Start My Family Tree Welcome to Geni, home of the world's largest family tree.
Join Geni to explore your genealogy and family history in the World's Largest Family Tree.

Jews of (former) Yugoslavia

« Back to Projects Dashboard

view all

Profiles

YUGOSLAVIA ("Land of the Southern Slavs"), a Socialist Federated Republic in S.E. Europe, in the Balkan Peninsula. The various elements of which Yugoslav Jewry was composed after 1918 (i.e. those of Serbia and the Austro-Hungarian countries) were distinct from one another in their language, culture, social structure, and character according to the six separate historical, political, and cultural regions of their origin. These regions were: Serbia; Slovenia; Croatia, Slavonia, and Dalmatia; Bosnia-Herzegovina; Macedonia; and Vojvodina. . . . Continued


The history of Jewish community of Serbia goes back about two thousand years. Jews first arrived in what is now Serbia in Roman times. The Jewish communities of the Balkans remained small until the late 15th century, when Jews fleeing the Spanish and Portuguese Inquisitions found refuge in Ottoman-ruled areas, including Serbia. Jewish communities flourished in the Balkans until the turmoil of World War I. The surviving communities, including that of Serbia, were almost completely destroyed in the Holocaust during World War II.

WWll

By the time Serbia and Yugoslavia were liberated in 1944, most of the Serbian Jewry had been murdered. Of the 82,500 Jews of Yugoslavia alive in 1941, only 14,000 (17%) survived the Holocaust. Of the Jewish population of 16,000 in the territory controlled by Nazi puppet government of Milan Nedić, police and secret services murdered approximately 14,500.

There was a similar persecution of Jews in the territory of present-day Vojvodina, which was annexed by Hungary. In the 1942 raid in Novi Sad, the Hungarian troops killed many Jewish and non-Jewish Serb civilians in Bačka.

Historian Christopher Browning who attended the conference on the subject of Holocaust and Serbian involvement stated:

Serbia was the only country outside Poland and the Soviet Union where all Jewish victims were killed on the spot without deportation, and was the first country after Estonia to be declared "Judenfrei", a term used by the Nazis during the Holocaust to denote an area free of all Jews.

Serbian civilians were involved in saving thousands of Yugoslavian Jews during this period. Miriam Steiner-Aviezer, a researcher into Yugoslavian Jewry and a member of Yad Vashem's Righteous Gentiles committee states: "The Serbs saved many Jews."

Currently, Yad Vashem recognizes 131 Serbians as Righteous Among Nations, the highest number among Balkan countries.

CROATIAN JEWISH COMMUNITY

HISTORY OF THE JEWS IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA ; SARAJEVO HAGGADAH ; SYNAGOGUES

Regions & Towns

  • Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, & Macedonia declared independence in 1991.
  • Serbia and Montenegro became the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1992.

Serbia; Slovenia; Croatia, Slavonia, Dalmatia; Bosnia-Herzegovina; Macedonia; and Vojvodina.

Aabac, Ada, Apatin, Backa Topola, Banja Luka, Belgrade, Beltinci, Bitolj, Bijeljina, (Monastir), Cantavir, Celarevo, Celje, Dorcol, Drava (Drau),Gradisca, Ilok, Jajinci, Kanjiya, Kidrecevo, Lendava, Ljubljana, Malki Idos, Maribor (Marburg), Murska Sobota (Subouta), Nis, Nova Gorica (Rozna Dolina) Novi Sad; Ochrida, Osijek, Piran, Poyarevac, Prekmurje, Ptuj (Poetovia), Radgona,Ragusa (Dubrovnik), Radevo, Sarajevo, Rosna Dolina, Sava, Senta, Skoplje, Slavonia, Smederevo, Solin (Salona), Sombor, Split (Spalato), Stanjel, Stara Moravica, Stobi, Struga, Subotica,Topovske Šupe ,Travnik, Varaydin, Vojvodina, Zagreb, Zemun, Zrenjanin,

