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  • prince Stephen I of Moldavia (c.1364 - 1399)
    Stephen I of Moldavia (Moldavian: Ştefan I), (?1364 – 1399) was Prince of Moldavia from 1394 to 1399. He succeeded to the throne as the son of the previous ruler, Roman I and was succeeded by his broth...
  • Mikhail Javnutovich, prince Zaslavski (1338 - 1399)
    Mikhail Javnutovich Zaslavsky served the Lithuanian Grand Dukes and was known as a brave warrior. In 1362, in the battle of Blue Waters, Mikhail Zaslavsky, together with Patrikey Narimuntovich, command...
  • Volimunt, son of Bushko (c.1345 - 1399)
    Walmund, syn Buszka, podpisany 1398 r. na układach Witolda z Krzyżakami w Grodnie.* Valmantas [Bu%C5%A1kaitis] Stanislovas* Liudijo 1398m. Gardino ir Salyno sutartyse su Ordinu* Tėvas – Buškys (Algirdo...
  • prince Yamont Tuluntovich (c.1360 - 1399)
    Ks. Jamont Tuluntowicz pieczętowal się znakiem pieczętnym, przedstawiającym dwugłowego orla pod trzema koronami. Znak ten, niewiadomego pochodzenia, ale heraldyce litewskiej zupelnie obcy, musial przej...
  • Michał Ostrogski (1356 - 1399)

If in your family tree you have persons that were participants of the Battle of the Vorskla River, please add them to this project. It would be great if within the profile description "About" there would be brief biography.

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The Battle of the Vorskla River was a greatest and bloodiest battle in the medieval history of Eastern Europe. It was fought on August 12, 1399, between the Tatars, under Edigu and Temur Qutlugh, and the armies of Tokhtamysh and Grand Duke Vytautas of Lithuania. The battle ended in a decisive Tatar victory.

Background

In the late 1380s the relationship between Tokhtamysh, Khan of the Golden Horde, and his former master, Timur, was growing tense. In 1395, after losing the Tokhtamysh–Timur war, Tokhtamysh was dethroned by the party of Khan Temur Qutlugh and Emir Edigu, supported by Timur. Tokhtamysh escaped to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and asked Vytautas for assistance in retaking the Horde in exchange for surrendering his suzerainty over Ruthenian lands. This development was in harmony with Vytautas' ambitions to become ruler of all Ruthenian lands. A surviving yarlyk shows that Tokhtamysh had asked for Polish–Lithuanian assistance previously in 1393.

Vytautas' expeditions

Vytautas gathered a large army that included Lithuanians, Ruthenians, Poles, Moldavians, and Wallachians. To enlist support from the Teutonic Knights, Vytautas signed the Treaty of Salinas, surrendering Samogitia to the Knights. Vytautas's son-in-law, Vasily I of Moscow, formally a Tatar vassal, did not join the coalition. The joint forces organized three expeditions into Tatar territories, in 1397, 1398, and 1399. The first expedition reached the Black Sea and Crimea. Vytautas took several thousand captives without much opposition. Half of these captives were settled near Trakai and awarded privileges to practice their faith. Communities of their descendants, Lipka Tatars and Crimean Karaites (Karaims) survive to this day.

In 1398, the army of Vytautas moved from the Dnieper River and attacked northern Crimea, reaching as far east as the River Don. In order to strengthen his position, Vytautas built a castle at the mouth of Dnieper. Inspired by their successes, Vytautas declared a "Crusade against the Tatars" and in May 1399 received blessing from Pope Boniface IX. The papal blessing for the crusade was an important political achievement for Lithuania, a country that converted to Christianity only in 1387 and the subject of a hundred-year crusade. The campaign was organized in Kiev. In 1399, the army of Vytautas once again moved against the Horde along the Dnieper River. On August 5, his army met the Tatars at the Vorskla River just north of Poltava (almost the same location as the Battle of Poltava of 1709).

