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Prominent Scientists: (ii) Life Sciences & Medical Sciences

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Prominent scientists who have made major contributions to our understanding of life on earth.

The fields of biology and medicine have seen many important discoveries throughout the centuries. From vaccines to theories of the beginning and progression of life on Earth, the many discoveries have improved not only our understanding of history but also our quality of living.

  • Leonardo da Vinci’s Famous “Vitruvian Man” Drawing

Project under construction . . . . . . . . .

Selected Profiles (listed by activity period):


0 – 1000

  • Pedanius Dioscorides Πεδάνιος Διοσκουρίδης (c.40 — c.90) was a Greek physician, pharmacologist and botanist, the author of De Materia Medica — a 5-volume encyclopedia about herbal medicine and related medicinal substances (a pharmacopeia), that was widely read for more than 1,500 years.
  • Galen of Pergamon (129–161). Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire. Arguably the most accomplished of all medical researchers of antiquity, Galen influenced the development of various scientific disciplines, including anatomy, physiology, pathology, pharmacology, and neurology, as well as philosophy and logic.

1000 – 1500

XVI century

  • Paracelsus (Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim), (11 Nov. or 17 Dec. 1493 – 24 Sep. 1541) German-Swiss Renaissance physician, botanist, alchemist, astrologer, and general occultist.
  • John Clement (1500 – 1572) Fellow, Consiliarius and President of the College of Physicians.
  • Andreas Vesalius (1514 – 1564) Flemish anatomist and physician, considered the founder of modern human anatomy.
  • Amatus Lusitanus (1511 - 1568) Portuguese Jewish Physician who is said to have discovered the function of the valves in the circulation of the blood. Noted surgeon, prolific author and scholar of logic, mathematics, philosophy.

XVII century

  • William Harvey (1578 – 1657) English physician who was the first person to describe completely and in detail the systemic circulation and properties of blood being pumped to the body by the heart.
  • Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) Nationality: Dutch. Known for: The Father of Microbiology. As the first person recorded to describe single-cell organisms, Leeuwenhoek is often referred to as the world’s first microbiologist
  • Robert Hooke (1635-1703). English natural philosopher, architect and polymath. Coined the term “cell”. Hooke studied microscopic fossils and as a result of his finding, he was an early supporter in the theory of biological evolution.

XVIII century

  • Joseph Priestley (1733-1804). English theologian, Dissenting clergyman, natural philosopher, educator, and political theorist. He is usually credited with the discovery of oxygen. He was also the first to observe photosynthesis.
  • Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794). French nobleman prominent in the histories of chemistry and biology. He named both oxygen (1778) and hydrogen (1783) and helped construct the metric system, put together the first extensive list of elements, and helped to reform chemical nomenclature.
  • Edward Jenner (1749-1823). English physician and scientist who was the pioneer of smallpox vaccine. He is often called "the father of immunology", and his work is said to have "saved more lives than the work of any other man".
  • Alexander Von Humboldt (1769-1859). Prussian polymath, geographer, naturalist, explorer, and influential proponent of Romantic philosophy and science. Helped establish the field of biogeogrpahy, which is the study of ecosystems and species throughout geological time and space.

XIX century

  • Charles Robert Darwin (1809–1882), FRS FRGS FLS FZS was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist. Father of the Theory of Evolution
  • Claude Bernard (1813-1878). Nationality: French. Known for: Blind experimental method for objective results. By suggesting using blind experiments to conduct studies, Bernard helped researchers get more objective results to their experiments. He also did studies on the pancreas gland, the liver, and parts of the body’s nervous system.
  • Gregor Mendel (1822-1884). German scientist, Augustinian friar and abbot. Known for plant hybridizations and genetics. Mendel worked with plants, peas, and honeybees to test his theories regarding genetics. He is credited with being the founder of the science of genetics and discovering a set of laws about genetic patterns, now called the Mendelian inheritance.
  • Louis Pasteur (1822-1895). French chemist and microbiologist. Created the process of pasteurization for treating milk and wine. Performed experiments that supported the germ theory of disease, which stated that diseases are caused by microorganisms. He also co-founded the field of microbiology and created vaccines for anthrax and rabies.
  • Joseph Lister (1827-1912). British physician. He came to be known as the “father of modern antisepsis”. He also developed better methods for mastectomies and repairing kneecaps.

