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Gross-Rosen concentration camp (German: Konzentrationslager Groß-Rosen) was a Nazi German network of Nazi concentration camps built and operated during World War II. The main camp was located in the village of Gross-Rosen not far from the border with occupied Poland, in the modern-day Rogoźnica in Lower Silesian Voivodeship, Poland; directly on the rail-line between the towns of Jawor (Jauer) and Strzegom (Striegau).

At its peak activity in 1944, the Gross-Rosen complex had up to 100 subcamps located in eastern Germany, Czechoslovakia, and on the territory of occupied Poland. The population of all Gross-Rosen camps at that time accounted for 11% of the total number of inmates trapped in the Nazi concentration camp system.

KZ Gross-Rosen was set up in the summer of 1940 as a satellite camp of the Sachsenhausen concentration camp from Oranienburg. Initially, the slave labour was carried out in a huge stone quarry owned by the SS-Deutsche Erd- und Steinwerke GmbH (SS German Earth and Stone Works). In the fall of 1940 the utilization of labour in Upper Silesia was taken over by the new Organization Schmelt formed on the orders of Heinrich Himmler. It was named after its leader SS-Oberführer Albrecht Schmelt. The company was put in charge of employment from the camps with Jews intended to work for food only. The Gross-Rosen location close to occupied Poland was of considerable advantage. Prisoners were put to work in the construction of a system of subcamps for expelees from the annexed territories. Gross Rosen became an independent camp on May 1, 1941. As the complex grew, the majority of inmates were put to work in the new Nazi enterprises attached to these subcamps.

In October 1941 the SS transferred about 3,000 Soviet POWs to Gross-Rosen for execution by shooting. Gross-Rosen was known for its brutal treatment of the so-called Nacht und Nebel prisoners vanishing without a trace from targeted communities. Most died in the granite quarry. The brutal treatment of the political and Jewish prisoners was not only in the hands of guards and German criminal prisoners brought in by the SS, but to a lesser extent also fuelled by the German administration of the stone quarry responsible for starvation rations and denial of medical help. In 1942, for political prisoners, the average survival time-span was less than two months.

Due to a change of policy in August 1942, prisoners were likely to survive longer because they were needed as slave workers in German war industries. Among the companies that benefited from the slave labour of the concentration camp inmates were German electronics manufacturers such as Blaupunkt or Siemens, as well as Krupp, IG Farben, and Daimler-Benz among others. Some prisoners who were not able to work but not yet dying, were sent to the Dachau concentration camp in so-called invalid transports. The largest population of inmates, however, were Jews, initially from the Dachau and Sachsenhausen camps, and later from Buchenwald. During the camp's existence, the Jewish inmate population came mainly from Poland and Hungary; others were from Belgium, France, Netherlands, Greece, Yugoslavia, Slovakia, and Italy.

Subcamps

At its peak activity in 1944, the Gross-Rosen complex had up to 100 subcamps, located in eastern Germany, Czechoslovakia, and occupied Poland. In its final stage, the population of the Gross-Rosen camps accounted for 11% of the total inmates in Nazi concentration camps at that time. A total of 125,000 inmates of various nationalities passed through the complex during its existence, of whom an estimated 40,000 died on site, on death marches and in evacuation transports. The camp was captured on February 14, 1945, by the Red Army.

A total of over 500 female camp guards were trained and served in the Gross-Rosen complex. Female SS staffed the women's subcamps of Brünnlitz, Graeben, Gruenberg, Gruschwitz Neusalz, Hundsfeld, Kratzau II, Oberaltstadt, Reichenbach, and Schlesiersee Schanzenbau. A subcamp of Gross-Rosen situated in the Czechoslovakian town of Brünnlitz (Brněnec) was a location where Jews rescued by Oskar Schindler were interned.

The most far-reaching expansion of the Gross-Rosen system of labour camps took place in 1944 due to accelerated demand for support behind the advancing front. The character and purpose of new camps shifted toward defense infrastructure. In some cities, as in Wrocław (Breslau) camps were established in every other district. It is estimated that their total number reached 100 at that point according to list of their official destinations. The biggest sub-camps included AL Fünfteichen in Jelcz-Laskowice, four camps in Wrocław, Dyhernfurth in Brzeg Dolny, Landeshut in Kamienna Góra, and the entire Project Riese along the Owl Mountains.

List of Gross-Rosen camps with location==:

Aslau (Osła)

Bad Warmbrunn (Cieplice Śląskie-Zdrój)

Bautzen (in Bautzen)

Bernsdorf (in Bernartice)

Birnbäumel (Gruszeczka)

Bolkenhain (Bolków)

Brandhofen (in Brandhofen)

Breslau I (Wrocław)

Breslau II (Wrocław)

Breslau-Hundsfeld (Wrocław)

Breslau-Lissa (Wrocław-Leśnica)

Brieg-Pampitz (in Pępice)

Brünnlitz

Buchwald-Hohenwiese

Bunzlau I (Boleslawiec)

Bunzlau II

Christianstadt (Krzystkowice)

Dyhernfurth I (Brzeg Dolny)

Dyhernfurth II (Brzeg Dolny)

Freiburg (Świebodzice)

Friedland (Mieroszów)

Fünfteichen (Miłoszyce)

Fürstenstein (Książ)

Gabersdorf (in Trutnov)

Gablonz

Gassen (Jasień)

