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Ancient Eastern Philosophers

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  • Mencius 孟子 (-372 - -289)
    Mencius or Mengzi 孟子 (372–289 BC or 385–303 or 302BC) was a Chinese Confucian philosopher who has often been described as the "second Sage", that is after only Confucius himself. Living during the Warr...
  • Ngok Loden Sherab (1059 - 1109)
  • Gorampa Sonam Sengge (1429 - 1489)
  • Zhou Dunyi 周敦頤 (1017 - 1073)
    Zhou Dunyi 周敦頤 (Wade–Giles: Chou Tun-i; 1017–1073) was a Song dynasty Chinese Neo-Confucian philosopher. He conceptualized the Neo-Confucian cosmology of the day, explaining the relationship between hu...

"To understand Western philosophy is to only get half the story. Just as important a contribution to human thought is the Eastern intellectual tradition---the product of thousands of years of thought by brilliant minds who demonstrated different ways of approaching fundamental questions about the existence of God, the Meaning of Life, the Nature of Truth and Reality, etc."
"Among the many sages, mystics, poets, revolutionaries, critics, novelists, politicians, and scientists you encounter in Great Minds of the Eastern Intellectual Tradition are some you may not have heard of before".
(Please feel free to join and add further names and information to this project)


  • Zarathustra: This ancient Persian priest was the father of Zoroastrianism, a belief system that spread throughout the near East and parts of the West. Zarathustra's greatest insight was that the universe is characterized by dualism, with good and evil locked in a cosmic conflict in which individuals must choose one side or the other.
  • The Buddha Born Siddhartha Gautama around 563 B.C., the Buddha achieved a profound state of enlightenment after meditating under a bodhi tree. Although he retained classical ideas from Hinduism, he sharply differed from it when he taught that nothing has a soul and that any grasping at permanence ends in suffering and failure.
  • Confucius A contemporary of the Buddha, Confucius is the most significant philosopher in Chinese history. He developed a program for lifelong moral growth that would influence the culture for more than a thousand years. Confucius saw the answer to the increased violence and lawlessness of his society as rooted in the social standards of sages, not revelation.
  • Gandhi Best known for the concept of satyagraha (nonviolent resistance), this Indian independence fighter changed his philosophical ideas over time in response to particular situations. His overarching goal, however, was a more humane way of life based on self-government, self-sufficiency, and a deep connection to one's community.
  • Ashoka, the Indian ruler and Buddhist convert whose role in the spread of Buddhism is similar to that of Emperor Constantine's in Christianity.
  • Prince Shotoku, one of the most admired individuals in Japan and author of a 17-article constitution that, unlike the U.S. Constitution, was a list of moral injunctions on leadership.
  • Patanjali, the Indian philosopher who developed yoga as a means not for stress reduction or flexibility but for people to escape life's suffering and achieve spiritual liberation.
  • Nanak, a contemporary of Martin Luther who became the first Sikh guru and taught that salvation comes when the soul, after cycles of reincarnation, is finally united with the One God.
  • Bodhidharma - Introduced a regimen of martial excercises, which became the foundation of many later schools of Kung Fu.
  • Lao Zi - Confucius and Lao Zi are the only Chinese philosophers that have become widely known in the Western world. Lao Zi believed that violence should be avoided when possible, and that codified laws and rules are just going to make managing society more difficult.
  • Zhuang Zi - Zhuangzi's philosophy was very influential on the development of Chinese Buddhism, especially Chan, and Zen which evolved out of Chan
  • Sun Tzu 孙子 was an ancient Chinese military general, strategist and philosopher who is traditionally believed, and who is most likely, to have authored The Art of War, an influential ancient Chinese book on military strategy. Sun Tzu's The Art of War grew in global popularity and his work has continued to influence both Asian and Western culture and politics.
  • Bahá-u-lláh-Mirza-Husayn-Ali-Nuri Humanity is understood to be in a process of collective evolution, and the need of the present time is for the gradual establishment of unity on a global scale leading to peace and justice for all mankind.