Projects

Holocaust

List of Profiles

Notable people

  1. • David Albahari, writer
  2. • Oskar Danon, composer
  3. • Oskar Davičo, poet
  4. • Filip David, playwright and columnist
  5. • Jelena Đurović, writer, politician and journalist
  6. • Predrag Ejdus, actor
  7. • Vanja Ejdus, actress
  8. • Ivan Ivanji, writer
  9. • Enriko Josif, composer
  10. • Danilo Kiš, writer
  11. Tommy Lapid (1938 - 2008) former Israeli politician of Hungarian descent, born in Novi Sad
  12. • Sonja Licht, political activist
  13. Tina Morpurgo (1907 - 1944) notable Croatian painter
  14. Vid Morpurgo (1838 -1911) Croatian publisher, printer, bibliographer, librarian & politician.
  15. • Izidor Papo, cardiac surgeon and general of JNA
  16. • Moša Pijade, politician, painter, art critic and publicist
  17. • Seka Sablić, actress
  18. • Erich Šlomović, art collector
  19. • Aleksandar Tišma, writer
  20. • Ivan Ceresnjes, architect-researcher, former president of the Jewish community in Bosnia and Herzegovina
  21. • Kalmi Baruh, writer and philosopher
  22. • Emerik Blum, businessman, former Mayor of Sarajevo
  23. • Oskar Danon, composer and conductor
  24. David Elazar, Israeli general and Chief of Staff of Israel Defense Forces
  25. • Jakob Finci, politician, ambassador of Bosnia and Herzegovina to Switzerland
  26. • Isaac Pardo, rabbi of Sarajevo
  27. • Robert Rothbart, basketball player (Jewish mother)
  28. • Isak Samokovlija, writer
  29. • Josip Frank, Croatian politician
  30. Branko Grünbaum, mathematician
  31. Amatus Lusitanus notable Portuguese Jewish physician of the 16th century
  32. • Slobodan Lang, physician, politician, humanitarian
  33. Rikard Lang, prominent Croatian university professor, lawyer & economist, UN's expert
  34. • Lea Deutsch
  35. • Relja Bašić
  36. Rabbi Israel Isserlein "Landesrabbiner fuer Steiermark, Krain, und Korushka."
  37. R. Joseph b. Moses, Rabbi succeeding R' Isserlein
  38. R. Judah b. Solomon Hai Alkala (1798–1878), who lived there from 1825 to 1874 in Aabac and Belgrade
  39. Didacus Pyrrhus, Marrano Poet
  40. Zevi Hirsch Ashkenazi (Hakham Zevi)
  41. Yaver Effendi Barukh was sent to the parliament as the representative of Bosnia.
  42. Isaac Effendi Shalom was a member of the Majlis Idareh ("Advisory Council to the Vali").
  43. Solomon Effendi Shalom, representative in the parliament.
  44. R. Abraham Motal ha-Paytan ("the hymnologist") During the 17th and 18th centuries,
  45. Lavoslav Aik, a historian of Yugoslav Jewry,
  46. Hinko Gottlieb, Poet
  47. Siegfried Kapper, Czech and German Poet worked briefly in Croatia
  48. Isak Samokovlija, a Bosnian novelist who died in 1955.
  49. R. Reuben b. Abraham, who wrote the work Derekh Yesharah (Leghorn, 1788) & in Ladino Tikkunei ha-Nefesh
  50. Chief rabbi, Dr. Isaac Alkalay, spiritual head from 1924 to 1941 was appointed by the king and resided in Belgrade. The chief rabbi was equal in status to the Orthodox patriarch, the Catholic archbishop, and the Muslim reis ul-Ulema. He was also a member of the Yugoslav senate.

List of Notable Croatian Jews

Bosnia and Herzegovina List of Notable Jews from Bosnia & Herzegovina