Prominent scientists who have made major contributions to our understanding of our world and the rules of nature.
*Exact Sciences - Mathematics & Computer Sciences; Physics
*Natural Sciences - Chemistry and more....
Selected Profiles (listed by activity period):
- Pythagoras, Ὁ Πυθαγόρας, of Samos (c. 570 BCE – c. 495 BCE) Ionian Greek philosopher, mathematician, and founder of the religious movement called Pythagoreanism.
- Euclid, Εὐκλείδης, Eukleidēs, of Alexandria (322 BCE – 275 BCE) Greek mathematician, often referred to as the "Father of Geometry".
- Archimedes, Ἀρχιμήδης, of Syracuse (c. 287 BCE – 212 BCE) Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer.
0 - 1000
- Diophanus of Alexandria, Διόφαντος ὁ Ἀλεξανδρεύς XD (b. between 200 and 214 CE, d. between 284 and 298 CE) Alexandrian Greek mathematician, considered co-“father of algebra”.
- Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī, أبو عبد الله محمد بن موسى الخوارزمي (c. 780 – 850) mathematician, astronomer, astrologer, and geographer. Considered co-“father of algebra”.
1000 - 1500
- Avicenna, Ibn Sīnā (ابن سینا) (c. 980 – 1037) Astronomer, chemist, geologist, Hafiz, Islamic psychologist, Islamic scholar, Islamic theologian, logician, mathematician, Maktab teacher, physicist, poet, and scientist. He is regarded as the most famous and influential polymath of the Islamic Golden Age
- Mikołaj Kopernik (Nicolaus Copernicus) (1473 - 1543) Polish astronomer, first to formulate a comprehensive heliocentric cosmology, which displaced the Earth from the center of the universe.
- אברהם זכות, Abraham Zacuto (Abraão ben Samuel Zacuto) (c. 1450 – c. 1510) was a Sephardi Jew astronomer, astrologer, mathematician and historian who served as Royal Astronomer in the 15th century to King John II of Portugal. The crater Zagut on the Moon is named after him.
- דוד גאנז David Gans (1561 – 1626) Jewish mathematician, historian, astronomer and astrologer, of Prague.
- Tycho Brahe (1546 -1601) Danish astronomer, credited with the most accurate astronomical observations of his time.
- John Napier of Merchiston (1550 -1617)
- יואכים חיים גאנץ Joachim Chaim Gans Bohemian mining expert and metallurgist, and renowned for being the first recorded Jew to live in North America.
- Galileo Galilei (Feb. 15, 1564 - Jan. 8, 1641) Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer and philosopher. Stephen Hawking says: "Galileo, perhaps more than any other single person, was responsible for the birth of modern science."
- Johannes Kepler (1571 - 1630) German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer. Best known for his eponymous laws of planetary motion.
- Rene Decartes (1596 - 1650) French philosopher, mathematician, physicist. Has been dubbed the "Father of Modern Philosophy".
- Pierre de Fermat (1601 - 1665) French lawyer and an mathematician who is given credit for early developments that led to infinitesimal calculus.
- Sir Isaac Newton, FRS (1642 - 1726) English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist, and theologian. Considered to be one of the most influential people in human history.
- Christiaen Huygens (Apr. 14, 1629 – Jul. 8, 1695) Dutch mathematician, astronomer, physicist and horologist.
- Leonhard Euler (1707 - 1783) Swiss mathematician & physicist, considered to be the preeminent mathematician of the 18th century,
- William Smith Geologist
- Nikola Tesla (1856 - 1943) Serbian-American inventor, mechanical & electrical engineer. An important contributor to the birth of commercial electricity, and a revolutionary in the field of electromagnetism.
[see all Nobel Prizes in Physics below]
- 2005: ישראל אומן Robert John Aumann (b. 1930) Israeli American mathematician, "for having enhanced our understanding of conflict and cooperation through game-theory analysis" (jointly with the economist Thomas C. Schelling).
John Charles Fields (1863 - 1932) Canadian mathematician.
The Fields Medal, officially known as International Medal for Outstanding Discoveries in Mathematics, is a prize awarded to two, three, or four mathematicians not over 40 years of age at each International Congress of the International Mathematical Union (IMU), a meeting that takes place every four years. The colloquial name is in honor of Canadian mathematician John Charles Fields. Fields was instrumental in establishing the award, designing the medal itself, and funding the monetary component. The Fields Medal is often viewed as the greatest honor a mathematician can receive. It comes with a monetary award, which since 2006 is C$15,000. The medal was first awarded in 1936 and it has been awarded every four years since 1950.
- 1936: Lars Ahlfors (Finland) "Awarded medal for research on covering surfaces related to Riemann surfaces of inverse functions of entire and meromorphic functions. Opened up new fields of analysis." Jesse Douglas (USA) "Did important work of the Plateau problem which is concerned with finding minimal surfaces connecting and determined by some fixed boundary."