Syntheses of Eastern and Western Philosophy

Swiss psychologist Carl Jung was deeply influenced by his interest in the I Ching. The I Ching (Book of Changes) is an ancient text in China, dating back to the Shang Dynasty (Bronze Age 1700BC-1050BC), and utilizes a system of Yin and Yang which it places into Hexagrams for the purposes of divination.
Carl Jung's idea of synchronicity moves towards an Oriental view of causality.

German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel was very interested in Taoism. His system of dialectics is sometimes interpreted as a formalization of Taoist principles. Hegel read Bhagavad-Gita and mentioned it in some of his works.

Hegel's rival Arthur Schopenhauer developed a philosophy that was essentially a synthesis of Hinduism with Western thought. He anticipated that the Upanishads (primary Hindu scriptures) would have a much greater influence in the West than they have had.

Some have claimed that there is also a definite eastern element within Heidegger's philosophy. Heidegger did spend time attempting to translate the Tao Te Ching into German, working with his Chinese student Paul Hsaio. It has also been claimed that much of Heidegger's later philosophy, particularly the sacredness of Being, bears a distinct similarity to Taoist ideas.

East Asian philosophies


Confucianism(儒學), developed around the teachings of Confucius(孔子) and is based on a set of Chinese classic texts.


Neo-Confucianism is a later further development of Confucianism but also went much more differently from the origin of Confucianism.

It started developing from the Song Dynasty and was nearly completed in late Ming Dynasty. Its root can be found as early as Tang Dynasty, often attributed to scholar Tang Xie Tian.

It has a great influence on the countries of East Asia including China, Japan and Korea as well as Vietnam as well. Zhu Xi is considered as the biggest master of Song where Neo-Confucianism and Wang Yangming is the one of Ming's. But there are conflicts between Zhu's school and Wang's.


Taoism (or Daoism) is the traditional foil of Confucianism in China. Taoism's central books are the Dao De Jing (Tao-Te-Ching), traditionally attributed to Laozi (Lao Tzu), and the Zhuangzi (Chuang Tzu).


Shinto is the indigenous religion of Japan. It is a sophisticated form of animism which holds that spirits called kami inhabit all things. Worship is at public shrines or in small shrines constructed in one's home. According to Shinto practice, relationship with the kami that inhabit this world is foremost in a person's duties; the kami are to be respected in order that they may return our respect.

Shinto further holds that the "spirit" and "mundane" worlds are one and the same. Of all of the tenets of this philosophy, purity is the most highly stressed.

Pure acts are those that promote or contribute to the harmony of the universe, and impure acts are those which are deleterious in this regard. As a faith, Shinto bears heavy influences from Chinese religions, notably Taoism and Buddhism.


Legalism advocated a strict interpretation of the law in every respect. No judgment calls. Adherence to the letter of the law was paramount.


Maoism is a Communist philosophy based on the teachings of 20th century Communist Party of China revolutionary leader Mao Zedong. It is based partially on earlier theories by Marx and Lenin, but rejects the urban proletariat and Leninist emphasis on heavy industrialization in favor of a revolution supported by the peasantry, and a decentralized agrarian economy based on many collectively worked farms.

Indian philosophies

Hindu philosophy

Hinduism (सनातन धर्म; Sanātana Dharma, roughly Perennial Moral Duty) is one of the oldest major world religion.

Hinduism is characterized by a diverse array of religious belief systems, practices and scriptures. It has its origin in ancient Vedic culture at least as far back as 1500 BC. It is the third largest religion with approximately 1.05 billion followers worldwide, 96% of whom live in the Indian subcontinent.

Hinduism rests on the spiritual bedrock of the Vedas, hence Veda Dharma, and their mystic issue, the Upanishads, as well as the teachings of many great Hindu gurus through the ages.

Many streams of thought flow from the six Vedic/Hindu schools, Bhakti sects and Tantra Agamic schools into the one ocean of Hinduism, the first of the Dharma religions. Also, the sacred book Bhagavad Gita is one of the most revered texts among Hindus.

What can be said to be common to many theistic Hindus is belief in Dharma, reincarnation, karma, and moksha (liberation) of every soul through a variety of moral, action-based, and meditative yogas.