XX/XXI centuries

All Nobel Laureates in Physiology or Medicine

  • 1901: Emil Adolf von Behring (1854 –1917) German physiologist, "for his work on serum therapy, especially its application against diphtheria, by which he has opened a new road in the domain of medical science and thereby placed in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths".
  • 1902: Ronald Ross (1857 – 1932) British physician, "for his work on malaria, by which he has shown how it enters the organism and thereby has laid the foundation for successful research on this disease and methods of combating it". He identified the mosquito as the transmitter of malaria.
  • 1903: Niels Ryberg Finsen (1860 – 1904) Faroese-Danish physician and scientist, "in recognition of his contribution to the treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation, whereby he has opened a new avenue for medical science". The first Danish winner.
  • 1904: Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1849 – 1936) Russian physiologist, "in recognition of his work on the physiology of digestion, through which knowledge on vital aspects of the subject has been transformed and enlarged".
  • 1905: Robert Koch (1843 – 1910) German physician, considered one of the founders of microbiology, "for his investigations and discoveries in relation to tuberculosis".
  • 1906: jointly to: Camillo Golgi (1843 - 1926) Italian physician, pathologist and scientist, and Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1852 - 1934) Spanish pathologist, histologist and neuroscientist , "in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system"
  • 1907: awarded to: Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran (1845 - 1922) French physician, "in recognition of his work on the role played by protozoa in causing diseases".
  • 1908: jointly to: Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov (1845 – 1916) Russian biologist, and Paul Ehrlich (1854 – 1915) German Jewish Immunologist, "in recognition of their work on immunity".
  • 1909: Emil Theodor Kocher (1841 - 1917) Swiss physician and medical researcher, "for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland".
  • 1910: Albrecht Kossel (1853 - 1927) German biochemist and pioneer in the study of genetics, "in recognition of the contributions to our knowledge of cell chemistry made through his work on proteins, including the nucleic substances".
  • 1911: Allvar Gullstrand (1862 - 1930) Swedish ophthalmologist and optician, "for his work on the dioptrics of the eye".
  • 1912: Alexis Carrel (1873 - 1944) French surgeon and biologist, "in recognition of his work on vascular suture and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs".
  • 1913: Charles Robert Richet (1850 - 1935) French physiologist, "in recognition of his work on anaphylaxis"
  • 1914: Robert Bárány (1876 - 1936) Austro-Hungarian otologist, "for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus".
  • 1915: No Nobel Prize was awarded this year.
  • 1916: No Nobel Prize was awarded this year.
  • 1917: No Nobel Prize was awarded this year.
  • 1918: No Nobel Prize was awarded this year.
  • 1919: Jules Bordet (1870 - 1961) Belgian immunologist and microbiologist, "for his discoveries relating to immunity".
  • 1920: Schack August Steenberg Krogh (1874 - 1949) Danish Medical Scientist, "for his discovery of the capillary motor regulating mechanism"
  • 1921: No Nobel Prize was awarded this year.
  • 1922: Archibald Vivian Hill (1986 - 1977) English physiologist, one of the founders of the diverse disciplines of biophysics, "for his discovery relating to the production of heat in the muscle" and Otto Fritz Meyerhof (1884 – 1951) German-born physician and biochemist, "for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle"
  • 1923: jointly to: Frederick Grant Banting (1891 – 1941) Canadian medical scientist, and to John James Rickard Macleod (1876 – 1935) Scottish biochemist and physiologist "for the discovery of insulin".
  • 1924: Willem Einthoven (1860 - 1927) Dutch physiologist, "for his discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram".
  • 1925: No Nobel Prize was awarded this year.
  • 1926: Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger (1867 – 1928) Danish physician, and professor of pathological anatomy, "for his discovery of the Spiroptera carcinoma".
  • 1927: Julius Wagner-Jauregg (1857 - 1940) Austrian pro-Nazi scientist, "for his discovery of the therapeutic value of malaria inoculation in the treatment of dementia paralytica".
  • 1928: Charles Jules Henri Nicolle (1866 – 1936) French bacteriologist, "for his work on typhus"
  • 1929: divided equally to: Christiaan Eijkman (1858 - 1930), Dutch physiologist, "for his discovery of the antineuritic vitamin", and to Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins (1861 - 1947) English biochemist, "for his discovery of the growth-stimulating vitamins".
  • 1930: Karl Landsteiner (1868 – 1943), Austrian biologist and physician, "for his discovery of human blood groups".