- 1950: Laurent Schwartz (France) & Atle Selberg (Norway)
- 1954: Kunihiko Kodaira (Japan) & Jean-Pierre Serre (France)
- 1958: Klaus Roth (UK) & René Thom (France)
- 1962: Lars Hörmander (Sweden) & John Milnor (USA)
- 1966: Michael Atiyah (UK), Paul Joseph Cohen (USA), Alexander Grothendieck, & Stephen Smale (USA)
- 1970: Alan Baker (UK), Heisuke Hironaka (Japan), Sergei Novikov (Russia), & John G. Thompson (USA)
- 1974: Enrico Bombieri (Italy) & David Mumford (USA)
- 1978: Pierre Deligne (Belgium), Charles Fefferman (USA), Grigory Margulis (Russia) & Daniel Quillen (USA)
- 1983: Alain Connes (France), William Thurston (USA) & Shing-Tung Yau (USA)
- 1986: Simon Donaldson (UK), Gerd Faltings (Germany) & Michael Freedman (USA)
- 1990: Vladimir Drinfeld (Russia), Vaughan F. R. Jones (New Zealand/USA), Shigefumi Mori (Japan) & Edward Witten (USA)
- 1994: Jean Bourgain, Pierre-Louis Lions, Jean-Christophe Yoccoz (France) & Efim Zelmanov (Russia/USA)
- 1998: Richard Borcherds (UK), Timothy Gowers (UK), Maxim Kontsevich (Russia) & Curtis T. McMullen (USA)
- 2002: Laurent Lafforgue (France) & Vladimir Voevodsky (Russia/USA)
- 2006: Andrei Okounkov (Russia/USA), Grigori Perelman (Russia), Terence Tao (Australia/USA) & Wendelin Werner (France)
- 2010: Elon Lindenstrauss (Israel), "For his results on measure rigidity in ergodic theory, and their applications to number theory." Ngô Bảo Châu (Vietnam/France), "For his proof of the Fundamental Lemma in the theory of automorphic forms through the introduction of new algebro-geometric methods." Stanislav Smirnov (Switzerland/Russia) "For the proof of conformal invariance of percolation and the planar Ising model in statistical physics." Cédric Villani (France) "For his proofs of nonlinear Landau damping and convergence to equilibrium for the Boltzmann equation."
- 2014: Artur Avila (France/Brazil) "for his profound contributions to dynamical systems theory, which have changed the face of the field, using the powerful idea of renormalization as a unifying principle." Manjul Bhargava (USA) "for developing powerful new methods in the geometry of numbers, which he applied to count rings of small rank and to bound the average rank of elliptic curves." Martin Hairer (UK) "for his outstanding contributions to the theory of stochastic partial differential equations, and in particular for the creation of a theory of regularity structures for such equations." Maryam Mirzakhani Stanford University, (USA) "for her outstanding contributions to the dynamics and geometry of Riemann surfaces and their moduli spaces."
- Alan Mathison Turing (1912 – 1954).
The ACM A.M. Turing Award is an annual prize given by the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) to "an individual selected for contributions of a technical nature made to the computing community". It is stipulated that "The contributions should be of lasting and major technical importance to the computer field". The Turing Award is recognized as the "highest distinction in Computer science" and "Nobel Prize of computing".
The award is named after Alan Turing, mathematician and reader in mathematics at the University of Manchester. Turing is "frequently credited for being the Father of theoretical computer science and artificial intelligence". The Turing Award, considered by many to be the Nobel Prize of computing. During 2007-2014, the award was accompanied by a prize of $250,000, with financial support provided by Intel and Google. As of 2014 the award comes with the recognition.a one-million dollar prize, thanks to Google.
List of recipients:
- 1966: Alan J. Perlis (USA)
- 1967: Maurice V. Wilkes (UK)
- 1968: Richard Hamming (USA)
- 1969: Marvin Minsky (USA) (b. 1927)
- 1970: James H. Wilkinson (UK)
- 1971: John McCarthy (USA)
- 1972: Edsger W. Dijkstra (Netherlands)
- 1973: Charles W. Bachman (USA)
- 1974: Donald E. Knuth (USA)
- 1975: Allen Newell (USA) & Herbert A. Simon (USA)
- 1976: Michael O. Rabin (Israel) & Dana S. Scott (USA), For their joint paper "Finite Automata and Their Decision Problem," which introduced the idea of nondeterministic machines, which has proved to be an enormously valuable concept. Their (Scott & Rabin) classic paper has been a continuous source of inspiration for subsequent work in this field.
- 1977: John Backus (USA)
- 1978: Robert W. Floyd (USA)
- 1979: Kenneth E. Iverson (Canada)
- 1980: C. Antony R. Hoare (UK)
- 1981: Edgar F. Codd (UK)
- 1982: Stephen A. Cook (USA/Canada)
- 1983: Ken Thompson & Dennis M. Ritchie (USA)
- 1984: Niklaus Wirth (Switzerland)
- 1985: Richard M. Karp (USA)
- 1986: John Hopcroft & Robert Tarjan (USA)
- 1987: John Cocke (USA)
- 1988: Ivan Sutherland (USA)
- 1989: William (Velvel) Kahan
- 1990: Fernando J. Corbató (USA)
- 1991: Robin Milner (UK)
- 1992: Butler W. Lampson (USA)
- 1993: Juris Hartmanis & Richard E. Stearns (USA)
- 1994: Edward Feigenbaum (USA) & Raj Reddy (India/USA)
- 1995: Manuel Blum (Venezuela)
- 1996: Amir Pnueli (Israel), For an inspiring vision of the future of interactive computing and the invention of key technologies to help realize this vision.