Still more fundamental principles include ahimsa (non-violence), the primacy of the Guru, the Divine Word of Aum and the power of mantras, love of Truth in many manifestations as gods and goddesses, and an understanding that the essential spark of the Divine (Atman) is in every human and living being, thus allowing for many spiritual paths leading to the One Unitary Religious Truth (which Hindus call Brahman).

This acceptance of various paths leading to the same truth, is also a foundation of Hindu philosophy. However, since the term Hindu is more of an umbrella term for dharmic traditions arising from the Indian subcontinent, there may be persons who believe in none of the above concepts and yet consider themselves Hindu.

Buddhist philosophy

Buddhism is a system of religious beliefs based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama. Buddhism is a non-theistic religion, one whose tenets are not especially concerned with the existence or non-existence of a God or gods.

The Buddha himself expressly disavowed any special divine status or inspiration, and said that anyone, anywhere could achieve all the insight that he had.

The question of God is largely irrelevant in Buddhism, though some sects (notably Tibetan Buddhism) do venerate a number of gods drawn in from local indigenous belief systems yet this practice has taken on different meanings and has become a skillful mean within the Tibetan Buddhist practice.

Most Buddhist sects believe in karma, a cause-and-effect relationship between all that has been done and all that will be done. Events that occur are held to be the direct result of previous events.

One effect of karma is rebirth. At death, the karma from a given life determines the nature of the next life's existence.

The ultimate goal of a Buddhist practitioner is to eliminate karma (both good and bad), end the cycle of rebirth and suffering, and attain Nirvana, usually translated as awakening or enlightenment.

Sikh religious philosophy

Simran and Sewa - These are the Foundation of Sikhism. It is the duty of every Sikh to practise Naam Simran (meditation on the Lord's name) daily and engage in Sewa (Selfless Service) whenever there is a possibility, in Gurdwara (Sikh place of worship), in community centres, old people's homes, care centres, major world disasters, etc. "Ek ong kar Satanam" and "Waheguru" are some mantras used for this purpose. "Ek ong kar Satanam" roughly translates to "there is one God un-separate from nature and truth is its name". "Waheguru" is used as a meditative practice on the Lord's name.

The Three Pillars of Sikhism - Guru Nanak formalised these three important pillars of Sikhism.

1. Naam Japna – A Sikh is to engage in a daily practise of meditation and Nitnem (a daily prayer routine) by reciting and chanting of God’s Name.

2. Kirat Karni - To live honestly and earn by ones physical and mental effort while accepting Gods gifts and blessings. A Sikh has to live as a householders carrying out his or her duties and responsibilities to the full.

3. Vand Chakna - Sikhs are asked to share their wealth within the community and outside by giving Dasvand and practising charity (Daan). To “Share and consume together”.

Kill the Five Thieves - The Sikh Gurus tell us that our mind and spirit are constantly being attacked by the Five Evils –

Five Evils

  1. Kam (Lust),
  2. Krodh (Rage),
  3. Lobh (Greed),
  4. Moh (Attachment)
  5. Ahankar (Ego).

A Sikh needs to constantly attack and overcome these five vices; be always vigilant and on guard to tackle these five thieves all the time. Positive Human Qualities - The Sikh Gurus taught the Sikhs to develop and harness positive human qualities which lead the soul closer to God and away from evil. These are

Positive Qualities

  1. Sat (Truth),
  2. Daya (Compassion),
  3. Santokh (Contentment),
  4. Nimrata (Humility)
  5. Pyare (Love).


Jain philosophy deals extensively with the problems of metaphysics, reality, cosmology, ontology, epistemology and divinity. Jainism is essentially a transtheistic religion of ancient India.

It is a continuation of the ancient Śramaṇa tradition which co-existed with the Vedic tradition since ancient times. The distinguishing features of Jain philosophy are its belief on independent existence of soul and matter, denial of creative and omnipotent God, potency of karma, eternal and uncreated universe, a strong emphasis on non-violence, accent on relativity and multiple facets of truth, and morality and ethics based on liberation of soul.