Gebhardsdorf (Giebułtów)

Geppersdorf

Görlitz (Zgorzelec)

Gräben (Grabina, Strzegom)

Grafenort (Gorzanów)

Gräflich-Röhrsdorf (Skarbowa Wrocław) [6]

Gross Koschen

Gross-Rosen (Rogoźnica)

Grulich (Kraliky)

Grünberg I

Grünberg II

Guben (Gubin)

Halbau (Ilowa)

Halbstadt (Meziměstí)

Hartmannsdorf (Miłoszów)

Hausdorf (Jugowice)

Hirschberg (Jelenia Góra)

Hochweiler (Wierzchowice)

Hohenelbe (Vrchlabi)

Hundsfeld (Psie Pole)

Kaltenbrunn (Studzienno)

Kaltwasser (Zimna)

Kamenz (Kamenz)

Kittlitztreben (Trzebień)

Klein Radisch (Radšowk [de])

Königszelt (Jaworzyna)

Kratzau I (Chrastava)

Kratzau II (Zitt-Werke AG)

Kunnerwitz

Kurzbach (Bukołowo, Milicz)[7]

Landeshut (Kamienna Góra)

Langenbielau I (Bielawa)

Langenbielau II

Lärche (Glinica)

Liebau (Lubawka)

Ludwigsdorf (Ludwikowice)

Mährisch Weisswasser (Bílá Voda)

Markstädt (Jelcz-Laskowice)

Merzdorf (Marciszów)

Mittelsteine (Ścinawka Średnia)

Morchenstern (Smržovka)

Namslau (Namysłów)

Neiße (Nysa)

Neusalz (Nowa Sól)

Niederoderwitz (near Zittau)

Niesky (in Niesky)

Nimptsch (Niemcza)

Ober Altstadt (Staré Město)

Ober Hohenelbe

Parschnitz I (Poříčí [cz])

Parschnitz II (Poříčí)

Peterswaldau (Pieszyce)

Rauscha (Ruszów)

Reichenau (Rychnov)

Reichenbach (Dzierżoniów)

Rennersdorf

Sackisch

Schatzlar

Schertendorf (Przylep)

Schlesiersee I (Sława)

Schlesiersee II

St. Georgenthal (Jiřetín)

St. Georgenthal II

Treskau (Owińska)

Waldenburg (Wałbrzych)

Weisswasser

Wiesau

Wüstegiersdorf (Głuszyca Górna)

Zillerthal-Erdmannsdorf

Zittau


El Moley Rachamim Holocaust Prayer

KZ Gross-Rosen (Groß-Rosen) was a German concentration camp, located in Gross-Rosen, Lower Silesia (now Rogoźnica, Poland). It was located directly on the rail line between Jauer (now Jawor) and Striegau (now Strzegom).

Subcamps:

The Main Camp

It was set up in the summer of 1940 as a satellite camp to Sachsenhausen, and became an independent camp on May 1, 1941. Initially, work was carried out in the camp's huge stone quarry, owned by the SS-Deutsche Erd- und Steinwerke GmbH (SS German Earth and Stone Works). As the complex grew, many inmates were put to work in the construction of the subcamps' facilities.

In October 1941 the SS transferred about 3,000 Soviet POWs to Gross-Rosen for execution by shooting.

Gross-Rosen was known for its brutal treatment of NN (Nacht und Nebel) prisoners, especially in the stone quarry. The brutal treatment of the political and Jewish prisoners was not only due to the SS and criminal prisoners, but to a lesser extent also due to German civilians working in the stone quarry. In 1942, for political prisoners, the mean survival time was less than two months.

Due to a change of policy in August 1942, prisoners were likely to survive longer because they were needed as slave workers in German industries. Among the companies that benefited from the slave labour of the concentration camp inmates were German electronics manufacturers such as Blaupunkt or Siemens. Some prisoners who were not able to work and not yet dying within a few days, were sent to Dachau in so-called invalid transports. One of these, Willem Lodewijk Harthoorn, an inmate from the end of April to mid-August 1942, wrote an account of his experiences, Verboden te sterven (in Dutch, meaning Forbidden to Die).

The largest population of inmates, however, were Jews, initially from the Dachau and Sachsenhausen camps, and later from Buchenwald. During the camp's existence, the Jewish inmate population came mainly from Poland and Hungary; others were from Belgium, France, Netherlands, Greece, Yugoslavia, Slovakia, and Italy.

At its peak activity in 1944, the Gross-Rosen complex had up to sixty subcamps located in eastern Germany and occupied Poland. In its final stage, the population of the Gross-Rosen camps accounted for 11% of the total inmates in Nazi concentration camps at that time.

A total of 125,000 inmates of various nationalities passed through the complex during its existence, of whom an estimated 40,000 died on site and in evacuation transports. The camp was captured on February 14, 1945, by the Red Army.

A total of over 500 female camp guards were trained and served in the Gross Rosen complex. Female SS staffed the women's subcamps of Brünnlitz, Graeben, Gruenberg, Gruschwitz Neusalz, Hundsfeld, Kratzau II, Oberalstadt, Reichenbach, and Schlesiersee Schanzenbau.

A subcamp of Gross-Rosen situated in the Czechoslovakian town of Brünnlitz was a location where Jews rescued by Oskar Schindler were interned.


El Moley Rachamim Holocaust Prayer