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Prominent Scientists: (i) Exact Sciences & Natural Sciences

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  • Dr. Hugo Benioff Ph.D. (1899 - 1968)
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Victor Hugo Benioff (September 14, 1899 – February 1, 1968) was an American seismologist and a professor at the California Institute of Technology. He is ...
  • Gangadharan Nair Vallillath Madhathil, Prof.Dr. (1930 - 2010)
    Professor V.M. Ganga Nair, 80, Green Bay, a world-renowned expert on forest preservation and professor at UW-Green Bay for over 40 years, died unexpectedly on March 10, 2010. Born on January 26, 1930...
  • Helen Spurway (1917 - 1978)
    Helen Spurway (Helen Haldane) (c.1917-15 February 1978, Hyderabad, India) was a biologist and the second wife of J. B. S. Haldane. She emigrated to India in 1957 along with Haldane and conducted rese...
  • Lester Germer (1896 - 1971)
    Lester Halbert Germer (October 10, 1896 – October 3, 1971) was an American physicist. With Clinton Davisson, he proved the wave-particle duality of matter in the Davisson–Germer experim...
  • Brig. General George Miller Sternberg, 18th Surgeon General of the U.S. Army (1838 - 1915)
    Brigadier General George Miller Sternberg (June 8, 1838 – November 3, 1915) was a U.S. Army physician who is considered the first U.S. bacteriologist, having written Manual of Bacteriology (...

Prominent scientists who have made major contributions to our understanding of our world and the rules of nature.

Selected Profiles (listed by activity period):

Exact Sciences

BCE

0 - 1000

1000 - 1500

  • Avicenna, Ibn Sīnā (ابن سینا) (c. 980 – 1037) Astronomer, chemist, geologist, Hafiz, Islamic psychologist, Islamic scholar, Islamic theologian, logician, mathematician, Maktab teacher, physicist, poet, and scientist. He is regarded as the most famous and influential polymath of the Islamic Golden Age
  • Mikołaj Kopernik (Nicolaus Copernicus) (1473 - 1543) Polish astronomer, first to formulate a comprehensive heliocentric cosmology, which displaced the Earth from the center of the universe.
  • אברהם זכות, Abraham Zacuto (Abraão ben Samuel Zacuto) (c. 1450 – c. 1510) was a Sephardi Jew astronomer, astrologer, mathematician and historian who served as Royal Astronomer in the 15th century to King John II of Portugal. The crater Zagut on the Moon is named after him.

XVI century

XVII century

  • Galileo Galilei (Feb. 15, 1564 - Jan. 8, 1641) Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer and philosopher. Stephen Hawking says: "Galileo, perhaps more than any other single person, was responsible for the birth of modern science."
  • Johannes Kepler (1571 - 1630) German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer. Best known for his eponymous laws of planetary motion.
  • Rene Decartes (1596 - 1650) French philosopher, mathematician, physicist. Has been dubbed the "Father of Modern Philosophy".
  • Pierre de Fermat (1601 - 1665) French lawyer and an mathematician who is given credit for early developments that led to infinitesimal calculus.
  • Sir Isaac Newton, FRS (1642 - 1726) English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist, and theologian. Considered to be one of the most influential people in human history.
  • Christiaen Huygens (Apr. 14, 1629 – Jul. 8, 1695) Dutch mathematician, astronomer, physicist and horologist.

XVIII century

  • Leonhard Euler (1707 - 1783) Swiss mathematician & physicist, considered to be the preeminent mathematician of the 18th century,

XIX century

  • Nikola Tesla (1856 - 1943) Serbian-American inventor, mechanical & electrical engineer. An important contributor to the birth of commercial electricity, and a revolutionary in the field of electromagnetism.

Nobel Laureates in Physics (1901 - 1910)

XX century

Nobel Laureates in Economic Sciences (mathematicians) (from 1911)

  • 2005: ישראל אומן Robert John Aumann (b. 1930) Israeli American mathematician, "for having enhanced our understanding of conflict and cooperation through game-theory analysis" (jointly with the economist Thomas C. Schelling).

