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Huang-di (皇帝), a title created by Qin Shi-huang-di (秦始皇帝, literally the First Huang-di of the Qin), and thenceforth employed by all who claimed sovereignty over all or part of China, all the way down to 1912 when the last Huang-di Puyi abdicated.

The fact that the English title Emperor is associated with Huang-di, in terms of translating both ways, does not make any ruler before Qin Shi-huang-di less of an Emperor. During the Warring States periods, some of the rulers of the feudal States (國), though generally titled gong (公), were as powerful as many of the later Emperors, and should too be included here.

Unlike Europe, different dynasties in China have few connections with each other, some even rising from humble roots.

The association with European nobilities is summarized here:

  • Emperor = huang-di 黃帝
  • King = wang 王 (Shang and Zhou dynasties)
  • Prince = wang 王 (since Qin dynasty)
  • Duke = gong
  • Marquis = hou
  • Earl = bo
  • Viscount = zi
  • Baron = nan

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The following is a list of selected Emperors currently existing on Geni to help you navigate.

五帝

夏 Xia

商 Shang

商湯

周 Zhou

西周 Western Zhou

周武王

東周 Eastern Zhou

周平王

春秋 Spring & Autumn

齊桓公

秦穆公

晉文公

戰國 Warring States

秦 Qin

秦始皇

漢 Han

西漢 Former Han

漢高祖

漢武帝

新 Xin

王莽

東漢 Later Han

漢光武帝

三國 Three Kingdoms

魏 Wei 曹操

蜀漢 Shu 劉備

吳 Wu 孫權

晉 Jin

晉武帝

南北朝 North and South Dynasties

魏孝文帝

宋武帝 齊高帝 梁武帝 陳武帝

隋 Sui

隋文帝

唐 Tang

唐太宗

武則天

唐玄宗

五代 Five Dynasties

宋 Song

See album of official portraits

北宋 Northern Song

宋太祖

遼 Liao

南宋 Southern Song

宋高宗

宋孝宗

宋理宗

金 Jin (Jurchen)

金太祖

元 Yuan (Mongol)

See album of portraits

Genghis Khan

Kublai Khan

明 Ming

See album of portraits

明太祖

明世宗

清 Qing (Manchu)

努爾哈赤

康熙

乾隆