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Colonial American Doctors

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  • Thomas Cadwalader, MD (1708 - 1779)
    Thomas Cadwalader became a noted physician obtaining his professional education largely in England. He practiced first in Philadelphia, then went to live at Trenton, New Jersey, where in 1746 he became...
  • Dr. John Cochran, 4th Surgeon General of the Continental Army (1730 - 1807)
    ) findagrave. - more pictures... ; ; John Cochran (1730–1807) was the 4th Surgeon General of the Continental Army during the American Revolution.
  • Dr. John Redman Coxe (1773 - 1864)
    This physician was an early advocate of vaccination, and an important member of the Philadelphia medical community. He was born during the early years of the Revolutionary War. His father, Daniel Coxe,...
  • Dr John Bickel Mish (1792 - 1837)
    He studied medicine with Samuel Agnew and in 1816 he graduated from the University of Pennsylvania. He began his medical practice in Jonestown but in 1821 he moved to Lebanon. In 1835 He was Chief Burg...
  • Dr. William Bennett (1687 - 1724)
    Dr. William Bennett had a father, David, and a son, David, who were also doctors.

Please add the profiles of the chirurgeons, physicans, midwives, apothecaries and bonesetters who were our earliest doctors. Collaborators, feel free to update the page and add resource materials.

Please note:

40% of the physicians in the early colonies were women. Midwives at this time were considered doctors.

18th Century American Medicine


In 18th Century England, there were three main classes of medical men: physicians, surgeons and apothecaries. Physicians were considered the elite among the three groups, holding medical degrees from universities and serving mainly the upper classes. In contrast, English surgeons and apothecaries rarely held medical degrees and often gained their training through apprenticeship. By and large the doctors of early colonial America were not English physicians but “ship’s surgeons”. They had learned their trade through apprenticeship or hospitals and often took on their own apprentices in America, which became the chief means of medical education at the time. While referred to as physicians or doctors, most colonists practicing medicine did not qualify as such back in England.

Colonial “physicians” practiced medicine, surgery and apothecary together as needed. As the colonies grew and prospered, some could afford to be trained at the universities abroad and earn their medical degree. Upon their return, however, colonists expected even European trained physicians to open the same general practices as their untrained countrymen. As might be expected, colonial physicians with formal degrees were often more prosperous and enjoyed greater prestige, but these were few and far between.

On the eve of the Revolutionary War it has been estimated that the colonies contained 3,500 physicians, only 400 of whom had undergone some sort of training, and about 200 of these actually held medical degrees.


doctors of interest