- 1997: Douglas Engelbart (USA)
- 1998: Jim Gray (USA)
- 1999: Frederick P. Brooks, Jr. (USA)
- 2000: Andrew Chi-Chih Yao (USA/Taiwan)
- 2001: Ole-Johan Dahl & Kristen Nygaard (Norway)
- 2002: Ronald L. Rivest (USA), Adi Shamir (Israel ) & Leonard M. Adleman (USA), For their ingenious contribution for making public-key cryptography useful in practice.
- 2003: Alan Kay (USA)
- 2004: Vinton G. Cerf & Robert E. Kahn (USA)
- 2005: Peter Naur (Denmark)
- 2006: Frances E. Allen (USA)
- 2007: Edmund M. Clarke (USA), E. Allen Emerson (USA) & Joseph Sifakis (France/Greece)
- 2008: Barbara Liskov (USA)
- 2009: Charles P. Thacker (USA)
- 2010: Leslie G. Valiant (UK)
- 2011: Judea Pearl (Israel/USA), For fundamental contributions to artificial intelligence through the development of a calculus for probabilistic and causal reasoning.
- 2012: Silvio Micali (Italy/USA) & Shafi Goldwasser (Israel/USA) For transformative work that laid the complexity-theoretic foundations for the science of cryptography and in the process pioneered new methods for efficient verification of mathematical proofs in complexity theory.
- 2013: Leslie Lamport (USA). For fundamental contributions to the theory and practice of distributed and concurrent systems, notably the invention of concepts such as causality and logical clocks, safety and liveness, replicated state machines, and sequential consistency.
- 2014: Michael Stonebraker (USA) For fundamental contributions to the concepts and practices underlying modern database systems.
- 2014: jointly to: Isamu Akasaki 赤崎 勇 (b. 1929) Japanese electric engineering scientist, to Hiroshi Amano 天野 浩 (b. 1960) Japanese physicist and to Shuji Nakamura 中村 修二 (b. 1954) Japanese American material scientist, "for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources".
- 2013: jointly to: François Englert (b. 1932), Belgian theoretical scientist and Peter W. Higgs (b. 1929) British theoretical scientist "for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider"
- 2012: jointly to: Serge Haroche (b. 1944) French physicist, and to David J. Wineland (b. 1944) American physicist, "for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems".
- 2011: Half the prize to: Saul Perlmutter (b. 1959) American astrophysicist, and the other half jointly to: Brian P. Schmidt (b. 1967) American born Australian astrophysicist, and to: Adam G. Riess (b. 1969) American astrophysicist, "for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae".
- 1991: Pierre-Gilles de Gennes (1932 - 2007) French chemical physicist, "for discovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers".
- 1970: divided equally between: Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén (1908 - 1995) Swedish physicist, "for fundamental work and discoveries in magnetohydro-dynamics with fruitful applications in different parts of plasma physics" and to Louis Eugène Félix Néel (1904 - 2000) French physicist, "for fundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid state physics".
- 1969: Murray Gell-Mann (b. 1929) American physicist, "for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions"
- 1968: Luis Walter Alvarez (1911 - 1988) American physicist, "for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis"
- 1967: Hans Albrecht Bethe (1906 – 2005) German-American versatile theoretical physicist with important contributions to quantum electrodynamics, nuclear physics, solid-state physics and astrophysics: "for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars".
- 1966: Alfred Kastler (1902 - 1984) French physicist, "for the discovery and development of optical methods for studying Hertzian resonances in atoms".
- 1965: jointly to: Sin-Itiro Tomonaga (1906 - 1979) Japanese physicist, to Julian Schwinger (1918 - 1994) American physicist, and to Richard P. Feynman (1918 - 1988) American physicist, "for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles".
- 1964: divided, one half awarded to Charles Hard Townes (b. 1915) American physicist, the other half jointly to Nicolay Gennadiyevich Basov (1922 - 2001) Russian physicist, and Aleksandr Mikhailovich Prokhorov (1916 - 2002) Russian physicist, "for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle".
- 1963: divided, half the prize to: Eugene Paul Wigner (1902 – 1995) Hungarian American theoretical physicist and mathematician, "for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles"; the other half jointly to Maria Goeppert Mayer (1906 – 1972) German-born American theoretical physicist, and to J. Hans D. Jensen (1907 – 1973) German nuclear physicist, "for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure".
- 1962: Lev Davidovich Landau (1908 – 1968) Russian Physicist and mathematician, "for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium".
- 1961: divided equally between: Robert Hofstadter (1915 - 1960) American physicist, "for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons", and Rudolf Ludwig Mössbauer (1929 - 2011) German physicist, "for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name".
- 1960: Donald Arthur Glaser (1926 - 2013) American physicist, "for the invention of the bubble chamber".
- 1959: jointly to: Emilio Gino Segrè (1905 - 1989) Italian-American physicist, and Owen Chamberlain (1920 - 2006) American physicist, "for their discovery of the antiproton"
- 1958: jointly to: Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov (1904 - 1990) Russian physicist, to Il´ja Mikhailovich Frank (1908 - 1990) Russian physicist, and to Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm (1895 - 1971) Russian physicist, "for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect".
- 1957: jointly to: Chen-Ning Yang (b. 1922) Chinese-born American physicist, and Tsung-Dao (T.D.) Lee (b. 1926) Chinese-born American physicist, "for their penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles"
- 1956: jointly to: William Bradford Shockley (1910 - 1989) American physicist and inventor, to John Bardeen (1908 - 1991) American physicist & electrical engineer, and to Walter Houser Brattain (1902 - 1987) American physicist, "for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect".
