Start My Family Tree Welcome to Geni, home of the world's largest family tree.
Join Geni to explore your genealogy and family history in the World's Largest Family Tree.

Lithuanian book smugglers and clandestine village teachers (1864 - 1904)

« Back to Projects Dashboard

view all 52

Profiles

  • Balys Valušis (1867 - 1952)
    Balys Valušis (arba Boleslovas Valiušis; 1867 m. liepos 12 d. Inkilų k., Pabaisko valsčius, Ukmergės apskritis – 1952 m. lapkričio 26 d. Kaune), vargonininkas, chorvedys ir knygnešys. Mokėsi Ukmergės...
  • Jonas Tumas (1856 - 1923)
    Anykštėnai: Jonas Tumas Jonas TUMAS Gimimo data: 1856-03-18 Gimimo vietovė: Maleišių k. (Anykščių r.) » Trumpai: Knygnešys, tremtinys Seneliai: Motiejus Tumas (?–1835) ir Margarita Čečytė-Tu...
  • Motiejus Baltūsis (1876 - 1923)
  • Petras Vileišis (1851 - 1926)
    Gimęs ir krikšytas pagal seną kalendorių sausio 13 d. Krikšto tėvai Antanas Mačėnas ir Salomėja Vileišytė. Petras Vileišis (January 25, 1851 – August 12, 1926) was a prominent Lithuanian engineer, po...
  • Gabrielė Petkevičaitė Bitė (1861 - 1943)
    Gabrielė Petkevičaitė-Bite was a Lithuanian writer, feminist, activist and one of the most important leaders in Lithuania at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries. Her pen name Bitė (...

The Lithuanian press ban (Lithuanian: spaudos draudimas) was a ban on all Lithuanian language publications printed in the Latin alphabet in force from 1865 to 1904 within the Russian Empire, which controlled Lithuania at the time. Lithuanian-language publications that used Cyrillic were allowed and even encouraged.

The concept arose after the failed January Uprising of 1863, taking the form of an administrative order in 1864, and was not lifted until 24 April 1904. The Russian courts reversed two convictions in press ban cases in 1902 and 1903, and the setbacks of the Russo-Japanese War in early 1904 brought about a loosened Russian policy towards minorities.

Under the ban, it was illegal to print, import, distribute, or possess any publications in the Latin alphabet. Tsarist authorities hoped that this measure, part of a larger Russification plan, would decrease Polish influence on Lithuanians and would return them to what were considered their ancient historical ties with Russia. However, Lithuanians organized printing outside the Empire, largely in Lithuania Minor (East Prussia), and in the United States.


Knygnešiai (Lithuanian book smugglers) smuggled illegal books and periodicals across the border. The number of such publications kept increasing despite strict sanctions and persecution of the activists. The ban created a well-defined and organized opposition to Russian rule and culture—the opposite of its original intent. The Lithuanian historian Edvardas Gudavičius has described the ban as a test of the concept of Lithuania: had there been no resistance, the language would have become a historical footnote.

Clandestine village teachers were illegal teachers of Lithuanian in secret schools, usually in rural areas.

Book smugglers illegally brought books and press in Lithuanian printed in Lithuania Minor (Ethnic Lithuanian territory within Kingdom of Prussia) and other foreign countries and distributed risking to get fines, jail sentences, exile to Siberia or even death sentence. These people are very important for survival of heritage in Lithuanian language.


If in your family tree you have an individual who was associated with illegal Lithuanian book smuggling, distribution, collaboration of the process and who were illegal teachers or organizers of Lithuanian secret schools, please add them to this project. It would be great if within profile description there would be brief biography.

  • Within opened profile page use the 'Actions' button to "Add to project". Select this project (you must be on the list of collaborators in this project to see it on the selection list). You may add any public profile that you have permission to edit. If you do not have permission to edit the profile, a request is sent to the profile manager to add the profile to the project.

Note: Only public profiles may be added to projects.

Additional sources for information:

Spaudos draudimas buvo 1864 - 1904 metais įvestas laikraščių, knygų ir kitų spaudinių lietuvių kalba draudimas lotyniškais rašmenimis Rusijos Imperijoje. Draudimas buvo įvestas 1864 metais po 1863 metų sukilimo ir buvo orientuotas į Lenkijos, Lietuvos ir Latvijos katalikus.

Knygnešiai, lietuviškos spaudos draudimo laikotarpiu, nelegaliai įveždavo knygas ir spaudą lietuvių kalba iš Mažosios Lietuvos, JAV ir kitur ir ją platindavo Lietuvoje ir Rusijos Imperijoje rizikuodami baudomis, tremtimi Sibire, kalėjimu ar netgi gyvybe.

Per šį laikotarpį Mažojoje Lietuvoje pasirodė 1830 leidiniai lietuvių kalba (6 milijonai egzempliorių) ir 701 JAV, kurie taip pat pasiekdavo Lietuvą.

Rusijos Imperijos valdžia taip pat uždraudė parapijines mokyklas lenkų ir lietuvių kalba. Daraktoriai buvo slapti ir persekiojami mokytojai lietuvių kalba dažniausiai kaimo mokyklose spaudos draudimo laikotarpiu. Istoriko Vytauto Merkio teigimu, daraktorių Lietuvoje galėjo būti apie 4800.

Naudingos nuorodos

Paminklas Knygnešių sienelė Kaune

Apie knygnešius Lietuvių Visuotinėje Enciklopedijoje

Duomenų bazė "Lietuvos Knygnešiai ir Daraktoriai 1864 - 1904" (veikla sutrikusi)

Iškiliausių knygnešių sąrašas

Jeigu savo giminės medyje turite knygnešių ir daraktorių, prašau pridėkite juos prie projekto. Projekto šone spauskite "Veiksmai" ir tada pasirinkite "pridėti profilius". Profiliai turi būti vieši. Pagal galimybes pridėkite profilyje trumpą biografiją.