Moses Schreiber - Chatam Sofer

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Moses Baal Chatam Sofer Schreiber

Hebrew: Moses Baal Chatam Sofer Schreiber, חת"ם סופר
Nicknames: "הרה"ג ה"חתם סופר שרייבר-סופר", "Moses Schreiber", "the Chasam Sofer", "חת"ם סופר", "Chasam Sofer", "Chasam Soifer", "חתם סופר", "The Chatam Sofer", "Chatam Sofer"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Frankfurt am Main, Darmstadt, Hesse, Germany
Death: Died in Bratislava, Pozsony, יארצייט: כה תשרי, ה'תר, Slovakia
Place of Burial: Pozsony-Pressburg-Bratislava, Bratislava, Bratislavský kraj, Slovakia
Immediate Family:

Son of Rabbi Shmuel Sofer - and Reizel Schreiber Sofer
Husband of Malka Sarah Sofer, [1st wife]; Sorel-Sarah Schreiber-Sofer Kalischer (Eger) [2nd wife] and wife, Chatam Sofer Schreiber-Heller, [3rd wife]
Father of ? Lev; Hindel Ehrenfeld; Gittel Kornitzer Spitzer; Rabbi Avraham Shmuel Binyamin Sofer/Schreiber, "Ktav Sofer"; R' Shimon "Michtav Sofer" Shreiber - Sofer, - and 9 others
Brother of שמעון Samuel שרייבר; יוזפא Samuel Schreiber and הינדל שרייבר

Occupation: Rabbi & AB"D, in Mattersdorf, Pressburg (Bratislava)
Managed by: Eliezer Yoel Rosenberg
Last Updated:

About Moses Schreiber - Chatam Sofer

Rabbi Moshe Sofer, (German: Moses Schreiber), also known by his main work Chatam (in Yiddish: "Chasam") Sofer, (trans. Seal of the Scribe), (1762 - 1839), was one of the leading rabbis of European Jewry in the first half of the nineteenth century his influence is still felt today. He is also the patriarch of the Sofer family of rabbis.

Moshe Sofer was born in Frankfurt am Main, (now Germany) on September 24, 1762, during the Seven Years' War. (8 Tishrei 5523 on the Hebrew calendar).

His father's name was Shmuel (Samuel) (d. 1779, 15 Sivan 5539) and his mother's name was Reisil the daughter of Elchanan (d. 1822, 17 Adar 5582).

Shmuel's mother Reizchen (d. 5 May 1731 in Frankfurt am Main) was a daughter of the Gaon of Frankfurt Rabbi Shmuel Schotten, known as the Marsheishoch (died, 1719, 14 Tamuz 5479 in Frankfurt am Main), his namesake.

Biography:

Education

At the age of nine Moshe entered the yeshiva of Rabbi Nathan Adler (1742-1800, d. 27 Elul 5560) at Frankfurt, and when only thirteen years old he delivered public lectures. He was so extraordinary that Rabbi Pinchas Horowitz of Frankfurt asked him to become his pupil. He agreed, but remained under Rabbi Horowitz for only one year, and then left in 1776 for the yeshiva of Rabbi David Tebele Scheuer (1712-1782, d. Shmini Atzeres 5543) in the neighboring city of Mainz, which gladly welcomed him. There he studied under its Rosh Yeshiva Rabbi Mechel Scheuer (1739-1810 d. 27 Shevat 5570) son of Rabbi Tebele during the years 1776 and 1777 until he yielded to the entreaties of his former teachers in Frankfurt and returned to his native city. In Mainz many prominent residents took an interest in his welfare and facilitated the progress of his studies. In addition to his vast Talmudic knowledge, he was also proficient in astronomy, geometry, and history.

Boskowitz, Prossnitz, Dresnitz, and Mattersdorf

In 1782 Rabbi Nathan Adler was called to the rabbinate of Boskowitz (Boskovice), Moravia, Austrian Habsburg (now Boskovice, Czech Republic) and Rabbi Sofer followed him. He went, at Rabbi Adler's advice, to Prossnitz (Prostejov), where he married Sarah (d. 1812), the daughter of the deceased rabbi of Prossnitz, Rabbi Moses Jerwitz (d. 1785). Rabbi Moses Sofer became a member of the Chevra Kadisha (Shu"t Chasam Sofer, Y"D:327) and eventually became head of the yeshiva there.