- 1955: divided equally between: Willis Eugene Lamb (1913 - 2008) American physicist, "for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum" and Polykarp Kusch (1911 - 1993) American physicist, "for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron".
- 1954: divided equally between: Max Born (1882 - 1970) German-born British physicist, "for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction", and Walther Bothe (1891 - 1957). German physicist, "for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith".
- 1953: Frits (Frederik) Zernike (1888 - 1966) Dutch physicist, "for his demonstration of the phase contrast method, especially for his invention of the phase contrast microscope".
- 1952:: jointly to: Felix Bloch (1905 – 1983) Swiss-born American nuclear physicist, and to: Edward Mills Purcell (1912 – 1997) American nuclear physicist, "for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith".
- 1951: jointly to: Sir John Douglas Cockcroft OM KCB CBE FRS (1897 – 1967 ) British nuclear physicist & Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton (1903 – 1955) Irish nuclear physicist, "for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles".
- 1950: Cecil Frank Powell (1903 - 1969) British physicist, "for his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and his discoveries regarding mesons made with this method"
- 1949: Hideki Yukawa (1907 - 1981) Japanese physicist , "for his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of theoretical work on nuclear forces".
- 1948: Patrick Maynard Stuart Blackett (1897 – 1974) British particle physicist, "for his development of the Wilson cloud chamber method, and his discoveries therewith in the fields of nuclear physics and cosmic radiation".
- 1947: Sir Edward Victor Appleton (1892 - 1965) British physicist, "for his investigations of the physics of the upper atmosphere especially for the discovery of the so-called Appleton layer".
- 1946: Percy Williams Bridgman (1882 – 1961) American physicist, "for the invention of an apparatus to produce extremely high pressures, and for the discoveries he made therewith in the field of high pressure physics".
- 1945: Wolfgang Pauli (1900 – 1958) Austrian born Swiss physicist of Jewish descent, "for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli Principle".
- 1944: Isidor Isaac Rabi (1898 – 1988) Galicia born American physicist of Jewish descent, "for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei".
- 1943: Otto Stern (1888 – 1969) American-German physicist of Jewish descent, "for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton".
- 1942: Not awarded.
- 1941: Not awarded.
- 1940: Not awarded.
- 1939: Ernest Orlando Lawrence (1901 – 1958) American physicist, "for the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artificial radioactive elements".
- 1938: Enrico Fermi (1901 – 1954) Italian-born, American physicist frequently referred to as "one of the two fathers of the atomic bomb", "for his demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons".
- 1937: jointly to: Clinton Joseph Davisson (1881 - 1958) American physicist. and Sir George Paget Thomson (1892 - 1975) British physicist , "for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals"
- 1936: divided equally between: Victor Franz Hess (1883 - 1964) Austrian-American physicist, "for his discovery of cosmic radiation" and Carl David Anderson (1905 - 1991) American physicist, "for his discovery of the positron".
- 1935: James Chadwick (1891 – 1974) English physicist, "for the discovery of the neutron".
- 1934 Not awarded.
- 1933: jointly to: Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac (1902 – 1984) English theoretical physicist, "for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory".
- 1932: Werner Heisenberg (1901 – 1976) German physicist, "for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen".
- 1931: Not awarded.
- 1930: Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman (1888 - 1970) Tamil-Indian physicist, "for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the Raman effect ". He was the first Asian and first non-White to receive any Nobel Prize in the sciences.
- 1929: Prince Louis-Victor Pierre Raymond de Broglie (1892 – 1987) French physicist, "for his discovery of the wave nature of electrons".
- 1928: Owen Willans Richardson (1879 - 1959) British physicist, "for his work on the thermionic phenomenon and especially for the discovery of the law named after him".
- 1927: jointly to: Arthur Holly Compton (1892 – 1962) American atomic physicist, "for his discovery of the effect named after him"; and to: Charles Thomson Rees Wilson (1869 – 1959) British atomic physicist, "for his method of making the paths of electrically charged particles visible by condensation of vapour".
- 1926: Jean Baptiste Perrin (1870 – 1942) French molecular physicist, "for his work on the discontinuous structure of matter, and especially for his discovery of sedimentation equilibrium".
- 1925: Jointly to: Gustav Ludwig Hertz (1887 – 1975) German experimental physicist, "for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom".
- 1924: Manne Siegbahn (1886 – 1978) Swedish physicist, Georg Siegbahn, "for his discoveries and research in the field of X-ray spectroscopy".
- 1923: Robert Andrews Millikan (1868 – 1953) American experimental physicist, "for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect".
- 1922: Niels Henrik David Bohr (1885 – 1962) Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum mechanics. Received the Nobel Prize "for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them."
- 1921: Albert Einstein (1879 – 1955) German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of general relativity, effecting a revolution in physics. Often regarded as the father of modern physics and one of the most prolific intellects in human history.Received the Nobel Prize "for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect". The latter was pivotal in establishing the quantum theory within physics.
- 1920: Charles Edouard Guillaume (1861 – 1938) Swiss physycist, "in recognition of the service he had rendered to precision measurements in physics by his discovery of anomalies in nickel steel alloys."