  • 1931 Otto Heinrich Warburg (1883 - 1970) German physiologist, "for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme"
  • 1932: jointly to: Sir Charles Scott Sherrington (1857 - 1952) British neurophysiologist, and Edgar Douglas, 1st Baron Adrian (1889 - 1977) British neurophysiologist, "for their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons"
  • 1933: Thomas Hunt Morgan (1866 - 1945) American embryologist , "for his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in heredity".
  • 1934: jointly to: George Hoyt Whipple (1878 – 1976) American medical researcher, to George Richards Minot (1885 – 1950) American medical researcher, and William Parry Murphy (1892 – 1987) American medical researcher, "for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia".
  • 1935: Hans Spemann (1869 - 1941) German embryologist, "for his discovery of the organizer effect in embryonic development"
  • 1936. jointly to: Sir Henry Hallett Dale (1875 – 1968) British physiologist, and to Otto Loewi (1873 – 1961) German-born Austrian & American scientist, "for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses"
  • 1937: Albert von Szent-Györgyi de Nagyrápolt (1893 - 1986) Hungarian-American physiologist, "for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid".
  • 1938: Corneille Jean François Heymans (1892 - 1968) Belgian physiologist, "for the discovery of the role played by the sinus and aortic mechanisms in the regulation of respiration"
  • 1939: Gerhard Domagk (1895 - 1964) German microbiologist, "for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil"
  • 1940: No Nobel Prize was awarded this year.
  • 1941: No Nobel Prize was awarded this year.
  • 1942: No Nobel Prize was awarded this year.
  • 1943: divided equally between: Henrik Carl Peter Dam (1896 - 1976) Danish biochemist, "for his discovery of vitamin K", and Edward Adelbert Doisy (1893 - 1986) American biochemist, "for his discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K".
  • 1944: jointly to: Joseph Erlanger (1874 - 1965) American physiologist, and Herbert Spencer Gasser (1888 - 1963) American physiologist, "for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres".
  • 1945: jointly to: Sir Alexander Fleming (1881 - 1955) British physician and microbiologist, to Sir Ernst B. Chain (1906 - 1979) British Biochemist of Jewish origin from Germany, and to Sir Howard Walter Florey (1898 - 1968) Australian-British pathologist, "for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases".
  • 1946: Hermann Joseph Muller (1890 – 1967) American geneticist, educator, "for the discovery that mutations can be induced by x-rays".
  • 1947: divided, one half jointly to Carl Ferdinand Cori (1896 - 1984) Czech-American biochemist and pharmacologist, and Gerty Theresa Cori (née Radnitz) (1896 - 1957), Czech-American biochemist, "for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen" and the other half to: Bernardo Alberto Houssay (1887 - 1971) Argentinian physiologist, "for his discovery of the part played by the hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe in the metabolism of sugar".
  • 1948: Paul Hermann Müller (1899 - 1965) Swiss chemist, "for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods".
  • 1949: jointly to: Walter Rudolf Hess (1881 - 1973) Swiss physiologist "for his discovery of the functional organization of the interbrain as a coordinator of the activities of the internal organs", and to Egas Moniz (1874 - 1955) Portuguese neurologist and the developer of cerebral angiography, "for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy in certain psychoses".
  • 1950: jointly to: Edward Calvin Kendall (1886 - 1972) American chemist, to Tadeus Reichstein (1897 - 1996) Swiss chemist, and to Philip Showalter Hench (1896 - 1965) American physician , "for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects"
  • 1951: Max Theiler (1899 - 1972) South African-American virologist, "for his discoveries concerning yellow fever and how to combat it".
  • 1952: Selman Abraham Waksman (1888 - 1973) Jewish/Ukrainian-born American inventor, biochemist and microbiologist, "for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis"
  • 1953: jointly to: Hans Adolf Krebs (1900 - 1981) German-born British biochemist, "for his discovery of the citric acid cycle" and to Fritz Albert Lipmann (1899 - 1986) German-born American biochemist, "for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism".
  • 1954: jointly to: John Franklin Enders (1897 - 1985) American physician and virologist, to Thomas Huckle Weller (1915 - 2008 ) American pediatrician and virologist, and to Frederick Chapman Robbins (1916 - 2003) American pediatrician and virologist, to "for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue".
  • 1955: Axel Hugo Theodor Theorell (1903 - 1982) Swedish biochemist, "for his discoveries concerning the nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes".
  • 1956: jointly to: André Frédéric Cournand (1895 – 1988) French physician and physiologist, to [ Werner Forssmann] (1904 - 1979) German Nazi physician, and to Dickinson W. Richards American medical researcher (1895 - 1973), "for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system".