Battle

Once the two armies met, Temur Qutlugh proposed a three-day ceasefire to allow both sides to prepare their forces. It was a trick to win time while Edigu's reinforcements arrived.[8] Vytautas planned to build a great wagon-fort, to stop charging horsemen, and then to destroy them with cannons and artillery. Vytautas' army was well equipped,[9] but smaller in number.[8] However, Temur Qutlugh feigned a retreat (a tried and tested Tatar tactic) and Vytautas left his wagon fort to pursue him. Once Lithuanian forces were suitably far away from the wagon fort, the units of Edigu appeared from behind and surrounded the Lithuanian army. At this point, Tokhtamysh decided the battle was lost and fled the battle with his men. The Tatars then used their own artillery to destroy the Lithuanian cavalry whilst simultaneously capturing the Lithuanians' wagon fort.

Aftermath

Vytautas barely escaped alive, but many princes of his kin (including his cousins Demetrius I Starszy and Andrei of Polotsk) and allies (for example, Stephen I of Moldavia and two of his brothers) died in the battle. It is estimated that some 50 princes fought under Vytautas' banners and about 20 of them were killed. The victorious Tatars besieged Kiev, but it paid a ransom. The Tatars pillaged as far west as Lutsk, in pursuit of Tokhtamysh, who spent the next seven or eight years in hiding and was assassinated in 1407 or 1408.

Vytautas' defeat at the Vorskla effectively blocked Lithuanian expansion to southern Ruthenia. His state also lost access to the Black Sea as the Tatars reconquered the southern steppe all the way to the borders of Moldavia; lands that were reclaimed by the Golden Horde until the Crimean Khanate broke away from its rule some forty-two years later. After the battle, Yury of Smolensk revolted against Lithuania, and Smolensk was not recaptured for five years. Veliky Novgorod and Pskov also rebelled against Lithuanian rule, drawing Vytautas into a war with the Grand Duchy of Moscow.

Vytautas was forced to abandon his plans to break the Union of Kreva and to ally himself once again with his cousin and King of Poland Jogaila. The Polish–Lithuanian union was reaffirmed in the Union of Vilnius and Radom. Vytautas also turned his plans from expansion southwards to east (against Moscow) and west (against the Teutonic Knights). It has been suggested that Vytautas learned the staged retreat tactic during the battle and successfully used it himself in the Battle of Grunwald (1410), an important defeat of the Teutonic Knights.

Jei jūsų giminės medyje yra asmenų, kurie buvo Vorsklos mūšio dalyviai, - pridėkite juos prie šio projekto. Būtų šaunu, jei profilyje aprašysite bent trumpai asmens biografiją.

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Pastaba: tik viešieji profiliai gali būti įtraukti į projektus.


Vorsklos mūšis buvo vienas iš didžiausių ir kruviniausių viduramžių Rytų Europos mūšių. Mūšis įvyko 1399 m. rugpjūčio 12 d. tarp totorių ordų, vadovaujamų emyro Edygos (Edigėjaus) ir Timūro Kutluko, bei Lietuvos didžiojo kunigaikščio Vytauto pajėgų. Mūšis baigėsi visišku Vytauto kariuomenės sutriuškinimu. Mūšio pradžia
Vytauto kariuomenė iš Vilniaus link Kijevo išžygiavo gegužės 18 d., Sekminių metu. Pajėgas, kurioms vadovavo Vytautas, sudarė LDK, totorių chano Tochtamyšo, Lenkijos karalystės bei Kryžiuočių ordino kariai. LDK gretose buvo ir žemaičiai, tuo metu teisiškai priklausę ordinui, tačiau faktiškai išlaikę nepriklausomybę.