Jain philosophy attempts to explain the rationale of being and existence, the nature of the Universe and its constituents, the nature of bondage and the means to achieve liberation.

It has often been described as an ascetic movement for its strong emphasis on self-control, austerities and renunciation.It has also been called a model of philosophical liberalism for its insistence that truth is relative and multifaceted and for its willingness to accommodate all possible view-points of the rival philosophies.

Jainism strongly upholds the individualistic nature of soul and personal responsibility for one's decisions; and that self-reliance and individual efforts alone are responsible for one's liberation.

Throughout its history, the Jain philosophy remained unified and single, although as a religion, Jainism was divided into various sects and traditions. The contribution of Jain philosophy in developing the Indian philosophy has been significant. Jain philosophical concepts like Ahimsa, Karma, Moksa, Samsara and like have been assimilated into the philosophies of other Indian religions like Hinduism and Buddhism in various forms.

While Jainism traces its philosophy from teachings of Mahavira and other Tirthankaras, various Jain philosophers from Kundakunda and Umasvati in ancient times to Yaśovijaya Gaṇi in recent times have contributed greatly in developing and refining the Jain and Indian philosophical concepts.


Cārvāka, also frequently transliterated as Charvaka or Cārvāka, and also known as Lokayata or Lokyāta, was a materialist and atheist school of thought with ancient roots in India. It proposed a system of ethics based on rational thought. However, this school has been dead for more than a thousand years.

Iranian philosophy


Zoroastrianism is a monotheistic religion, which originated in Iran. It has a dualistic nature (Ahura Mazda and Angra Mainyu), with an additional series of six important divine entities called the Amesha Spentas.

In modern Zoroastrianism they are interpreted as aspects or emanations of Ahura Mazda (the Supreme Being), who form a heptad that is good and constructive. They are opposed to another group of seven who are evil and destructive.

It is this persistent conflict between good and evil that distinguishes Zoroastrianism from monotheistic frameworks that have only one power as supreme. By requiring its adherents to have faith and belief in equally opposing powers Zoroastrianism characterizes itself as dualistic.

The teachings of Zarathustra (Zoroaster) appeared in Persia at some point during the period 1700-1800 BCE. His wisdom became the basis of the religion Zoroastrianism, and generally influenced the development of the Iranian branch of Indo-Iranian philosophy. Zarathustra was the first who treated the problem of evil in philosophical terms.

He is also believed to be one of the oldest monotheists in the history of religion. He espoused an ethical philosophy based on the primacy of good thoughts (pendar-e-nik), good words (goftar-e-nik), and good deeds (kerdar-e-nik).

The works of Zoroaster and Zoroastrianism had a significant influence on Greek philosophy and Roman philosophy.


Manichaeism, founded by Mani, was influential from North Africa in the West, to China in the East. Its influence subtly continues in Western Christian thought via Saint Augustine of Hippo, who converted to Christianity from Manichaeism, which he passionately denounced in his writings, and whose writings continue to be influential among Catholic, Protestant and Orthodox theologians. An important principle of Manichaeism was its dualistic nature.


The religious and philosophical teaching called Mazdakism which was regarded by its founder, Mazdak, as a reformed and purified version of Zoroastrianism displays remarkable influences from Manichaeism as well.


Zurvanism is characterized by the element of its First Principle which is Time, "Zurvan", as a primordial creator. According to Zaehner, Zurvanism appears to have three schools of thought all of which have classical Zurvanism as their foundation:

1. Aesthetic Zurvanism which was apparently not as popular as the materialistic kind, viewed Zurvan as undifferentiated Time, which, under the influence of desire, divided into reason (a male principle) and concupiscence (a female principle).

2. Materialist Zurvanism - While Zoroaster's Ormuzd created the universe with his thought, materialist Zurvanism challenged the concept that anything could be made out of nothing.

3. Fatalistic Zurvanism resulted from the doctrine of limited time with the implication that nothing could change this preordained course of the material universe and that the path of the astral bodies of the 'heavenly sphere' was representative of this preordained course. According to the Middle Persian work Menog-i Khrad: "Ohrmazd allotted happiness to man, but if man did not receive it, it was owing to the extortion of these planets."