  • 1957: Daniel Bovet (1907 - 1992) Swiss-born Italian pharmacologist, "for his discoveries relating to synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain body substances, and especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles".
  • 1958: one half jointly to George Wells Beadle (1903 - 1989) American biochemist, and to: Edward Lawrie Tatum (1909 - 1975) American biochemist, "for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events", and the other half to: Joshua Lederberg (1925 - 2008) American microbiologist and geneticist, "for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria".
  • 1959: jointly to: Arthur Kornberg (1915 - 2008) American biochemist of Jewish descent , and to Severo Ochoa (1905 - 1993), American-Spanish biochemist, "for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid".
  • 1960: jointly to: Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet (1999 - 1985) Australian immunologist, and to Peter Brian Medawar (1915 - 1987) Brazilian-British immunologist, "for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance"
  • 1961: Georg von Békésy (1899 - 1972) Hungarian biophysicist "for his discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea"
  • 1962: jointly to: Francis Harry Compton Crick (1916 – 2004) English molecular biologist, biophysicist, and neuroscientist, and to James Dewey Watson (b. 1928) American Biologist, and to Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins (1916 - 2004) New Zealand-born English physicist and molecular biologist, "for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material".
  • 1963: jointly to: Sir John Carew Eccles (1903 - 1997) Australian neurophysiologist, Sir Alan Lloyd Hodgkin (1914 - 1998) British physiologist and biophysicist, & Sir Andrew Fielding Huxley (b. 1917) English physiologist and biophysicist, "for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane".
  • 1964: jointly to: Konrad Bloch (1912 - 2000) German-born American biochemist, and Feodor Lynen (1911 - 1979) German biochemist, "for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism".
  • 1965: jointly to: François Jacob (1920 - 2013) French biologist, André Lwoff (1902 - 1994) French microbiologist & Jacques Monod (1910 - 1976) French biologist, "for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis".
  • 1966: jointly to: Peyton Rous (1879 - 1972) American virologist and oncologist, "for his discovery of tumour-inducing viruses", and to Charles Brenton Huggins (1901 - 1997) Canadian-born American physician and physiologist and cancer researcher, "for his discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer".
  • 1967: Jointly to: Ragnar Granit (1900 - 1991) Finn-Swedish physiologist, to Haldan Keffer Hartline (1903 - 1983) American physiologist, and to: George Wald (1906 - 1977) American physiologist, "for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye".
  • 1968: jointly to: Robert W. Holley (1922 - 1993) American biochemist, to Har Gobind Khorana (1922 - 2011) Indian-American chemist, and to Marshall W. Nirenberg (1927 - 2010) American biochemist, "for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis".
  • 1969: jointly to: Max Delbrück (1906 - 1981) German–American biophysicist, to Alfred D. Hershey (1908 - 1997) American bacteriologist and geneticist, and to: Salvador E. Luria (1912 -1991) American microbiologist of Italian Jewish Sephardic descent, "for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses".
  • 1970: Jointly to: Sir Bernard Katz (1911 - 2003) Jewish-German-born British biophysicist, to Ulf von Euler (1905 - 1983) Swedish neurophysiologist, and to: Julius Axelrod (1972 - 2004) American neurophysiologist, "for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation".
  • 1971: Earl W. Sutherland, Jr. (1915 - 1974) American pharmacologist and biochemist, "for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones".
  • 1972: jointly to: Gerald M. Edelman (1929 - 2014) American Biochemist, and to Rodney R. Porter (1917 - 1985) British biochemist, "for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies".
  • 1973: jointly to Karl Ritter von Frisch (1886 - 1982), Austrian ethologist, to Konrad Lorenz (1903 - 1989) Austrian zoologist, ethologist, and ornithologist, and to Nikolaas Tinbergen (1907 - 1988) Dutch biologist and ornithologist, "for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns".
  • 1974: jointly to: Albert Claude (1899 - 1983) Belgian cell biologist, to Christian de Duve (1917 - 2013) Belgian cytologist and biochemist, and to: George E. Palade (1912 - 2008) Romanian-American cell biologist, "for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell".
  • 1975: jointly to: David Baltimore (b. 1938) American biologist , to Renato Dulbecco (1914 - 2012) Italian-born American virologist , and to Howard Martin Temin (1934 - 1994) American geneticist, "for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell".