- 1919 Johannes Stark
- 1918: Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck (1858 – 1947) German physicist, founder of the quantum theory, and thus one of the most important physicists of the twentieth century, "in recognition of the services he rendered to the advancement of Physics by his discovery of energy quanta".
- 1917: Charles Glover Barkla (1877 – 1944) British physicist, "for his discovery of the characteristic Röntgen radiation of the elements".
- 1916: Not awarded.
- 1915: jointly to: Sir William Lawrence Bragg (1890 – 1971) Australian-born British physicist and X-ray crystallographer, "for their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays".
- 1914: Max von Laue (1879 – 1960) was a German physicist, "for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals".
- 1913: Heike Kamerlingh Onnes (1853 – 1926) Dutch physicist, "for his investigations on the properties of matter at low temperatures which led, inter alia, to the production of liquid helium".
- 1912: Nils Gustaf Dalén (1869 – 1937) Swedish industrialist and inventor, for his "invention of automatic regulators for use in conjunction with gas accumulators for illuminating lighthouses and buoys".
- 1911: Wilhelm Wien (1864 – 1928) German physicist, "for his discoveries regarding the laws governing the radiation of heat."
- 1910: Johannes Diderik van der Waals (1837 – 1923) Dutch theoretical physicist and thermodynamicist, "for his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids".
- 1909: Jointly to: Guglielmo Marconi (1874 – 1937) Italian inventor, and to Karl Ferdinand Braun (1850 – 1918) German inventor & physicist, "in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy".
- 1908: Gabriel Lippmann (1845 – 1921) Franco-Luxembourgish physicist and inventor, "for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference".
- 1907: Albert Abraham Michelson (1852 – 1931) American physicist, "for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and metrological investigations carried out with their aid".
- 1906: Joseph John Thomson (1856 – 1940) English physicist, "in recognition of the great merits of his theoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases".
- '1905:' Philipp Eduard Anton von Lenard - German physicist, won Nobel prize for his remarkable work on cathode rays and the discovery of their many properties.
- 1904: Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt) (1842 – 1919) English physicist who discovered the element argon, "for his investigations of the densities of the most important gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these studies".
- 1903: Jointly to: Marie Curie, née Sklodowska, Polish–French physicist–chemist. Pioneering researcher of radioactivity. First person honored with two Nobel Prizes — in physics (1903) and later in chemistry (1911), "in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel".
- 1902: jointly to: Pieter Zeeman (1865 - 1943) Dutch physicists, "in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena".
- 1901 Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (1845 – 1923) German physicis, "in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him".
- Kurt Gödel (1906 - 1978)
- Edwin Arthur Hubble (1876 - 1953)
- J. Robert Oppenheimer (1904 - 1967) American theoretical physicist. The Manhattan Project of WWII.
- Lyman Strong Spitzer, Jr. (1914 – 1997) American theoretical physicist and astronomer. The namesake of NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope.
We include here also the art of alchemy, an ancient branch of natural philosophy that eventually evolved into chemistry and pharmacology. Alchemy flourished in the Islamic world during the Middle Ages, and then in Europe from the 13th to the 18th centuries, And is still practiced today by few.
0 - 1000 CE
- Maria the Jewess or Maria Prophetissima, Miriam the Prophetess) (anywhere between 1st - 3rd cent.) Inventor of several chemical apparatus; first non fictitious alchemist in the Western world.
- Cleopatra the Alchemist (3rd - or 4th century), was an Egyptian alchemist and author.
- Zosimos of Panopolis (end of the 3rd and beginning of the 4th century) Egyptian or Greek alchemist and Gnostic mystic.
- Jābir ibn Hayyān (c. 721 – c. 815) Persian chemist and alchemist.
- Muhammad ibn Zakariyā Rāzī محمد زکریای رازی (c. 865 – 925) Persian polymath, physician, alchemist and chemist, philosopher, and scholar.
1000 - 1500
- Avicenna, Ibn Sīnā ابن سینا (c. 980 – 1037) Astronomer, chemist, geologist, Hafiz, Islamic psychologist, Islamic scholar, Islamic theologian, logician, mathematician, Maktab teacher, physicist, poet, and scientist. He is regarded as the most famous and influential polymath of the Islamic Golden Age
- Roger Bacon, OFM (c. 1214–1294) "Doctor Mirabilis". English philosopher, Franciscan friar & alchemist.
- Nicolas Flamel (1330 – 1418) French alchemist
- Joseph Priestley (1733 – 1804) English theologian, Dissenting clergyman, natural philosopher, educator, and political theorist
- Antoine Lavoisier (1743 – 1794) French chemist - the Father of Modern Chemistry.
- Marie-Anne Pierrette Paulze (Madame Lavoisier) (1758 – 1836) French chemist
- Karl Ernst von Baer (1792 - 1876) German chemist.
- Alfred Nobel (1833 - 1896) Swedish industrial chemist.
- Dmitry Mendeleev, Дми́трий Ива́нович Менделе́ев (1834 - 1907) Russian chemist.
- Oliver Wolcott Gibbs (1822 - 1908) American chemist.
Nobel Laureates in Chemistry (1901 - 1910)
- 1901: Jacobus Henricus van 't Hof Jr. (1852 – 1911) Dutch physical and organic chemist. First Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
- 1902: Hermann Emil Fischer (1852 – 1919) German organic chemist.
- 1903: Svante August Arrhenius (1859 – 1927) Swedish scientist.