The Persian polymath Avicenna wrote almost 450 treatises on a wide range of subjects. Many philosophical works, among them The Book of Healing, have survived.

Iranian Illuminationism

The Philosophy of Illumination founded by Sohrevardi argued that light operates at all levels and hierarchies of reality. Light produces immaterial and substantial lights, including immaterial intellects, human and animal souls and even 'dusky substances', such as bodies. Sohrevardi's works display extensive developments on the basis of Zoroastrian ideas and ancient Iranian thought.

Transcendent Philosophy

Transcendent Philosophy, developed by Sadr Shirazi, is one of two main disciplines of Islamic philosophy that is currently live and active.

Bahá'í Philosophy

Concepts of Bahai Philosophy are portrayed in the work Divine Philosophy by Abdul-Baha, the eldest son of the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, Bahá'u'lláh.

Babylonian philosophy

The origins of Babylonian philosophy, in the popular sense of the word, can be traced back to the wisdom of early Mesopotamia, which embodied certain philosophies of life, particularly ethics, in the forms of dialectic, dialogs, epic poetry, folklore, hymns, lyrics, prose, and proverbs. The reasoning and rationality of the Babylonians developed beyond empirical observation.

It is possible that Babylonian philosophy had an influence on Greek philosophy, and later Hellenistic philosophy, however the textual evidence is lacking. The undated Babylonian text Dialog of Pessimism contains similarities to the agnostic thought of the sophists, the Heraclitean doctrine of contrasts, and the dialogs of Plato, as well as a precursor to the maieutic Socratic method of Socrates and Plato. The Milesian philosopher Thales is also said to have studied philosophy in Mesopotamia.

Islamic philosophy

Early Islamic philosophy was influenced by Greek philosophy, Hellenistic philosophy, Iranian philosophy, Judaism, Christianity and Indian philosophy, and in turn, Islamic philosophy had a strong influence on Jewish philosophy, Christian philosophy, Western philosophy, Iranian philosophy and Indian philosophy, hence many consider Islamic philosophy to be both an Eastern philosophy and a Western philosophy.

Al-Mu'tazilah (المعتزلة)

Mu'tazilite is a popular theological school of philosophy during early Islam. They called themselves Ahl al-'Adl wa al-Tawhid ("People of Justice and Monotheism"). They ascended dramatically during 8th and 9th century due to the support of intellectuals and elites. Later in the 13th century, they lost official support in favour of the rising Ash'ari school. Most of their valuable works were destroyed during the Crusades and Mongol invasion.

Averroism school of philosophy

One of the most influential Muslim philosophers in the West was Averroes (Ibn Rushd).

It is said that other influential Muslim philosophers include-:

  • al-Jahiz, a pioneer of evolutionary thought and natural selection;
  • Ibn al-Haytham (Alhacen), a pioneer of phenomenology and the philosophy of science and a critic of Aristotelian natural philosophy and Aristotle's concept of place (topos);
  • Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, a critic of Aristotelian natural philosophy;
  • Avicenna, a critic of Aristotelian logic ( see above )
  • Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, a critic of Aristotelian logic and a pioneer of inductive logic; * Ibn Khaldun, considered the father of the philosophy of history and sociology and a pioneer of social philosophy.


Sufism (تصوف taṣawwuf) is a school of esoteric philosophy in Islam, which is based on the pursuit of spiritual truth as a definite goal to attain. In order to attain this supreme truth, Sufism has marked Lataif-e-Sitta (the six subtleties), Nafs, Qalb, Sirr, Ruh (spirit), Khafi and Akhfa. Apart from conventional religious practices, they also perform Muraqaba (meditation), Dhikr (Zikr or recitation), Chillakashi (asceticism) and Sama (esoteric music and dance).



Index of Eastern philosophy /

Wikipedia For active links to bios and articles click on to the wikipedia site.