  • 1976: jointly to: Baruch S. Blumberg (1925 - 2011) American virologist, and to D. Carleton Gajdusek (1923 - 2008) American medical researcher (and a convicted child molester), "for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases".
  • 1977: divided, one half to: Roger Guillemin (b. 1924) American endocrinologist, and to Andrew V. Schally (b. 1926) American endocrinologist, "for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain", and the other half to: Rosalyn Yalow (1921 - 2011) American endocrinologist, "for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones".
  • 1978: jointly to: Werner Arber (b. 1929) Swiss microbiologist and geneticist, to Daniel Nathans (1928 - 1999) American microbiologist and geneticist - sometimes called the father of modern biotechnology, and to Hamilton O. Smith (b. 1931) American microbiologist and geneticist, "for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics".
  • 1979: jointly to: Allan M. Cormack (1924 - 1998) South African American physicist, and to Godfrey N. Hounsfield (1919 - 2004) English electrical engineer, "for the development of computer assisted tomography"
  • 1980: jointly to|: Baruj Benacerraf (1920 - 2011) Venezuelan-born American immunologist, to Jean Dausset (1916 - 2009) French immunologist , and to: George D. Snell (1903 - 1996) American immunologist, "for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions".
  • 1981: divided, one half awarded to Roger W. Sperry (1913 - 1994) American neuropsychologist andneurobiologist, "for his discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres", the other half jointly to David H. Hubel (1926 - 2013) Canadian neurophysiologist, and Torsten N. Wiesel (b. 1924) Swedish-born American neurophysiologist, "for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system".
  • 1982: jointly to: Sune K. Bergström (1916 - 2004) Swedish biochemist, to Bengt I. Samuelsson (b. 1934) Swedish biochemist , and to John R. Vane (1927 - 2004) British biochemist , "for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances".
  • 1983: to Barbara McClintock (1902 – 1992) American cytogeneticists, "for her discovery of mobile genetic elements".
  • 1984: jointly to: Niels K. Jerne (1911 - 1994) Danish immunologist, to Georges J.F. Köhler (1946 - 1995) German immunologist, and to César Milstein (1927 - 2002) Argentinian-born British immunologist, "for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies".
  • 1985: jointly to: Michael S. Brown (b. 1941) American geneticist, and to Joseph L. Goldstein (b. 1940) American molecular geneticist, "for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism"
  • 1986: jointly to: Stanley Cohen (b. 1922) American biochemist, and Rita Levi-Montalcini (1909 - 2012) Italian Neurobiologist, the longest lived Nobel Prize Winner in history - "for their discoveries of growth factors".
  • 1987: to: Susumu Tonegawa (b. 1939) Japanese-American scientist, "for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity".
  • 1988: jointly to: Sir James W. Black (1924 - 2010) Scottish pharmacologist, to Gertrude B. Elion (1918 - 1999) American biochemist and pharmacologist, and to George H. Hitchings (1905 - 1998) American pharmacologist, "for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment".
  • 1989: jointly to J. Michael Bishop (b. 1936) American virologist and Harold E. Varmus (b. 1939) American virologist, "for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes"
  • 1990: jointly to Joseph E. Murray (1919 - 2012) American plastic surgeon and E. Donnall Thomas (1920 - 2012) American physician, "for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease"
  • 1991: jointly to Erwin Neher (b. 1944) German physiologist, and Bert Sakmann (b. 1942) German cell physiologist, "for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells"
  • 1992: jointly to: Edmond H. Fischer (b. 1920) American biochemist, and Edwin G. Krebs (1918 - 2009) American biochemist, "for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism"
  • 1993: jointly to Richard J. Roberts (b.1943) American molecular biologist, and Phillip A. Sharp (b. 1944) American molecular biologist, "for their discoveries of split genes"
  • 1994: jointly to: Alfred G. Gilman (b. 1944) American pharmacologist and biochemist, and Martin Rodbell (1925 - 1998) American biochemist and molecular endocrinologist, "for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells"
  • 1995: jointly to: Edward B. Lewis (1918 - 2004) American geneticist, to Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard (b. 1942) German biologist, and to Eric F. Wieschaus (b. 1947) American developmental biologist, "for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development".
  • 1996: jointly to: Peter C. Doherty (b. 1940) Australian immunologist, and Rolf M. Zinkernagel (b. 1944) Swiss immunologist, "for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence".
  • 1997: Stanley B. Prusiner (b. 1942) American neurologist and biochemist, "for his discovery of Prions - a new biological principle of infection".