- 1904: Sir William Ramsay (1852 – 1916) Scottish scientist.
- 1905: Adolf von Baeyer (1835 -1917) German chemist.
- 1906: Henri Moissan (1852 – 1907) French chemist.
- 1907: Eduard Buchner (1860 – 1917) German chemist and enzymologist.
- 1908: Ernest Rutherford (1871 – 1937) New Zealand-born British chemist and physicist.
- 1909: Wilhelm Ostwald (1853 – 1932) Baltic German chemist.
- 1910: Otto Wallach (1847 – 1931) German chemist (of Jewish origin).
Nobel Laureates in Chemistry (from 1911)
- 1911: Marie Curie (née Sklodowska) (1867 – 1934) Polish–French physicist–chemist. Pioneering researcher of radioactivity. First person honored with two Nobel Prizes — in physics in 1903 (jointly) and in chemistry in 1911.
- 1912: Paul Sabatier (1854 – 1941) French organic chemist, known for Catalytic Hydrogenation.
- 1913: Alfred Werner (1866 - 1919) Swiss inorganic chemist. Proposed the octahedral configuration of transition metal complexes & developed the basis for modern coordination chemistry.
- 1914: Theodore William Richards (1868 – 1928) American chemist, famous for his exact determinations of the atomic weights of a large number of the chemical elements. First American to receive the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
- 1915: Richard Martin Willstätter (1872 – 1942) German organic chemist of Jewish origin. "For his researches on plant pigments, especially chlorophyll".
- 1918: Fritz Haber (1868 – 1934) German chemist of Jewish origin, "for his development for synthesizing ammonia, important for fertilizers and explosives".
- 1920: Walther Hermann Nernst (1864 – 1941) German physical chemist and physicist. Famous for his work in thermochemistry.
- 1921: Frederick Soddy (1877 – 1956) English radiochemist. Famous findings of the chemistry of radioactive substances, and the origin and nature of isotopes.
- 1922: Francis William Aston (1877 – 1945) British chemist and physicist. Discovered, by means of his mass spectrograph, isotopes, in a large number of non-radioactive elements, and enunciated the whole-number rule.
- 1923: Fritz Pregl (1869 – 1930) Austrian chemist and physician. invented the method of micro-analysis of organic substances.
- 1925: Richard Adolf Zsigmondy (1865 – 1929) Austrian-Hungarian chemist known for his research in colloids.
- 1926: The (Theodor) Svedberg (1884 – 1971) Swedish physical chemist.
- 1927: Heinrich Otto Wieland (1877 – 1957) German organic chemist.
- 1928: Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus (December 25, 1876 – June 9, 1959) German chemist "for the services rendered through his research into the constitution of the sterols and their connection with the vitamins".
- 1929: Awarded jointly to: Sir Arthur Harden (1865 – 1940) English biochemist, and to Hans K. A. S. von Euler-Chelpin (1873 – 1964) German-born Swedish biochemist "for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes".
- 1930: Hans Fischer (1881 – 1945) German organic chemist. "for his researches into the constitution of haemin and chlorophyll and especially for his synthesis of haemin".
- 1931: Awarded jointly to: Carl Bosch (1874 – 1940) German chemist and to: Friedrich Bergius (1884 – 1949) German chemist, "in recognition of their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods".
- 1932: Irving Langmuir (1881 – 1957) American chemist & physicist, "for his discoveries and investigations in surface chemistry".
- 1933: not awarded
- 1934: Harold Clayton Urey (1893 – 19581) American physical and nuclear chemist, "for his discovery of heavy hydrogen".
- 1935: Awarded jointly to: Jean Frédéric Joliot-Curie (1900 – 1958) French chemist, and to: Irène Joliot-Curie (1897 – 1956) French Chemist, "for their discovery of artificial radioactivity".
- 1936: Peter (Pie) Josephus Wilhelmus Debye (1884 – 1966) Dutch Physicist and Physical Chemist. "for his contributions to our knowledge of molecular structure through his investigations on dipole moments and on the diffraction of X-rays and electrons in gases".
- 1937: divided equally between Sir W. Norman Haworth (1883 – 1950) British chemist, "for his investigations on carbohydrates and vitamin C" and Paul Karrer (1889 – 1971) Swiss organic chemist "for his investigations on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2".
- 1943: George de Hevesy (1885 – 1966) Hungarian Chemist of Jewish descent, "for his work on the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes".
- 1944: Otto Hahn (1879 – 1968) German nuclear chemist, "for his discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei".
- 1945: Artturi Ilmari Virtanen (1895 – 1973) Finnish Agricultural Biochemist, "for his research and inventions in agricultural and nutrition chemistry, especially for his fodder preservation method".
- 1946: One half awarded to James B. Sumner (1887 – 1955) American chemist, "for his discovery that enzymes can be crystallized", the other half jointly to: John H. Northrop (1891 – 1987) American biochemist, and to: Wendell Meredith Stanley (1904 – 1971) American biochemist, "for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form".
- 1947: Sir Robert Robinson (1886 – 1975) English Organic Chemist, "for his investigations on plant products of biological importance, especially the alkaloids"
- 1948: Arne Wilhelm Kaurin Tiselius (1902 – 1971) Swedish physical biochemist, "for his research on electrophoresis and adsorption analysis, especially for his discoveries concerning the complex nature of the serum proteins".