In 1794, Rabbi Sofer accepted his first official position, becoming Rabbi of Dresnitz , after he had procured the sanction of the government to settle in that town. In 1797 he was appointed Rabbi of Mattersdorf (currently Mattersburg, Austria); one of the seven communities (known as the Sheva kehillot) of Burgenland. There he established a yeshiva, and pupils flocked to him. His prime pupil in Mattersdorf, was the future Gaon Rabbi Meir Ash (Maharam Ash) (1780-1854), Rabbi of Ungvar.

Work in Pressburg (today's Bratislava) and his death

He declined many offers for the rabbinate, but in 1806 accepted a call to Pressburg, Austrian Empire (now Bratislava, capital of Slovakia). In Pressburg, he established a yeshiva, which was attended by as many as 500 pupils. Hundreds of these pupils became the rabbis of Hungarian Jewry. Among them were:

  • Rabbi Avrohom Schag, (1801-1876)
  • Rabbi Moshe Schick (Maharam Schick), (1807-1879)
  • Rabbi Dovid Schick (Imrei Duvid) (died: 1890) brother of Moshe Schick
  • Rabbi Chaim Zvi Manheimer, (1814-1886)
  • Rabbi Hillel Lichtenstein (Kolomea), (1815-1891)
  • Rabbi Avraham Yehuda Hacohen Schwartz (Kol Aryeh), (1824-1875)
  • Rabbi Meir Perles, (1811-1893)
  • Rabbi Chaim Sofer (Machne Chaim), (1822-1886)
  • Rabbi Menachem Mendel Panet (Maglei Tzedek), (1818-1884)
  • Rabbi Menachem Katz, (1795-1891)
  • Rabbi Aharon Singer, (c. 1806-1868)
  • Rabbi Shimon Sidon (Shevet Shimon)(1815 - 1891), Rabbi of Cifer and Trnava
  • Rabbi Yisroel Yitzchok Aharon Landesberg, (1804-1879)
  • Rabbi Aharon Fried, (1813-1891)
  • Rabbi Aharon Duvid Deutch (Goren Duvid), (1813-1878)
  • Rabbi Yehuda Modrin (Trumas Hacri), (1820-1893)
  • Rabbi Yoel Unger, (1800-1886)
  • Rabbi Naftali Sofer, (1819-1899)
  • Rabbi Avrohom Shmuel Binyamin Sofer (Ktav Sofer), (1815-1872) (son)
  • Rabbi Shimon Sofer, (1821-1883) (son)
  • Rabbi Dovid Zvi Eherenfeld (d. 1861), (son-in-law)
  • Rabbi Shmuel Eherenfeld (1835-1883), (Chasan Sofer) (grandson)
  • Rabbi Yehuda Aszod (Yehudah Ya'aleh)( -1866)
  • Rabbi Shlomo Zalman Spitzer (Tikun Shloime), (1811-1893), (son-in-law), Rabbi of Schiff Shul in Vienna

His students also numbered many rabbinic leaders, including Rabbi Chaim Joseph Gottlieb of Stropkov.

Chatam Sofer was married twice. His first wife was Malka Yarevits (Jerwitz) - died childless. He then [in 1812 (23 Cheshven 5573)] married Sarel (Sarah) (1790-1832, d. 18 Adar II 5592), the widowed daughter of Rabbi Akiba Eiger, (1761-1837) Rabbi of Posen. She was the widow of Rabbi Avraham Moshe Kalischer (1788-1812), Rabbi of Piła, the son of Rabbi Yehuda Kalischer, author of "Hayad Hachazaka". Rabbi Moshe and Sarah had 11 children (5 sons and 6 daughters).

The Chatam Sofer died in Pressburg on October 3, 1839 (25 Tishrei 5600), and was succeeded by his son Rabbi Avraham Shmuel Binyamin Sofer known as the Ketav Sofer.