Fields Medal

John Charles Fields (1863 - 1932) Canadian mathematician.

The Fields Medal, officially known as International Medal for Outstanding Discoveries in Mathematics, is a prize awarded to two, three, or four mathematicians not over 40 years of age at each International Congress of the International Mathematical Union (IMU), a meeting that takes place every four years. The colloquial name is in honor of Canadian mathematician John Charles Fields. Fields was instrumental in establishing the award, designing the medal itself, and funding the monetary component. The Fields Medal is often viewed as the greatest honor a mathematician can receive. It comes with a monetary award, which since 2006 is C$15,000. The medal was first awarded in 1936 and it has been awarded every four years since 1950.

Fields medalists:

  • 1936: Lars Ahlfors (Finland) & Jesse Douglas (USA)
  • 1950: Laurent Schwartz (France) & Atle Selberg (Norway)
  • 1954: Kunihiko Kodaira (Japan) & Jean-Pierre Serre (France)
  • 1958: Klaus Roth (UK) & René Thom (France)
  • 1962: Lars Hörmander (Sweden) & John Milnor (USA)
  • 1966: Michael Atiyah (UK), Paul Joseph Cohen (USA), Alexander Grothendieck, & Stephen Smale (USA)
  • 1970: Alan Baker (UK), Heisuke Hironaka (Japan), Sergei Novikov (Russia), & John G. Thompson (USA)
  • 1974: Enrico Bombieri (Italy) & David Mumford (USA)
  • 1978: Pierre Deligne (Belgium), Charles Fefferman (USA), Grigory Margulis (Russia) & Daniel Quillen (USA)
  • 1983: Alain Connes (France), William Thurston (USA) & Shing-Tung Yau (USA)
  • 1986: Simon Donaldson (UK), Gerd Faltings (Germany) & Michael Freedman (USA)
  • 1990: Vladimir Drinfeld (Russia), Vaughan F. R. Jones (New Zealand/USA), Shigefumi Mori (Japan) & Edward Witten (USA)
  • 1994: Jean Bourgain, Pierre-Louis Lions, Jean-Christophe Yoccoz (France) & Efim Zelmanov (Russia/USA)
  • 1998: Richard Borcherds (UK), Timothy Gowers (UK), Maxim Kontsevich (Russia) & Curtis T. McMullen (USA)
  • 2002: Laurent Lafforgue (France) & Vladimir Voevodsky (Russia/USA)
  • 2006: Andrei Okounkov (Russia/USA), Grigori Perelman (Russia), Terence Tao (Australia/USA) & Wendelin Werner (France)
  • 2010: Elon Lindenstrauss (Israel), Ngô Bảo Châu (Vietnam/France), Stanislav Smirnov (Russia) & Cédric Villani (France)

Turing Award

The ACM A.M. Turing Award is an annual prize given by the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) to "an individual selected for contributions of a technical nature made to the computing community". It is stipulated that "The contributions should be of lasting and major technical importance to the computer field". The Turing Award is recognized as the "highest distinction in Computer science" and "Nobel Prize of computing".

The award is named after Alan Turing, mathematician and reader in mathematics at the University of Manchester. Turing is "frequently credited for being the Father of theoretical computer science and artificial intelligence". As of 2007, the award is accompanied by a prize of $250,000, with financial support provided by Intel and Google.