  • A.R. Natarajan
  • Abd al-Karīm ibn Hawāzin al-Qushayri
  • Abhidharma
  • Abhinivesha
  • Abū Hayyān al-Tawhīdī
  • Achintya Bheda Abheda
  • Adi Shankara
  • Adrsta
  • Advaita Vedanta
  • Ahankara
  • Ahimsa
  • Ahimsa in Jainism
  • Ahmad Sirhindi
  • Ajapa
  • Al-Farabi
  • Al-Ghazali
  • Al-Kindi
  • Al-Shahrastani
  • Alan Watts
  • Alfonso Falero
  • An Hyang
  • Anāgāmi
  • Analects
  • Anandamaya kosha
  • Anantarika-karma
  • Anatta
  • Anava
  • Anekantavada
  • Animals in Buddhism
  • Antahkarana
  • Aparoksanubhuti
  • Aparokshanubhuti
  • Arhat
  • Arindam Chakrabarti
  • Arya
  • Asanga
  • Ashtamangala
  • Asian values
  • Āstika and nāstika
  • Ātman (Buddhism)
  • Avadhuta Gita
  • Averroes
  • Avidyā
  • Avidyā (Buddhism)
  • Ayatana
  • Ayyavazhi phenomenology
  • Bahshamiyya
  • Bardo
  • Barhaspatya sutras
  • Basic Points Unifying the Theravāda and the Mahāyāna
  • Bhagavad Gita
  • Bhava
  • Bhedabheda
  • Bhumi (Buddhism)
  • Bodhi
  • Bodhimandala
  • Bodhisattva Precepts
  • Book of Changes
  • Brahmacharya
  • Brahman
  • Brahmavihara
  • Budaya
  • Buddha-nature
  • Buddhism and evolution
  • Buddhist ethics
  • Buddhist view of marriage
  • Cai Yuanpei
  • Caigentan
  • Carsun Chang
  • Cārvāka
  • Ch'ien Mu
  • Chanakya
  • Chandragomin
  • Chao Cuo
  • Chen Chung-hwan
  • Chen Duxiu
  • Chen Hongmou
  • Cheng Hao
  • Cheng Yi (philosopher)
  • Chinese philosophy
  • Chöd
  • Choe Chung
  • Chu Anping
  • Chung-ying Cheng
  • Chunyu Kun
  • Confucian view of marriage
  • Confucianism
  • Confucianism in Indonesia
  • Confucius
  • Dai Zhen
  • David Wong (philosopher)
  • Desire realm
  • Dharani
  • Dharma
  • Dharma (Jainism)
  • Dharma transmission
  • Dharmakāya
  • Dharmarāja Adhvarin
  • Diamond Realm
  • Dignāga
  • Disciples of Confucius
  • Doctrine of the Mean
  • Dōgen
  • Dong Zhongshu
  • Dravya
  • Dravya (Jainism)
  • Dukkha
  • Dvaita
  • Dzogchen
  • Eastern epistemology
  • Eastern philosophy
  • Eastern philosophy and clinical psychology
  • Eight Honors and Eight Shames
  • Ekam
  • Eternal Buddha
  • Fan Zhen
  • Fazang
  • Fazlur Rahman Malik
  • Feng Youlan
  • Fetter (Buddhism)
  • Filial piety
  • Fiqh
  • Five hindrances
  • Four stages of enlightenment
  • Fourteen unanswerable questions
  • Fujiwara Seika
  • Gangesha Upadhyaya
  • Gaozi
  • Gaudapada
  • Ge Hong
  • Genshin
  • God in Buddhism
  • Gongsun Long
  • Great Learning
  • Gu Yanwu
  • Gu Zhun
  • Guiguzi
  • Guo Xiang
  • Guru Nanak Dev
  • Hajime Tanabe
  • Hakuin Ekaku
  • Han Fei
  • Han Yong-un
  • Han Yu
  • Hao Wang (academic)
  • Haribhadra
  • Hayashi Hōkō
  • Hayashi Razan
  • Hayashi Ryūkō
  • Hinayana
  • Hirata Atsutane
  • Hōnen
  • Hong Liangji
  • Hong Zicheng
  • Hosoi Heishu
  • Hu Qiaomu
  • Hu Shih
  • Huan Tan
  • Huang Zongxi