Fight against changes in Judaism

The Chasam Sofer led the fight against the Reform Movement

From the late 18th century onwards, movements which eventually developed into Reform Judaism began to progress. Synagogues subscribing to these new views began to appear in centres such as Berlin and Hamburg. Rabbi Sofer was profoundly opposed to the reformers and attacked them in his speeches and writings. For example in a responsum of 1816 he forbade the congregation in Vienna to allow a performance in the synagogue of a cantata they had commissioned from the composer Ignaz Moscheles because it would involve a mixed choir. In the same spirit he also contested the founders of the Reformschule (Reform synagogue) in Pressburg, which was established in the year 1827.

In response to those who stated that Judaism could change or evolve, Rabbi Sofer applied the motto Hadash asur min ha-Torah (חדש אסור מן התורה), "Anything new is forbidden by the Torah," (homelitically based on the Biblical law, in Leviticus 23:14, that new grains are forbidden to be used before Passover, see Yoshon). For Rabbi Sofer, Judaism as previously practiced was the only form of Judaism acceptable. In his view the rules and tenets of Judaism never changed — and cannot ever change. This became the defining idea for the opponents to Reform, and in some form, it has continued to influence Orthodox response to innovation in Jewish doctrine and

Influence

He is one of the most important figures in the development of Haredi Judaism, where his influence is still felt today. He is also the patriarch of the Sofer family of rabbis. His son Rabbi Avrohom Shmuel Binyamin Sofer (1815-1872) (the Ktav Sofer) succeeded him as rabbi of Pressburg, and his son Rabbi Shimon Sofer (1821-1883) became rabbi of Kraków. One of his descendants is the Grand Rabbi of the Erlau sect, which is a Hasidic-style sect in Jerusalem that follows the customs of Rabbi Moses Sofer, as opposed to Hasidic customs of prayer.

In Orthodox Jewry, he is an often-quoted authority. Many of his responsa are required reading for semicha (rabbinic ordination); his novellæ on the Torah sparked a new style in Torah commentary, and some editions of the Talmud contain his emendations and additions.

His students included many rabbinic leaders, including Rabbi Hayyim Joseph Gottlieb of Stropkov.

A modern Jewish memorial, containing Moses Sofer's grave and those of many of his associates and family is in Bratislava. It is situated underground below Bratislava Castle at the left bank of the Danube). The nearby tram station is named after him.

See also: Jewish Dynasties

1913--1996- The Eger Family Association- pg.8,20

1913--1990- The Eger Family Association אילן ז, אילן זז, --------------------

www.ChasamSofer.com http://www.tora.co.il/gdolim/chatam.htm -------------------- There are several books which speak about The Chatam/Hatam Sofer's life, including Patai's autobiographic work about Patai growing up in Budapest. In this book he traces his lineage to the Chatam Sofer and to Rabbi Akiva Eger and describes aspect of their lives, giving interesting details for each one. (Y.M., 7/30/14)

About Moses Baal Chatam Sofer Schreiber, חת"ם סופר (עברית)

הרב משה סופר - שרייבר (14 בספטמבר 1762 - 3 באוקטובר 1839), הידוע בכינוי החת"ם סופר (על שם ספרו חידושי תורת משה), ראש ישיבה ומגדולי הרבנים והפוסקים בדורות האחרונים. תרם תרומה מכרעת לעיצוב ההשקפה האורתודוקסית-יהודית. אבי משפחת סופר-שרייבר, המונה מאות צאצאים ובהם רבנים וגדולי תורה מפורסמים.

אביו: ר' שמואל. אמו: מרת רייזיל. בניו: ר' אברהם שמואל בנימין, ר' שמעון. סבא: ר' אלחנן חזן (מצד אמו).

מוריו: ר' נתן אדלר הכהן, ר' פינחס לוי הורוביץ (בעל "ההפלאה"). מתלמידיו: ר' אברהם שמואל בנימין (בנו), ר' הלל ליכטנשטיין, מהר"ם שיק.