List of recipients:

  • 1966: Alan J. Perlis (USA)
  • 1967: Maurice V. Wilkes (UK)
  • 1968: Richard Hamming (USA)
  • 1969: Marvin Minsky (USA) (b. 1927)
  • 1970: James H. Wilkinson (UK)
  • 1971: John McCarthy (USA)
  • 1972: Edsger W. Dijkstra (Netherlands)
  • 1973: Charles W. Bachman (USA)
  • 1974: Donald E. Knuth (USA)
  • 1975: Allen Newell (USA) & Herbert A. Simon (USA)
  • 1976: Michael O. Rabin (Israel) & Dana S. Scott (USA), For their joint paper "Finite Automata and Their Decision Problem," which introduced the idea of nondeterministic machines, which has proved to be an enormously valuable concept. Their (Scott & Rabin) classic paper has been a continuous source of inspiration for subsequent work in this field.
  • 1977: John Backus (USA)
  • 1978: Robert W. Floyd (USA)
  • 1979: Kenneth E. Iverson (Canada)
  • 1980: C. Antony R. Hoare (UK)
  • 1981: Edgar F. Codd (UK)
  • 1982: Stephen A. Cook (USA/Canada)
  • 1983: Ken Thompson & Dennis M. Ritchie (USA)
  • 1984: Niklaus Wirth (Switzerland)
  • 1985: Richard M. Karp (USA)
  • 1986: John Hopcroft & Robert Tarjan (USA)
  • 1987: John Cocke (USA)
  • 1988: Ivan Sutherland (USA)
  • 1989: William (Velvel) Kahan
  • 1990: Fernando J. Corbató (USA)
  • 1991: Robin Milner (UK)
  • 1992: Butler W. Lampson (USA)
  • 1993: Juris Hartmanis & Richard E. Stearns (USA)
  • 1994: Edward Feigenbaum (USA) & Raj Reddy (India/USA)
  • 1995: Manuel Blum (Venezuela)
  • 1996: Amir Pnueli (Israel), For an inspiring vision of the future of interactive computing and the invention of key technologies to help realize this vision.
  • 1997: Douglas Engelbart (USA)
  • 1998: Jim Gray (USA)
  • 1999: Frederick P. Brooks, Jr. (USA)
  • 2000: Andrew Chi-Chih Yao (USA/Taiwan)
  • 2001: Ole-Johan Dahl & Kristen Nygaard (Norway)
  • 2002: Ronald L. Rivest (USA), Adi Shamir (Israel ) & Leonard M. Adleman (USA), For their ingenious contribution for making public-key cryptography useful in practice.
  • 2003: Alan Kay (USA)
  • 2004: Vinton G. Cerf & Robert E. Kahn (USA)
  • 2005: Peter Naur (Denmark)
  • 2006: Frances E. Allen (USA)
  • 2007: Edmund M. Clarke (USA), E. Allen Emerson (USA) & Joseph Sifakis (France/Greece)
  • 2008: Barbara Liskov (USA)
  • 2009: Charles P. Thacker (USA)
  • 2010: Leslie G. Valiant (UK)
  • 2011: Judea Pearl (Israel/USA), For fundamental contributions to artificial intelligence through the development of a calculus for probabilistic and causal reasoning.
  • 2012: Silvio Micali (Italy/USA) & Shafi Goldwasser (Israel/USA) For transformative work that laid the complexity-theoretic foundations for the science of cryptography and in the process pioneered new methods for efficient verification of mathematical proofs in complexity theory.
 

Nobel Laureates in Physics (from 1911)