- 1949: William Francis Giauque (1895 – 1982) American chemist, "for his contributions in the field of chemical thermodynamics, particularly concerning the behaviour of substances at extremely low temperatures"
- 1950: Awarded jointly to: Otto P. H. Diels (1876 – 1954) German chemist, and to: Kurt Alder (1902 – 1958), German chemist, "for their discovery and development of the diene synthesis".
- 1951: jointly to: Glenn Theodore Seaborg (1912 – 1999) American nuclear chemist, "for the discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements".
- 1952: jointly to: Richard Laurence Millington Synge (1914 – 1994) British biochemist, "for the invention of partition chromatography".
- 1953: Hermann Staudinger (1881 – 1965) German chemist, "for his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry".
- 1954: Linus Carl Pauling (1901 – 1994) American chemist, biochemist, peace activist, author and educator. Only person awarded two unshared Nobel Prizes — in chemistry in 1954, and for peace in 1962.
- 1955: Vincent du Vigneaud (1901 – 1978) American biochemist, "for his work on biochemically important sulphur compounds, especially for the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone".
- 1956: jointly to: Nikolay Nikolaevich Semenov (1896 – 1986) Russian physical chemist, "for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions".
- 1957: Lord (Alexander R.) Todd (1907 – 1997) Scottish biochemist, "for his work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes".
- 1958: Frederick Sanger (b. 1918) English biochemist, "for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin".
- 1959: Jaroslav Heyrovsky (1890 – 1967) Czech physical chemist, "for his discovery and development of the polarographic methods of analysis".
- 1960: Willard Frank Libby (1908 – 1980) American physical chemist, "for his method to use carbon-14 for age determination in archaeology, geology, geophysics, and other branches of science".
- 1961: Melvin Calvin (1911 – 1997) American biochemist of Russian Jewish descent, "for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants",
- 1962: jointly to: Sir John Cowdery Kendrew (1917 – 1997) English biochemist and crystallographer, "for the studies of the structures of globular proteins".
- 1963: jointly to: Giulio Natta (1903 – 1979) Italian polymer chemist, "for his discoveries in the field of the chemistry and technology of high polymers".
- 1964: Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin (1910 – 1994) British biochemist and structural chemist, "for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances".
- 1965: Robert Burns Woodward (1917 – 1979) American organic chemist, considered by many to be the preeminent organic chemist of the twentieth century. Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1965, "for his outstanding achievements in the art of organic synthesis".
- 1966: Robert S. Mulliken (1896 – 1986) American physicist and chemist, "for his fundamental work concerning chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules by the molecular orbital method".
- 1967: jointly to: Lord George Porter (1920 – 2002) British physical chemist, "for studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equlibrium by means of very short pulses of energy".
- 1968: Lars Onsager (1903 – 1976) Norwegian-born American physical chemist, "for the discovery of the reciprocal relations bearing his name, which are fundamental for the thermodynamics of irreversible processes".
- 1969: jointly to: Odd Hassel (1897 – 1981) Norwegian organic chemist, "for the contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry".
- 1970: Luis F. Leloir (1906 – 1987) Argentinian biochemist, "for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates".
- 1971: Gerhard Herzberg (1904 – 1999) German-born Canadian physical chemist, "for his contributions to the knowledge of electronic structure and geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals".
- 1972: jointly to: William H. Stein (1911 – 1980) American biochemist, "for the contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule".
- 1973: jointly to: Geoffrey Wilkinson (1921 – 1996) British inorganic chemist, "for the pioneering work, performed independently, on the chemistry of the organometallic, so called sandwich compounds".
- 1974: Paul J. Flory (1910 – 1985) American polymer chemist, "for his fundamental achievements, both theoretical and experimental, in the physical chemistry of macromolecules."
- 1975: jointly to: Vladimir Prelog (1906-1998), Croatian chemist, lived and worked in Prague, Zagreb and Zürich, "for his research into the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions".
- 1976: William N. Lipscomb (1919 – 2011) American theoretical chemist, "for his studies on the structure of boranes illuminating problems of chemical bonding".
- 1977: Ilya Prigogine (1917 – 2003) Russian-born Belgian theoretical chemist, of Jewish descent, "for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures".
- 1978: Peter D. Mitchell (1920 – 1992) English biochemist, "for his contribution to the understanding of biological energy transfer through the formulation of the chemiosmotic theory".
- 1979: jointly to: Georg Wittig (1897 – 1987) German chemist, "for the development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis".
- 1980: jointly to: Frederick Sanger (b. 1918) English biochemist, "for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids".
- 1981: jointly to: Roald Hoffmann (b. 1937) American theoretical chemist of Jewish Polish descent, "for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions".
- 1982: Aaron Klug (b. 1926) English biochemist & structural chemist, "for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexes".
- 1983: Henry Taube (1915 – 2005) Canadian-born American inorganic chemist, "for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes".
- 1984: Robert Bruce Merrifield (1921 – 2006) American biochemist, "for his development of methodology for chemical synthesis on a solid matrix".
- 1985: jointly to: Jerome Karle (b. 1918) American physical chemist of Jewish descent, "for their outstanding achievements in the development of direct methods for the determination of crystal structures".
- 1986: jointly to: John C. Polanyi (b. 1929) Canadian physical chemist, "for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes".
- 1987: jointly to: Charles J. Pedersen (1904 – 1989) American organic chemist, "for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity".