ר' משה המכונה החת"ם על שמו ועל שם ספריו (חידושי תורת משה), נולד בשנת ה'תקכ"ב. בהגיעו לגיל 9 למד בישיבתו של ר' נתן אדלר בפרנקפורט דמיין (גרמניה) ובגיל 13 כבר דרש בענייני הלכה. למד מתמטיקה ואסטרונומיה, נסמך להוראה על ידי ר' נתן אדלר הכהן ור' מרדכי בנט. נשא לאישה את בתו של ר' משה ידוויץ בפרוסניץ. מחוסר פרנסה קיבל על עצמו משרת רבנות בעיר דרזניץ, ובשנת ה'תקנ"ח עבר למטרסדורף (הונגריה) ועמד בראש הישיבה. בשנת ה'תקס"ג התמנה לרב בפרשבורג ועמד בראש ישיבה גדולה שהקים ומאות תלמידים הגיעו אליה מכל אירופה. לאחר 9 שנים ששהה בפרשבורג מתה אשתו והוא נשא לאישה את בתו של ר' עקיבא איגר. שמו של החת"ם סופר יצא לתהילה בכל קהילות ישראל. מקהילות רבות מכל רחבי אירופה פנו אליו בשאלות, הוא נחשב לפוסק אחרון שצריכים לסמוך עליו ולנהוג על פי פסקיו שהתקבלו ללא שום ערעור בקהילות הונגריה. החת"ם סופר פעל ליישוב ארץ ישראל, כמה מתלמידיו עלו לארץ וייסדו את כולל בני הונגריה בירושלים. ראה סכנה גדולה לקיומו של עם ישראל והובלה להתנצרות במעשיהם של הרפורמים ולכן תיקן את הסיסמה "חדש אסור מן התורה" - שכל שינוי במצוות ובמנהגי ישראל אסור אך ורק מפני שיש בו חידוש גם אם אינו סותר את התלמוד והפוסקים. במהלך כל ימי חודש אדר נהג ללמוד עם תלמידיו את מסכת מגילה. התנגד לשינוי בלבוש המסורתי ובסדרי התפילה, אך עם זאת סבר שאפשר ללמוד גם לימודים כלליים אחרי לימוד התורה ואישר הקמת בית ספר לצעירים יהודים ללימוד מלאכה וחקלאות.

בהגהותיו לשלחן ערוך [חושן משפט] רמז על שנת פטירתו בכתיבתו את סדר שנות השמיטה 'ויהיה שמיטה אי"ה שנת תקפ"ו הבאה עלינו לטובה, ושנת תקצ"ג יהיה רצון שיבנה בית המקדש ובשנת ת"ר הבאה עלינו לטובה'. בציינו את שנת תקצ"ג התפלל על בנין בית המקדש ולא בסיום סדר שנות השמיטה, על מנת לבקש על בניין המקדש טרם פטירתו.

בשנת ה'ת"ר השיב את נשמתו ליוצרה והשאיר אחריו כ-100 כתבי יד.

מספריו: • חת"ם סופר: חידושים על הש"ס (ק) • חת"ם סופר: שו"ת (ק1/ק2/ק3/ק4/ק5) • פירוש על הגדה של פסח (ק) • צוואת משה: צוואת מוסר לבניו ולזרעו. • שירת משה: שירים ופיוטים בדרך הקבלה. • תורת משה: פירוש על התורה.

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Moses Schreiber - Chatam Sofer's Timeline

1762
September 24, 1762
Frankfurt am Main, Darmstadt, Hesse, Germany

1972

1787
May 6, 1787
Age 24
Prosnitz פרוסניץ
1813
January 1813
Age 50
Posen, Poland
1813
Age 50
Bratislava, Bratislava Region, Slovakia
1815
March 13, 1815
Age 52
Bratislava, Bratislava, Bratislava Region, Slovakia
1815
Age 52
Pressburg
1820
December 18, 1820
Age 58
Bratislava, Bratislava, Bratislava Region, Slovakia
1821
December 19, 1821
Age 59
Pressburg
1822
1822
Age 59
1829
August 20, 1829
Age 66
Pressburg