  • 1911: Wilhelm Wien (1864 – 1928) German physicist.
  • 1917: Charles Glover Barkla (1877 – 1944) British physicist.
  • 1918: Max Planck (1858 – 1947) German physicist.
  • 1920: Charles Edouard Guillaume (1861 – 1938) Swiss physycist.
  • 1921: Albert Einstein (1879 - 1955) German theoretical physicist of Jewish descent.
  • 1922: Niels Bohr (1885 - 1962) Danish Physicist.
  • 1923: Robert Andrews Millikan (1868 – 1953) American experimental physicist.
  • 1924: Karl Manne Georg Siegbahn (1886 – 1978) Swedish physicist.
  • 1929: Prince Louis-Victor Pierre Raymond de Broglie (1892 – 1987) French physicist.
  • 1930: Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman (1888 - 1970) Tamil-Indian physicist. He was the first Asian and first non-White to receive any Nobel Prize in the sciences.
  • 1932: Werner Heisenberg (1901 - 1976) German theoretical physicist.
  • 1938: Enrico Fermi (1901 - 1954) Italian-American physicist.
  • 1943: Otto Stern (1888 – 1969) American-German physicist of Jewish descent.
  • 1944: Isidor Isaac Rabi (1898 – 1988) Galicia born American physicist of Jewish descent.
  • 1945: Wolfgang Pauli (1900 – 1958) Austrian born Swiss physicist of Jewish descent.
  • 1946: Percy Williams Bridgman (1882 – 1961) American physicist.
  • 1951: Sir John Douglas Cockcroft OM KCB CBE FRS (1897 – 1967 ) British physicist, and [ Ernest Walton],
  • 1962: Lev Landau (1908 - 1968) Russian theoretical physicist of Jewish descent.
  • 1975: Aage Niels Bohr (1922 - 2009) Danish nuclear physicist.
  • 1978: Half prize to: Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa (1894 - 1984), Russian Physicist of Jewish descent; and the other half jointly to: Arno Allan Penzias (b. 1933) American astrophysicist, & Robert Woodrow Wilson (b. 1936) American astrophysicist.
  • 1981: Half the prize to: Nicolaas Bloembergen (b. 1920) Dutch-American physicist, and to: Arthur Leonard Schawlow (1921 – 1999) American physicist; and the other half jointly to: Kai M. Siegbahn (1918 – 2007) Swedish physicist.
  • 2011: Half the prize to: Saul Perlmutter (b. 1959) American astrophysicist, and the other half jointly to: Brian P. Schmidt (b. 1967) American born Australian astrophysicist, and to: Adam G. Riess (b. 1969) American astrophysicist.
  • 2012: jointly to: Serge Haroche (b. 1944), French physicist and David J. Wineland (b. 1944), American physicist.
  • 2013: jointly to: François Englert (b. 1932), Belgian theoretical scientist and Peter W. Higgs (b. 1929) British theoretical scientist "for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider"

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Natural Sciences

We include here also the art of alchemy, an ancient branch of natural philosophy that eventually evolved into chemistry and pharmacology. Alchemy flourished in the Islamic world during the Middle Ages, and then in Europe from the 13th to the 18th centuries, And is still practiced today by few.

BCE

0 - 1000 CE

1000 - 1500

  • Avicenna, Ibn Sīnā ابن سینا (c. 980 – 1037) Astronomer, chemist, geologist, Hafiz, Islamic psychologist, Islamic scholar, Islamic theologian, logician, mathematician, Maktab teacher, physicist, poet, and scientist. He is regarded as the most famous and influential polymath of the Islamic Golden Age
  • Roger Bacon, OFM (c. 1214–1294) "Doctor Mirabilis". English philosopher, Franciscan friar & alchemist.
  • Nicolas Flamel (1330 – 1418) French alchemist

XVI century

XVII century

XVIII century

XIX century

Nobel Laureates in Chemistry (1901 - 1910)

XX century

Nobel Laureates in Chemistry (from 1911)