- 1988: jointly to: Hartmut Michel (b. 1948) German biochemist & structural chemist, "for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre".
- 1989: jointly to: Thomas R. Cech (b. 1947) American chemist & molecular biologist, "for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA".
- 1990: Elias James Corey (b. 1928) American organic chemist, "for his development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis".
- 1991: Richard R. Ernst (b. 1933) Swiss physical chemist, "for his contributions to the development of the methodology of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy".
- 1992: Rudolph A. Marcus (b. 1923) Canadian-Jewish-born chemist, "for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems".
- 1993: jointly to: Michael Smith (1932 – 2000) Canadian biochemist, "for his fundamental contributions to the establishment of oligonucleotide-based, site-directed mutagenesis and its development for protein studies".
- 1994: George A. Olah (b. 1927) Hungarian-born American organic chemist, "for his contribution to carbocation chemistry".
- 1995: jointly to: F. Sherwood Rowland (b. 1927), American atmospheric and environmental chemist, "for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone".
- 1996: jointly to: Richard E. Smalley (1943 – 2005) American organic chemist, "for their discovery of fullerenes".
- 1997: jointly (half the prize) to both: Jens C. Skou (b. 1918) Danish biochemist, "for the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+, K+ -ATPase".
- 1998: jointly to: 'John A. Pople' (1925 – 2004) British American theoretical chemist, "for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry".
- 1999: أحمد حسن زويل, Zewail Ahmed H. Zewail (b. 1946) Egyptian American physical chemist, "for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy".
- 2000: jointly to: Hideki Shirakawa, 白川 英樹 (b. 1936) Japanese physical chemist, "for the discovery and development of conductive polymers".
- 2001: Awarded jointly; one half jointly to: William S. Knowles (1917-2012) American chemist, and to: Ryōji Noyori, 野依 良治 (b. 1938) Japanese chemist, "for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions"; and the other half to: K. Barry Sharpless (b. 1941) American organic chemist "for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions".
- 2002: Awarded for the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules with one half jointly to: John B. Fenn (1917-2010) American analytical chemist, and to: Koichi Tanaka, 田中 耕 (b. 1959) Japanese scientist, "for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules"; and the other half to: Kurt Wüthrich (b. 1938) Swiss chemist, "for his development of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution".
- 2003: Awarded "for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes" jointly to: Peter Agre (b. 1949) American molecular biologist, "for the discovery of water channels", and to: Roderick MacKinnon (b. 1956) American biochemist and structural chemist "for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels".
- 2004: Awarded jointly to: Aaron Ciechanover אהרון צ'חנובר (b. 1947) Israeli biochemist, and to: Avram Hershko, אברהם הרשקו (b. 1937) Israeli biochemist, and to: Irwin Rose (b. 1926) American biochemist, "for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation".
- 2005: Awarded jointly to: Yves Chauvin (1930 - 2015) French chemist, and to: Robert (Bob) H. Grubbs (b. 1942) American chemist, and to: Richard R. Schrock, (b. 1945) American chemist, "for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis".
- 2006: Roger D. Kornberg (b. 1947) American Biochemist, "for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription".
- 2007: Gerhard Ertl (b. 1936) German Chemist, "for his studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces".
- 2008: Awarded jointly to: Osamu Shimomura 下村 脩 (b. 1928) Japanese organic chemist and marine biologist, and to: Martin Chalfie (b. 1947) American Biologist, and to: Roger Y. Tsien (b. 1952) American scientist, "for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP".
- 2009: Awarded jointly to: Venkatraman "Venki" Ramakrishnan வெங்கட்ராமன் ராமகிருஷ்ணன் (b. 1952) Indian-born American/UK structural biologist, and to: Thomas A. Steitz (b. 1940) American structural biologist, and to: עדה יונת Ada E. Yonath (b. 1939) Israeli structural biologist,"for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome".
- 2010: Awarded jointly to: Richard F. Heck (b. 1931), American chemist, and to: Ei-ichi Negishi, 根岸 英 (b. 1935) a Japanese & American chemist, and to: 鈴木 章, Akira Suzuki (b. 1930) Japanese chemist, "for palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis".
- 2011: דניאל שכטמן Daniel Shechtman (b. 1941) Israeli material scientists, "for the discovery of quasicrystals".
- 2012: Awarded jointly to: Brian Kent Kobilka (b. 1955) American crystallographer & Robert J. Lefkowitz (b. 1943) American biologist, "for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors".
- 2013: Awarded jointly to Martin Karplus (b. 1930) American theoretical chemist, to: Michael Levitt (b. 1947) South Africa-born American-Israeli biophysicist and theoretical chemist, and to: Arieh Warshel (b. 1940) Israeli-born American theoretical chemist, "for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems".
- 2014: Awarded jointly to Eric Betzig (b. 1960) American physicist, to Stefan W. Hell (b. 1962) Romanian-born German physicist, and to William E. Moerner (b. 1953) American physical chemist and chemical physicist, "for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy".
- 2015: Awarded jointly to Tomas Lindahl (b. 1938) Swedish-born UK cancer researcher, Paul Modrich (b. 1946) American biochemist, and Aziz Sancar (b. 1946) Turkish-born American biochemist and molecular biologist, "for mechanistic studies of DNA repair".
- Henry Eyring (1901 - 1981)