engeltrude, daughter of Beage, Count of Paris.

Evrard was from an illustrious Frankish family.[3]

Children (with Gisela, daughter of Louis the Pious)[edit]

  • Eberhard (c. 837 – 840)
  • Ingeltrude (837 or 840 – 870), probably married Henry of Franconia
  • Unruoch III (c. 840 – 874)
  • Bèrenger (c. 845 – 924), King of Italy
  • Adélard (d. 874)
  • Rudolf (d. 892)
  • Heilwise (b. 860)
  • Gisèle (d. 863)
  • Judith of Friuli (died ca. 881), married Conrad II of Auxerre

Disputed parentage

Paternity theories

His father was Unruoch II.[4]

"His father was Berengar, the son of Count Unroch."[2]

"After other authors, Unroch, the grandfather of Saint Evrard, should have been the Duke of Frioul."[2]

"Alas, some have written that Saint Evrard had for his father Carloman I, the brother of Charlemagne."[2]

"His grandfather was, it is said, the Count Unroch who was leaving the court of Charlemagne and signatory to the will of the emperor."[2]

Maternity theories

His mother was Engeltron of Paris, a daughter of Begue, Count of Paris.[4] "As for his mother, she was, Buzelin says, the daughter of Didier, king of the Lombards."[2]

Education

Saint Evrard lived in the ninth century. He was born under the reign of Charlemagne and died under that of Charles the Bald.

Saint Evrard was elevated to the court of Charlemagne and of Louis the Débonaire. He took his education at the Palace School founded by Charlemagne and organized by Alcuin, where he studied from the medieval programs known as the trivium and the quadrivium. There he got a taste of the letters and sciences, at the same time that he developed his famous piety.[2]

It is without doubt that it was at the Palace School that Saint Evrard began to build the rich library of which he enumerates the books with so much care in his will.[5][6]

Warlike exploits and role as mediator under Louis le Débonaire

As soon as his age permitted him to carry arms, Saint Evrard took part in numerous military expeditions.[7] Named Duke of Frioul and Count or Marquis[8] de Trévise, in Italy, he defended his country against invasion by the Bulgars and managed to completely drive these new barbarians from the peninsula—825-830.[2]

He rendered service unto Louis le Débonaire that was still more distinguished. During the tragic years (830-839) where the emperor had suffered at the hand of his son's revolt the most undignified treatment, Count Evrard remained inviolably loyal.[2]

He exercised his influence in Lothair's sphere (the elder son of the emperor) to bring about a reconciliation between father and son. It is certain that it was on his council in 839, that Lothaire went to Worms to implore the pardon of his father.[9]

Marriage and life at Cysoing

In return for his services, the emperor Louis le Débonaire gave Count Evrard the highest honor possible: the hand of his (acknowledged) daughter, the Princess Gisèle, in marriage.

The Princess Gisèle, a woman of piety and virtue,[2] was the daughter of Louis le Débonaire and his second wife, the empress Judith.[9] Among the rich domains the Princess brought with her in her dowry, Count Evrard found the fisc of Cysoing. One gives the name fisc, in this age, to large, rural properties separate from the royal domains; that is, to sorts of farms with a residence for the master and homes for settlers.[10] The Royal Fisc of Cysoing, situated at the center of the country of Pèvele, was one of the most beautiful in the region. The stay seemed so agreeable to Saint Evrard and the Princess Gisèle that they made it one of their regular residences.[2] The castle which they inhabited was without doubt the same as that of the lords of Cysoing in following centuries. It found itself part of a magnificent property, surrounded by water, that actually belongs to the family Bigo-Vanderhagen. The farming ditches were marked in the oldest documents.[11] It is not rash to think these were dug in Saint Evrard's time, or perhaps even earlier.[2]

Already, in the century before (in 752), the little hamlet established on the royal fisc of Cysoing has been made famous through the martyrdom of Saint Arnoul.[2] Saint Arnoul, a courageous warrior, who was, it is said, the father of Godefroid, Bishop of Cambrai-Arras, had been attached to the court of a noble lord, his relative. "His virtues and his merits were so radiant that God accorded his prayers more than one miracle during his life. He became even more glorious through his martyrdom."[2] He was so devoted to his master that he eventually died for him[12] thus attaining martyrdom.[2] Saint Arnoul was already honored at Cysoing when Saint Evrard and Princess Gisèle went to take possession of their domain. His relics were conserved there. Cysoing, of this age, has therefore a church, or less a chapel that was without doubt the same chapel as the royal fisc.[2]