  • 1911: Marie Curie (née Sklodowska) (1867 – 1934) Polish–French physicist–chemist. Pioneering researcher of radioactivity. First person honored with two Nobel Prizes — in physics in 1903 (jointly) and in chemistry in 1911.
  • 1912: jointly to: Paul Sabatier (1854 – 1941) French organic chemist, known for Catalytic Hydrogenation.
  • 1913: Alfred Werner (1866 - 1919) Swiss inorganic chemist. Proposed the octahedral configuration of transition metal complexes & developed the basis for modern coordination chemistry.
  • 1914: Theodore William Richards (1868 – 1928) American chemist, famous for his exact determinations of the atomic weights of a large number of the chemical elements. First American to receive the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
  • 1915: Richard Martin Willstätter (1872 – 1942) German organic chemist of Jewish origin. "For his researches on plant pigments, especially chlorophyll".
  • 1918: Fritz Haber (1868 – 1934) German chemist of Jewish origin, "for his development for synthesizing ammonia, important for fertilizers and explosives".
  • 1920: Walther Hermann Nernst (1864 – 1941) German physical chemist and physicist. Famous for his work in thermochemistry.
  • 1921: Frederick Soddy (1877 – 1956) English radiochemist. Famous findings of the chemistry of radioactive substances, and the origin and nature of isotopes.
  • 1922: Francis William Aston (1877 – 1945) British chemist and physicist. Discovered, by means of his mass spectrograph, isotopes, in a large number of non-radioactive elements, and enunciated the whole-number rule.
  • 1923: Fritz Pregl (1869 – 1930) Austrian chemist and physician. invented the method of micro-analysis of organic substances.
  • 1925: Richard Adolf Zsigmondy (1865 – 1929) Austrian-Hungarian chemist known for his research in colloids.
  • 1926: The (Theodor) Svedberg (1884 – 1971) Swedish physical chemist.
  • 1927: Heinrich Otto Wieland (1877 – 1957) German organic chemist.
  • 1928: Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus (December 25, 1876 – June 9, 1959) German chemist.
  • 1929: jointly to: Sir Arthur Harden (1865 – 1940) English biochemist.
  • 1930: Hans Fischer (1881 – 1945) German organic chemist.
  • 1931: jointly to: Friedrich Bergius (1884 – 1949) German chemist, "in recognition of his contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods".
  • 1932: Irving Langmuir (1881 – 1957) American chemist & physicist, "for his discoveries and investigations in surface chemistry".
  • 1934: Harold Clayton Urey (1893 – 19581) American physical and nuclear chemist, "for his discovery of heavy hydrogen".
  • 1935: jointly to: Frédéric Joliot-Curie (1900 – 1958) French Physicist, and to his wife Irène Joliot-Curie (1897 – 1956) French Chemist.
  • 1937: jointly to: Paul Karrer (1889 – 1971) Swiss organic chemist, "for his investigations on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2".
  • 1943: George de Hevesy (1885 – 1966) Hungarian Chemist of Jewish descent, "for his work on the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes".
  • 1944: Otto Hahn (1879 – 1968) German nuclear chemist, "for his discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei".
  • 1945: Artturi Ilmari Virtanen (1895 – 1973) Finnish Agricultural Biochemist, "for his research and inventions in agricultural and nutrition chemistry, especially for his fodder preservation method".
  • 1946: jointly to: Wendell Meredith Stanley (1904 – 1971) American biochemist, "for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form" (the other half).
  • 1947: Sir Robert Robinson (1886 – 1975) English Organic Chemist, "for his investigations on plant products of biological importance, especially the alkaloids"
  • 1948: Arne Wilhelm Kaurin Tiselius (1902 – 1971) Swedish physical biochemist, "for his research on electrophoresis and adsorption analysis, especially for his discoveries concerning the complex nature of the serum proteins".
  • 1949: William Francis Giauque (1895 – 1982) American chemist, "for his contributions in the field of chemical thermodynamics, particularly concerning the behaviour of substances at extremely low temperatures"
  • 1950: jointly to: Kurt Alder (1902 – 1958), German chemist, "for their discovery and development of the diene synthesis".
  • 1951: jointly to: Glenn Theodore Seaborg (1912 – 1999) American nuclear chemist, "for the discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements".
  • 1952: jointly to: Richard Laurence Millington Synge (1914 – 1994) British biochemist, "for the invention of partition chromatography".
  • 1953: Hermann Staudinger (1881 – 1965) German chemist, "for his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry".
  • 1954: Linus Carl Pauling (1901 – 1994) American chemist, biochemist, peace activist, author and educator. Only person awarded two unshared Nobel Prizesin chemistry in 1954, and for peace in 1962.
