Huang-di (皇帝), a title created by Qin Shi-huang-di (秦始皇帝, literally the First Huang-di of the Qin), and thenceforth employed by all who claimed sovereignty over all or part of China, all the way down to 1912 when the last Huang-di Puyi abdicated.
The fact that the English title Emperor is associated with Huang-di, in terms of translating both ways, does not make any ruler before Qin Shi-huang-di less of an Emperor. During the Warring States periods, some of the rulers of the feudal States (國), though generally titled gong (公), were as powerful as many of the later Emperors, and should too be included here.
Unlike Europe, different dynasties in China have few connections with each other, some even rising from humble roots.
- Chinese Emperors Wikipedia List
- ￼ Portraits of Chinese Emperors ￼- Qin, Han, Sui, Tang, Song, Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties
- Chinese emperors family trees (ancient) → (early) → (middle) → (late)
The association with European nobilities is summarized here:
- Emperor = huang-di 黃帝
- King = wang 王 (Shang and Zhou dynasties)
- Prince = wang 王 (since Qin dynasty)
- Duke = gong 公
- Marquis = hou 侯
- Earl = bo 伯
- Viscount = zi 子
- Baron = nan 男
The following is a list of selected Emperors currently existing on Geni to help you navigate.
西周 Western Zhou
東周 Eastern Zhou
春秋 Spring & Autumn
戰國 Warring States
西漢 Former Han
東漢 Later Han
三國 Three Kingdoms
魏 Wei 曹操
蜀漢 Shu 劉備
吳 Wu 孫權