Saint Evrard, at Cysoing, had a chaplain named Walgaire.[2] They (Evrard and Gisèle) decided to found a monastery at Cysoing. The project was long and difficult, and was not complete at the time of Evrard's or Gisèle's deaths. The monastery was initially made in honor of Saint Saveur and Mary (mother of Jesus). The religious lived there under canon law in a community with all the rigors of the cloister. Their special function was singing solemnly in the church. They maintained public prayer. Saint Evrard was known to enjoy singing with the choir.[2] After his later campaigns in the defense of Italy, the remains of Pope Callixtus I were re-interred in the Abbey at Cysoing.[1][2]

Character

Saint Evrard, himself, has organized his home in a way so perfectly that it was more like a monastery than a castle. He was seconded in this task by his pious wife, Gisèle, who dedicated herself to the education of their many children. The poor and ill were sure of finding not only banal security at Cysoing, but also help and protection. The social question of the time, that of serfs, also preoccupied Saint Evrard. He had freed a good number. In their testimony, he expressly refrained from impeding their liberty. He never forgot those who he didn't free, and tried to improve their lots. Though he was a courageous and formidable, he worked all his life for peace. His private virtues were no less remarkable. In his elevated position, he strove to preserve modesty and humility, to avoid splendor and arrogance. His zeal for the glory of God, to spread the Truth, to convert the infidels, was celebrated throughout the Church. Alas, his piety, his taste for ceremonies of worship, he devotion to the saints, his respect for the precious relics was apparent in his every act.[2]

Pacifier

Saint Evrard's activity was not limited to the royal fisc of Cysoing, as he involved himself freely with matters of other domains and the empire in general. Emperor Louis the Debonaire went to die (840) and the war, a cruel war without mercy, exploded between the Emperor Lothaire and his two brothers, Louis le Germanique and Charles the Bald. Saint Evrard strongly deplored this fighting/battling and fratricide and made all efforts to bring it to an end. After the bloody battle of Fontenay (25 June 841), he left the ambassadorial envoy of Lothaire near that of Lothaire's brothers for peace negotiations. The preparatory conference took place in 842 at Milin, near Châlons in Champagne. It was decided to divide the empire between the three brothers. The negotiators, among which Evrard could be found, were charged with making the partitioning equitable/fair. It was not before August 843 that they presented their report to the three kings at Verdun.[2]

Wars with the Saracens

The negotiations ended and peace was re-established between the three brothers, Saint Evrard left in haste for Italy. Italy was under threat from "African Saracens". These Saracens[2] had been named as helpers, in 842, by the Duke of Benevento and they would soon become a threat to regimes throughout the peninsula. They menaced Rome and pillaged it many times. Saint Evrard, in his position as Duke of Friuli, was made a captain/leader of the resistance. The war wore on for several years and ended in 851 with the defeat of the Saracens. "Evrard has a reputation for being both a courageous soldier and able leader throughout these battles. In the tradition of Charlemagne, Evrard forced the vanquished to convert to Christianity, meritoriously teaching them the Gospel, himself."[2]

Testament and death

Sometime after this solemnity, Saint Evrard returned to Italy. We find him in 858 among the ambassadors who the emperor Louis le Jeune, son of Lothaire, sent to Ulm, near his uncle Louis le Germanique. After this date, we know nothing more about Saint Evrard until his Testimony, a very interesting/curious/strange document, whose authenticity is certain and in which we are given information on the life of Saint Evrard. This Testimony was made in Italy, at Musiestro Castle, in the county of Trévise, in 867. Evrard and his consort meticulously recorded not only their lands and possessions within a prepared will, but the identities and relationships of family members and neighboring royals. With the agreement of his spouse, Princess Gisèle, Saint Evrard portioned his goods among his seven children.[2]