  • 1955: Vincent du Vigneaud (1901 – 1978) American biochemist, "for his work on biochemically important sulphur compounds, especially for the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone".
  • 1956: jointly to: Nikolay Nikolaevich Semenov (1896 – 1986) Russian physical chemist, "for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions".
  • 1957: Lord (Alexander R.) Todd (1907 – 1997) Scottish biochemist, "for his work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes".
  • 1958: Frederick Sanger (b. 1918) English biochemist, "for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin".
  • 1959: Jaroslav Heyrovsky (1890 – 1967) Czech physical chemist, "for his discovery and development of the polarographic methods of analysis".
  • 1960: Willard Frank Libby (1908 – 1980) American physical chemist, "for his method to use carbon-14 for age determination in archaeology, geology, geophysics, and other branches of science".
  • 1961: Melvin Calvin (1911 – 1997) American biochemist of Russian Jewish descent, "for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants",
  • 1962: jointly to: Sir John Cowdery Kendrew (1917 – 1997) English biochemist and crystallographer, "for the studies of the structures of globular proteins".
  • 1963: jointly to: Giulio Natta (1903 – 1979) Italian polymer chemist, "for his discoveries in the field of the chemistry and technology of high polymers".
  • 1964: Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin (1910 – 1994) British biochemist and structural chemist, "for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances".
  • 1965: Robert Burns Woodward (1917 – 1979) American organic chemist, considered by many to be the preeminent organic chemist of the twentieth century. Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1965, "for his outstanding achievements in the art of organic synthesis".
  • 1966: Robert S. Mulliken (1896 – 1986) American physicist and chemist, "for his fundamental work concerning chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules by the molecular orbital method".
  • 1967: jointly to: Lord George Porter (1920 – 2002) British physical chemist, "for studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equlibrium by means of very short pulses of energy".
  • 1968: Lars Onsager (1903 – 1976) Norwegian-born American physical chemist, "for the discovery of the reciprocal relations bearing his name, which are fundamental for the thermodynamics of irreversible processes".
  • 1969: jointly to: Odd Hassel (1897 – 1981) Norwegian organic chemist, "for the contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry".
  • 1970: Luis F. Leloir (1906 – 1987) Argentinian biochemist, "for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates".
  • 1971: Gerhard Herzberg (1904 – 1999) German-born Canadian physical chemist, "for his contributions to the knowledge of electronic structure and geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals".
  • 1972: jointly to: William H. Stein (1911 – 1980) American biochemist, "for the contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule".
  • 1973: jointly to: Geoffrey Wilkinson (1921 – 1996) British inorganic chemist, "for the pioneering work, performed independently, on the chemistry of the organometallic, so called sandwich compounds".
  • 1974: Paul J. Flory (1910 – 1985) American polymer chemist, "for his fundamental achievements, both theoretical and experimental, in the physical chemistry of macromolecules."
  • 1975: jointly to: Vladimir Prelog (1906-1998), Croatian chemist, lived and worked in Prague, Zagreb and Zürich, "for his research into the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions".
  • 1976: William N. Lipscomb (1919 – 2011) American theoretical chemist, "for his studies on the structure of boranes illuminating problems of chemical bonding".
  • 1977: Ilya Prigogine (1917 – 2003) Russian-born Belgian theoretical chemist, of Jewish descent, "for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures".
  • 1978: Peter D. Mitchell (1920 – 1992) English biochemist, "for his contribution to the understanding of biological energy transfer through the formulation of the chemiosmotic theory".
  • 1979: jointly to: Georg Wittig (1897 – 1987) German chemist, "for the development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis".
  • 1980: jointly to: Frederick Sanger (b. 1918) English biochemist, "for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids".
  • 1981: jointly to: Roald Hoffmann (b. 1937) American theoretical chemist of Jewish Polish descent, "for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions".
  • 1982: Aaron Klug (b. 1926) English biochemist & structural chemist, "for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexes".
