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Army of Virginia (USA), US Civil War

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  • Brevet Brig. Gen. George Sigourney Acker, (USA) (1835 - 1879)
    George Sigourney Acker (born December 25, 1835 in Rochester, Monroe County, New York, and died September 6, 1879 in Kalamazoo, Michigan) was a brigadier general in the Union. He is buried in Union ...
  • Capt. Albert Ernest Peck, (USA) (1840 - 1864)
    Albert Peck was commissioned an officer in the Union Army during the American Civil War in Company E, Ohio 55th Infantry Regiment on 15 Sep 1861. Promoted to Full Captain on 16 Mar 1863. He was killed ...
  • Corp. Chauncey Taintor Peck, (USA) (1838 - 1864)
    Chauncey Peck enlisted in the Union Army during the American Civil War in Company E, Ohio 55th Infantry Regiment on 12 Jul 1862. Promoted to Full Corporal on 30 Apr 1863. He was killed in the Battle of...
  • Corp. Samuel Pence, (USA) (1836 - d.)
    Samuel Pence enlisted the Union Army during the American Civil War in Company B, Ohio 61st Infantry Regiment on 01 Mar 1862. Promoted to Full Corporal on 19 May 1862. Transferred to Company B, Ohio 82n...
  • Pvt. John Santmeyer (USA) (1836 - 1911)
    John Santmeyer/Santmire enlisted in Company E, New York 97th Infantry Regiment on 26 Nov 1861. Mustered out on 01 Jan 1864. Transferred to Company I, U.S. Veteran Reserve Corps 7th Infantry Regiment on...

The Army of Virginia was organized as a major unit of the Union Army and operated briefly and unsuccessfully in 1862 in the American Civil War. It should not be confused with its principal opponent, the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, commanded by Robert E. Lee.

History

The Army of Virginia was constituted on June 26, 1862, by General Orders Number 103, from four existing departments operating around Virginia: Maj. Gen. John C. Frémont's Mountain Department, Maj. Gen. Irvin McDowell's Department of the Rappahannock, Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks's Department of the Shenandoah, and Brig. Gen. Samuel D. Sturgis's brigade from the Military District of Washington. Maj. Gen. John Pope commanded the new organization, which was divided into three corps of over 50,000 men. Three corps of Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan's Army of the Potomac later were added for combat operations.

Banks's corps of the Army of Virginia fought against Stonewall Jackson at the Battle of Cedar Mountain, gaining initial advantage, but was defeated by a Confederate counterattack led by A.P. Hill.

The entire army was soundly defeated at the Second Battle of Bull Run by Jackson, Longstreet, and Lee, and withdrew to the defensive lines of Washington, D.C.. On September 12, 1862, the units of the Army of Virginia were merged into the Army of the Potomac and the Army of Virginia was never reconstituted.

Commander

Major General John Pope (June 26 – September 12)

Organization

The first three corps were given numeric designations that overlapped with those in the Army of the Potomac. They were redesignated as shown for the Maryland Campaign and later.

  • I Corps, Army of Virginia; commanded by Franz Sigel (this corps had been the Mountain Department under John Frémont; it eventually became the XI Corps)
  • II Corps, Army of Virginia; commanded by Nathaniel Banks (formerly known as V Corps and Department of the Shenandoah; later known as XII Corps)
  • III Corps, Army of Virginia; commanded by Irvin McDowell (formerly known as I Corps and Department of the Rappahannock; reverted to I Corps)
  • Cavalry Brigade, commanded by George Bayard

The following corps were attached for operations during the Northern Virginia Campaign:

  1. III Corps, Army of the Potomac; commanded by Samuel P. Heintzelman
  2. V Corps, Army of the Potomac; commanded by Fitz John Porter
  3. IX Corps, Army of the Potomac; commanded by Jesse L. Reno
  4. Reynolds's Division, commanded by John F. Reynolds (the Pennsylvania Reserves)

Major battles

  • Battle of Cedar Mountain – Pope (Only Banks's II Corps was involved in the fighting)
  • Second Battle of Bull Run – Pope
  • Battle of Chantilly – Pope (although fought mostly by Army of the Potomac troops, elements of Pope's force were engaged)

References

  • Boatner, Mark M. III, The Civil War Dictionary: Revised Edition, David McKay Company, Inc., 1984, ISBN 0-679-73392-2.
  • Battles and Leaders of the Civil War

Sources

[http://ehistory.osu.edu/uscw/BattleView.cfm?BID=33&WID=2 Opposing Forces at Second Bull Run}