Mūšio eiga

Vytautas mūšiui pasirinko menkai kalvotas Ukrainos žemes, o tai buvo ypač paranku lengvajai mongolų kavalerijai, kuri tikriausiai panaudojo savo tradicinę apsupimo ir išvarginimo taktiką. Abi pusės apsikeitė strėlių lietumi ir, nors lietuvių atsigabenti Vilniaus arbaletų dirbtuvėje pagaminti arbaletai totoriams pridarė žalos, tačiau vokiškos patrankos savo tikslo nepasiekė – jos atvirame mūšyje prieš tai nebuvo išbandytos.

Totorių spaudimas ilgainiui išretino Vytauto karių gretas ir privedė prie visiško sunaikinimo.

Žuvo keliasdešimt kunigaikščių, įskaitant Jogailos vyresniuosius brolius Andrių ir Demetrijų. Vytautas ir jo pusbrolis Švitrigaila iš mūšio pabėgo beveik be palydos. Visgi pergalę šventusi Aukso orda prarado net triskart daugiau karių, žuvo ir pats Timūras Kotlukas.

Pasekmės

Pralaimėjimas stipriai susilpnino Vytauto politinę įtaką ir grandiozinius užmojus regione, teko atsisakyti Kryžiaus žygio planų, Europos fortposto sumanymo. Po mūšio sukilo Smolensko tvirtovė, Vytautas jį atsiėmė tik po kelerių metų.

Nors sudarant Salyno sutartį pusbrolio Jogailos viršenybė buvo kone panaikinta, po mūšio Vytautui vėl teko ją pripažinti, ieškoti kompromiso su Lenkijos ponais bei atsisakyti planų prisijungti prie LDK visas rusų žemes. Lenkų pagalbos reikėjo siekiant atsverti po mūšio išaugusias Maskvos Didžiosios Kunigaikštystės, kaip rusų žemių vienytojos, pozicijas regione, ir antilietuviškas nuotaikos LDK slaviškose žemėse. Dėl to buvo sudaryti Vilniaus ir Radomo susitarimai, turėję suvienyti Vytautą ir Jogailą.

Jungtinės pajėgos:

  • LDK,
  • Lenkijos karalystė,
  • Kryžiuočių ordinas,
  • Moldavijos kunigaikštystė
  • Valachija
  • Tochtamyšo totoriai

Priešininkas:

  • Aukso Orda

Если в вашем древе есть профили участников Битвы на Ворскле — пожалуйста, добавьте их к этому проекту. Было бы неплохо хотя бы кратко описать их личную биографию.

Откройте страницу профиля, нажмите на кнопку «Действия» и выберите строчку «Добавить в проект». Выберите проект (вы должны быть в числе соавторов проекта, чтобы увидеть его в списке выбора). Вы можете добавить любой общедоступный профиль, для которого у вас есть разрешение на редактирование. Если у вас нет разрешения на редактирование профиля, заявка будет отправлена менеджеру профиля.

Примечание: только общедоступные профили могут быть включены в проекты.


Битва на Во́рскле — крупное сражение, состоявшееся 12 августа 1399 года между объединённым войском Великого княжества Литовского и его русскими, польскими и немецкими союзниками под командованием князя Витовта, с одной стороны, и войсками Золотой Орды под командованием хана Тимур-Кутлуга и беклярбека Едигея — с другой. Одно из крупнейших сражений XIV века в Восточной Европе. Завершилось решительной победой ногайской армии и полным разгромом литовского войска. Последствием битвы стало то, что Великое княжество Литовское стало вынуждено прибегать к польской помощи, произошло укрепление позиций польского короля Ягайло и ослабление Витовта и была заключена Виленско-Радомская уния.

Объединенные войска:

  • Великое княжество Литовское

• Киевское княжество • Полоцкое княжество
• Брянское княжество
• Смоленское княжество

  • Королевство Польское

• Подольское княжество • Молдавское княжество

  • Тевтонский орден
  • татары Тохтамыша

Противник:

  • Золотая Орда

https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%91%D0%B8%D1%82%D0%B2%D0%B0_%D0%BD...