The eldest, Unroch, got all properties in Lombardy and Germany. The second, Bèrenger, got Annappes with its depencencies less Gruson and the other properties in the Hesbaye and in the Condrost. The third, Adélard , got the lands of Cysoing, Camphin, Gruson and Somain, with charges and respects of all the properties of the Abbey in these regions. The fourth, Rodolphe, got Vitry-en-Artois and Mestucha, except for the church at Vitry which was given with the Abbey at Cysoing.[2]

The three daughters of Saint Evrard, Ingletrude, Judith and Heilwich, got various other domains : Ermen, Marshem, Balghingham, Heliwsheim, Hostrenheim, Luisinga, Wendossa, Engerresteim. Saint Evrard had another daughter who carried the name of Gisèle, her mother. But she was dead at the time of his testimony. The testimony split equally the jewels and ornaments of the saint, the precious objects of his chappel and the books of his library. It is dated 867, the 24th year of the reign of Lothaire's son, Louis le Jeune. Saint Evrard died the same year, 16 December.[2]

References

Theuws, Frans (2000). Rituals of Power: From Late Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages,503 pages/page 225,Christina La Rocca and Luigi Provero, THE DEAD AND THEIR GIFTS: THE WILL OF EBERHARD, COUNT OF FRIULI, AND HIS WIFE GISELA, DAUGHTER OF LOUIS THE PIOUS. Brill.

Morby, John (1989). Dynasties of the World: a chronological and genealogical handbook. Oxford University Press. Louda, Jirí; MacLagan, Michael (1999). Lines of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe, 2nd edition. Little, Brown and Company.

Notes

  1. Belgian and Celtic Saints (French)
  2. "Saint Evrard : Fondateur de L'Abbaye de Cysoing : Son Culte & Ses Reliques" by Abbott Jules BATAILLE (1902)
  3. Sources : Chevalier. Répertoires des sources historiques au mot Eberhard. Don Boquet. Rerum gallicarum et francicarum scriptores T. VII ; Acta sanctorum VIeme volume d'Octobre. --Buzelin Gallo-Flandria I 102 ; III, 107-109 usw
  4. The Royal Ancestry Bible Royal Ancestors of 300 Colonial American Families by Michel L. Call (charts 1986 & 2022) ISBN 1-933194-22-7
  5. voir plus loin page 12
  6. Translator : "C'est sans doute à l'Ecole du palais que saint Evrard commença à se composer cette riche bibliothèque dont il énumère les livres avec tant de soin dans son testament."
  7. Les Sires de Cysoing par Thierry Leuridan, p. 14
  8. Les Sires de Cysoing par Thierry Leuridan, p. 14 -- Rerum gallicarum et francicarum scriptores usw
  9. Les Sires de Cysoing par Thierry Leuridan
  10. Les sires de Cysoing par Thierry Leuridan p.11
  11. Rapports de la baronnie de Cysoing 1392, 1455, 1595. Archives départementales. Etat général 81, 82, 88.
  12. Acta sanctorum II p. 971. Cartul. de Cys. p. 768, 905, 914, 919.
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Eberhard var markgreve eller hertug av Friuli.

Han var sønn til en frankisk adelsmann og bror til hertug Berengar av Septimanien som døde i 835. Angivelig var han sønnesønn til Desiderius, longobardenes høvding.

Eberhard kom til Italien ca. 830 og fikk før 836 den orientalske mark. Som Lothars vasall forvaltet han markgrevskapet Friuli og hadde store gods i områdene ved mitre og nedre Maas i Flandern. Han tilhørte rikets mest ansette menn, kjent for sin gjestfrihet. Eberhard holdt hoff i Cividale og i sitt slott Musetre, hvor han samlet sin tids lærde menn. Sedulio Scota var sanger ved hans familiebegivenheter. I (Wiener) Jahrbuch für vaterland Geschichte nevnes «Fünf Gedichte des Sedilius an der Markgraf von Friaul».

Han var tilstede ved riksdagen i Diedenhofen i mai 836 og møtte i 842 i Clamey ved Yonne hos Lothar som utsending. Eberhard var frankernes seierrike fører i kampene mot slavere og sarasenere.