  • Huangdi Sijing
  • Huashu
  • Huayan school
  • Hui Shi
  • Huineng
  • Huiyuan (Buddhist)
  • Human beings in Buddhism
  • Hundred Schools of Thought
  • Ibn Arabi
  • Identityism
  • Ikeda Mitsumasa
  • Impermanence
  • Indriya
  • Inka
  • Ippen
  • Itō Jinsai
  • Jaimini
  • Jain cosmology
  • Jainism
  • Jawaharlal Nehru
  • Jayanta Bhatta
  • Jayarāśi Bhaṭṭa
  • Jayatirtha
  • Ji Hu
  • Jia Yi
  • Jiao Yu
  • Jien
  • Jin Yuelin
  • Jing Fang
  • Jinul
  • Jiva Goswami
  • Jizang
  • Junzi
  • K. N. Jayatilleke
  • Kaibara Ekken
  • Kalpa (aeon)
  • Kammaṭṭhāna
  • Kanada
  • Kancha Ilaiah
  • Kang Youwei
  • Karma
  • Karma in Buddhism
  • Karma in Jainism
  • Karuṇā
  • Keiji Nishitani
  • Kensho
  • Kevala Jnana
  • Kitabatake Chikafusa
  • Kosha
  • Krishna Chandra Bhattacharya
  • Kumārila Bhaṭṭa
  • Kwon Geun
  • Lai Zhide
  • Laozi
  • Legalism (Chinese philosophy)
  • LGBT topics and Confucianism
  • Li (Confucian)
  • Li (Neo-Confucianism)
  • Li Ao (philosopher)
  • Li Kui (legalist)
  • Li Shenzhi
  • Li Shicen
  • Li Si
  • Li Zhi (philosopher)
  • Liang Qichao
  • Liang Shuming
  • Liezi
  • Lin Yutang
  • Lineage (Buddhism)
  • Linji school
  • List of Chinese philosophers
  • List of Confucianists
  • List of teachers of Advaita Vedanta
  • Liu Boming (philosopher)
  • Liu Ji (14th century)
  • Logic in China
  • Logic in Islamic philosophy
  • Lu Ban
  • Lu Jiuyuan
  • Lü Liuliang
  • Lunheng
  • Luo Rufang
  • Ma Rong
  • Macrocosm and microcosm
  • Madhusūdana Sarasvatī
  • Madhvacharya
  • Madhyamaka
  • Mahābhūta
  • Mahamudra
  • Mahavira
  • Mahayana
  • Manas-vijnana
  • Mandala
  • Maṇḍana Miśra
  • Mao Zedong
  • Mappō
  • Masakazu Nakai
  • Maya (illusion)
  • Mayatita
  • Mencius
  • Mencius (book)
  • Merit (Buddhism)
  • Middle way
  • Mimāṃsā
  • Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
  • Mohism
  • Moksa (Jainism)
  • Motoori Norinaga
  • Mou Zongsan
  • Mozi
  • Muhammad Husayn Tabatabaei
  • Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi
  • Muhammad Iqbal
  • Mūlamadhyamakakārikā
  • Mulla Sadra
  • Myōe
  • Nagarjuna
  • Namarupa
  • Navya-Nyāya
  • Neetham
  • Neo-Confucianism
  • Neti neti
  • Nichiren
  • Nimbarka
  • Nirvana
  • Nirvana (Jainism)
  • Nishkam Karma
  • Noble Eightfold Path
  • Nondualism
  • Nyaya
  • Nyāya Sūtras
  • Ogyū Sorai
  • Over-soul
  • Padmapadacharya
  • Pan Pingge
  • Paramartha
  • Pāramitā
  • Patañjali
  • Periyar E. V. Ramasamy
  • Philip Zhai
  • Philosophy and Spiritualism of Sri Aurobindo
  • Philosophy East and West
  • Pirsig's metaphysics of Quality
  • Prabhākara
  • Pramana
  • Pratītyasamutpāda
  • Pratyekabuddha
  • Prince Shōtoku
  • Purva Mimamsa Sutras
  • Qian Dehong
  • Qin Hui (historian)
  • Qingjing Jing
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