  • 1983: Henry Taube (1915 – 2005) Canadian-born American inorganic chemist, "for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes".
  • 1984: Robert Bruce Merrifield (1921 – 2006) American biochemist, "for his development of methodology for chemical synthesis on a solid matrix".
  • 1985: jointly to: Jerome Karle (b. 1918) American physical chemist of Jewish descent, "for their outstanding achievements in the development of direct methods for the determination of crystal structures".
  • 1986: jointly to: John C. Polanyi (b. 1929) Canadian physical chemist, "for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes".
  • 1987: jointly to: Charles J. Pedersen (1904 – 1989) American organic chemist, "for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity".
  • 1988: jointly to: Hartmut Michel (b. 1948) German biochemist & structural chemist, "for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre".
  • 1989: jointly to: Thomas R. Cech (b. 1947) American chemist & molecular biologist, "for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA".
  • 1990: Elias James Corey (b. 1928) American organic chemist, "for his development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis".
  • 1991: Richard R. Ernst (b. 1933) Swiss physical chemist, "for his contributions to the development of the methodology of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy".
  • 1992: Rudolph A. Marcus (b. 1923) Canadian-Jewish-born chemist, "for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems".
  • 1993: jointly to: Michael Smith (1932 – 2000) Canadian biochemist, "for his fundamental contributions to the establishment of oligonucleotide-based, site-directed mutagenesis and its development for protein studies".
  • 1994: George A. Olah (b. 1927) Hungarian-born American organic chemist, "for his contribution to carbocation chemistry".
  • 1995: jointly to: F. Sherwood Rowland (b. 1927), American atmospheric and environmental chemist, "for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone".
  • 1996: jointly to: Richard E. Smalley (1943 – 2005) American organic chemist, "for their discovery of fullerenes".
  • 1997: jointly (half the prize) to both: Jens C. Skou (b. 1918) Danish biochemist, "for the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+, K+ -ATPase".
  • 1998: jointly to: 'John A. Pople' (1925 – 2004) British American theoretical chemist, "for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry".
  • 1999: أحمد حسن زويل‎, Zewail Ahmed H. Zewail (b. 1946) Egyptian American physical chemist, "for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy".
  • 2000: jointly to: Hideki Shirakawa, 白川 英樹 (b. 1936) Japanese physical chemist, "for the discovery and development of conductive polymers".
  • 2001: Jointly (half the prize) to: K. Barry Sharpless (b. 1941) American organic chemist, "for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions".
  • 2002: jointly to: Kurt Wüthrich (b. 1938) Swiss chemist, "for his development of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution".
  • 2003: jointly to: Roderick MacKinnon (b. 1956) American biochemist and structural chemist, "for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels".
  • 2004: jointly to: Irwin Rose (b. 1926) American biochemist, "for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation".
  • 2005: jointly to: Richard R. Schrock, (b. 1945) American chemist, "for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis".
  • 2006: Roger D. Kornberg (b. 1947) American Biochemist, "for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription".
  • 2007: Gerhard Ertl (b. 1936) German Chemist, "for his studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces".
  • 2008: jointly to: Roger Y. Tsien (b. 1952) American scientist, "for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP".
  • 2009: jointly to: עדה יונת Ada E. Yonath (b. 1939) Israeli structural biologist, "for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome".
  • 2010: jointly to: 鈴木 章, Akira Suzuki (b. 1930) Japanese chemist, "for palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis".
  • 2011: דניאל שכטמן Daniel Shechtman (b. 1941) Israeli material scientists, "for the discovery of quasicrystals".
  • 2012: jointly to: Brian Kent Kobilka (b. 1955) American crystallographer & Robert J. Lefkowitz (b. 1943) American biologist, "for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors".
  • 2013: jointly to Martin Karplus (b. 1930) American theoretical chemist, to: [ Michael Levitt] (b. 1947) South Africa-born American-Israeli biophysicist and theoretical chemist, and to: [ Arieh Warshel] (b. 1940) Israeli-born American theoretical chemist, "for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems".

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