Eberhard stiftet klosteret Cyssoing ved Ryssel i Flandern i 854 som ble hans siste hvilested. 1)

1). Erich Brandenburg: Die Nachkommen Karls des Grossen, Leipzig 1935. Mogens Bugge: Våre forfedre, nr. 123. Bent og Vidar Billing Hansen: Rosensverdslektens forfedre, side 49, 56.



The powerful and influential Eberhard (b. ca 815 - d. 16 December 866) was the Frankish Duke of Friuli from 846. He was an important political, military, and cultural figure in the Carolingian Empire during his lifetime. He kept a large library, commissioned works of Latin literature from Lupus Servatus and Sedulius Scottus, and maintained a correspondence with the noted theologians and church leaders Gottschalk, Rabanus Maurus, and Hincmar.

He inherited the title of Duke of Friuli from his father Unruoch II. His mother was Engeltrude, possibly a daughter of Beggo of Paris and Alpais.

His name is alternatively spelled Everard, Evrard, Erhard, Eberhard, or Eberard, or in Latinized fashion Everardus, Eberardus, or Eberhardus. He wrote his own name "Evvrardus".

Evrard married Gisela (b.821) who was the youngest daughter of King Louis the Pious and his second wife, Judith of Bavaria. They had many children:

? Eberhard (b. ca 837 - d. 840);
? Ingeltrude (837 or 840 - 870), probably married Henry of Franconia;
? Unruoch III (b. ca 840 - 874);
? Bèrenger (b. ca 840 - d. 924), King of Italy;
? Adélard (d. 874);
? Rudolf (d. 892);
? Heilwig (d. 895);
? Gisèle (d. 863);
? Judith of Friuli, first married Arnulf I of Bavaria, second married Conrad II of Auxerre.

Evrard and his consort meticulously recorded not only their lands and possessions within a prepared will, but the identities and relationships of family members and neighboring royals. With the agreement of his spouse, Princess Gisèle, Saint Evrard portioned his goods among his seven children.

The eldest, Unroch, got all properties in Lombardy and Germany. The second, Bèrenger, got Annappes with its dedepencencies less Gruson and the other properties in the Hesbaye and in the Condrost. The third, Adélard, got the lands of Cysoing, Camphin, Gruson and Somain, with charges and respects of all the properties of the Abbey in these regions. The fourth, Rodolphe, got Vitry-en-Artois and Mestucha, except for the church at Vitry which was given with the Abbey at Cysoing.

The three daughters of Saint Evrard, Ingletrude, Judith and Heilwich, got various other domains: Ermen, Marshem, Balghingham, Heliwsheim, Hostrenheim, Luisinga, Wendossa, Engerresteim. Saint Evrard had another daughter who carried the name of Gisèle, her mother. But she was dead at the time of his testimony. The testimony split equally the jewels and ornaments of the saint, the precious objects of his chappel and the books of his library. It is dated 867, the 28th year of the reign of Lothaire's son, Louis le Jeune. Saint Evrard died the same year, 16 December.

Education

Education: He kept a large library, commissioned works of Latin literature from Lupus Servatus and Sedulius Scottus, and maintained a correspondence with the noted theologians and church leaders Gottschalk, Rabanus Maurus, and Hincmar.


Eberhard (c. 815 – 16 December 866) was the Frankish Duke of Friuli from 846. His name is alternatively spelled Everard, Evrard, Erhard, or Eberard; in Latinized fashion, Everardus, Eberardus, or Eberhardus. He wrote his own name "Evvrardus".[1] He was an important political, military, and cultural figure in the Carolingian Empire during his lifetime. He kept a large library, commissioned works of Latin literature from Lupus Servatus and Sedulius Scottus, and maintained a correspondence with the noted theologians and church leaders Gottschalk, Rabanus Maurus, and Hincmar.

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Eberhard, duca della marcia del Friuli's Timeline

805
805
828
828
- December 16, 866
Age 23
Cividale, Lombardia, Italy
835
835
- December 16, 866
Age 30
Corte di Cysoing
837
837
Age 32
837
Age 32
838
838
Age 33
Friuli, Italy
840
840
Age 35
840
Age 35
840
Age 35