  • 1998: jointly to: Robert F. Furchgott (1916 - 2009) American biochemist, to Louis J. Ignarro (b. 1941) American pharmacologist, and to Ferid Murad (b. 1936) American physician and pharmacologis, "for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system".
  • 1999: Günter Blobel (b. 1936) German-born American biochemist, for the discovery that "proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell"
  • 2000: jointly to: Arvid Carlsson (b. 1923) Swedish neurophysiologist, to Paul Greengard (b. 1925) American neuroscientist, and to Eric R. Kandel (b. 1929) American neuropsychiatrist, "for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system".
  • 2001: jointly to: Leland H. Hartwell (b. 1939) American biologist, to Sir (Richard) Timothy "Tim" Hunt (b. 1943) English biochemist, and to Sir Paul M. Nurse (b. 1949) English geneticist, "for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle".
  • 2002: jointly to: Sydney Brenner (b. 1927) South African biologist, to H. Robert Horvitz (b. 1947) American biologist, and to John E. Sulston (b. 1942) British biologist, "for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'".
  • 2003: jointly to:Paul C. Lauterbur (1929 - 2007) American chemist, and Sir Peter Mansfield (b. 1933) English physicist, "for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging"
  • 2004: jointly to: Richard Axel (b. 1946) American molecular biologist, and Linda B. Buck (b. 1947) American biologist, "for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system"
  • 2005: jointly to: Barry J. Marshall (b. 1951) Australian physician, and J. Robin Warren (b. 1937) Australian pathologist, "for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease"
  • 2006: jointly to: Andrew Z. Fire (1959) American biologist, and Craig C. Mello (1960) American biologist, "for their discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA"
  • 2007: jointly to Mario R. Capecchi (b. 1937) Italian-born American molecular geneticist, to Sir Martin J. Evans (b. 1941) Welsh biologist, and to Oliver Smithies (b. 1925) British-born American geneticist, "for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells".
  • 2008: divided, one half awarded to Harald zur Hausen (b. 1936) German virologist, "for his discovery of human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer", the other half jointly to: Françoise Barré-Sinoussi (b. 1947) French virologist, and Luc Montagnier (b. 1932) French virologist, "for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus".
  • 2009: jointly to: Elizabeth H. Blackburn (b. 1948) Australian-American biologist, to Carol W. Greider (b. 1961) American molecular biologist, and to Jack W. Szostak (b. 1952) Canadian American biologist, "for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase".
  • 2010: Sir Robert G. Edwards (1925 - 2013) English physiologist, "for the development of in vitro fertilization".
  • 2011: one half jointly to: Bruce A. Beutler (b. 1957) American immunologist and geneticist, and to: Jules A. Hoffmann (b. 1941) Luxembourgish-born French biologist, "for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity", and one half to: Ralph M. Steinman (1943 – 2011) Canadian immunologist and cell biologist "for his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity".
  • 2012: jointly to: Sir John B. Gurdon (b. 1933) British developmental biologist, and to: Shinya Yamanaka, 山中 伸弥 (b. 1962) Japanese physician and cell biologist., "for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent".
  • 2013: jointly to: James E. Rothman (b. 1950) American cell biologist, and to: Randy W. Schekman (b. 1948) American cell biologist, and to: Thomas C. Südhof, (b. 1955) German-born American cell biologist, "for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells".
  • 2014: divided, one half awarded to John O'Keefe (b. 1939) American-British neuroscientist, the other half jointly to May-Britt Moser (b. 1963) Norwegian psychologist and neuroscientist; and to her husband Edvard I. Moser (b. 1962) Norwegian psychologist and neuroscientist, "for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain".
  • 2015: divided, one half jointly to William C. Campbell (b. 1930) Irish biochemist, and Satoshi Ōmura, 大村智 (b. 1935) Japanese biochemist "for their discoveries concerning a novel therapy against infections caused by roundworm parasites" and the other half to Youyou Tu, 屠呦呦 (b. 1930) Chinese pharmaceutical chemist "for her discoveries concerning a novel therapy against Malaria".
  • 2016: Yoshinori Ohsumi 大隅 良典] (b. 1945) Japanese cell biologist, "for his discoveries of mechanisms for autophagy".
  • 2017: jointly to: Jeffrey C. Hall (b. 1945) American biologist, Michael Rosbash (b. 1944) American biologist, and Michael W. Young (b. 1949) American biologist, "for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm". Amber
  • 2018: jointly to: James P. Allison (b. 1948) American immunologist and Tasuku Honjo (b. 1942) Japanese immunologist, for their discovery of cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation