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Charlemagne, Emperor of the West: Direct Family Line

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This project is to create a template to defer to for Charlemagne and his very immediate descendants. I'm still working on the grandchildren section. You're invited (begged!) to come & help, & add sources that you like to use; & engage in discussion whenever you think it needs to be updated with new research. Sharon

Sources for Reference:

(Please Add)

  1. Charlemagne's marriages & heirs from Charles Cawley's 'Medieval Lands'
  2. Charlemagne's marriages and heirs From Wikipaedia
  3. Stewart Baldwin & Todd Farmerie's 'Henry Project'
  4. Davis, RHC. A History of Medieval Europe: From Constantine to Saint Louis. London: Longman,1957.
  5. Holland, Tom. Millenium: The End of the World and The Forging of Christendom. Great Britain: Little, Brown, 2008.
  6. Einhard: The Life of Charlemagne
  7. The Monk of Saint Gall: The Life of Charlemagne

____________

OVERVIEW OF CHARLEMAGNE'S (A) PARTNERS; (B) CHILDREN & (C) GRANDCHILDREN

(See below for full details with sources)

A. Himiltrude:

A1.B1 Amaudru

A1.B2 Pippin the Hunchback (ca. 769–811)

A2. Desiderata

A3. Hildegard:

A3.B1 Charles the Younger (ca. 772–4 December 811)

A3.B2 Adalhaid (774)

A3.B3 Rotrude (or Hruodrud) (775–6 June 810)

A3.B4 Carloman, renamed Pippin (April 777–8 July 810)

A3.B5 Louis I The Pious (778–20 June 840)

A3.B5.C1. 1 Lothaire(795-855)

A3.B5.C1.1 D1.1.Louis "le Jeune" (825-12 Aug 875)

A3.B5.C1.1 D1.2.Hiltrude (826-after 865)

A3.B5.C1.1 D1.3.daughter(825/30-)

A3.B5.C1.1 D1.4.Berta (830- 852/877)

A3.B5.C1.1 D1.5. Gisela (830-860)

A3.B5.C1.1 D1.6.Lothaire (835 - 8 Aug 869)

A3.B5.C1.1 D1.6.E1 Hugues (855/60-after 895)

A3.B5.C1.1 D1.6.E2 Gisela (860/65 -21 May/26 Oct 907)

A3.B5.C1.1 D1.6.E3.[http://www.geni.com/people/no-name/6000000011517469142 Berta (863-8 Mar 925)]

A3.B5.C1.1 D1.6.E4 Ermengarde (-6 Aug after 895/898)

A3.B5.C1.1.D1.7.  Rotrude (835/40-)

A3.B5.C1.1.D1.8.Charles (845 -25 Jan 863)

A3.B5.C1.1.D2.1. Carloman (853 -)

 

A3.B5.C1.2 Pepin (797-838)

A3.B5.C1.3 Rotrude (800-)

A3. B5.C1.4 Berta or Adelaide

A3.B5.C1.5 Hildegrard (c802-857)

A3.B5.C1.6 Louis (806-876)

  • m2. Judith:

A3.B5.C2.1 Gisela (c819-c874)


A3.B5.C2.2 Charles (823-877)

A3.B5.C2.3? Daughter

  • 'm'3.Theodelinde? / Concubine:

A3.B5.C3.1 Alpais (c793-852)

A3.B5.C2 Arnoul (794-841)

A3.B6 Lothair (778–6 February 779/780)

A3.B7 Bertha (779-826)

A3.B8 Gisela (781-808)

A3.B9 Hildegarde (782-783)

A4. Gersuinda

A4.B1 Adaltrude (b.774)

A5. Madelgard

A5.B1 Ruodhaid (775–810)

A6. Fastrada

A6.B1 Theodrada (b.784)

A6.B2 Hiltrude (b.787)

A7. Luitgard

A8. Amaltrude

A8.B1 Alpaida (b.794)

A9. Regina

A9.B1 Drogo (801–855)

A9.B2 Hugh (802–844)

A10. Ethelind:

A10.B1 Richbod (805–844)

A10.B2 Theodoric (b. 807)

__________

DETAILS OF SOURCES

A. CHARLEMAGNE'S PARTNERS & CHILDREN

A1. Himiltrude

His first relationship was with Himiltrude. The nature of this relationship is variously described as concubinage, a legal marriage, or a Friedelehe.[35] (Charlemagne put her aside when he married Desiderata.) [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne Mistress (1): HIMILTRUD ---. "Himiltrude nobili puella" is named mother of "Pippinum" in the Gesta Mettensium.[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

The union with Himiltrude produced two children:

1.1 Amaudru, a daughter[36] [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne Note: Charles Cawley’s MedLands has no record of this daughter

1.2 Pippin the Hunchback (ca. 769–811) [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne] PEPIN “le Bossu” ([770]-Abbey of Prüm 811). He is named, and his parentage recorded, in the Gesta Mettensium, which specifies that he was born before his father married Queen Hildegard[152]. He rebelled against his father in 792, allegedly due to the cruelty of Queen Fastrada[153], was judged by an assembly at Regensburg and imprisoned in the Abbey of St-Gallen. He was transferred to the Abbey of Prüm in 794[154]. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

A2. Desiderata

After her, his first wife was Desiderata, daughter of Desiderius, king of the Lombards; married in 770, annulled in 771.[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne] [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Desiderata,_wife_of_Charlemagne] m firstly (769, repudiated [770/early 771]) --- of the Lombards, daughter of DESIDERIUS King of the Lombards & his wife Ansa ---. Einhard calls King Charles's first wife "filiam Desiderii regis Langobardorum"[62]. The Annales Fuldenses record that "Berhta regina" brought "filiam Desiderii regis Langobardorum" back from Italy as the wife for "Karolo filio suo"[63]. Her husband sent her back to her father after repudiating her. [http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

A3.Hildegard

His second wife was Hildegard (757 or 758–783), married 771, died 783. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne] m secondly (Aix-la-Chapelle 771 before 30 Apr) HILDEGARD, daughter of GEROLD Graf im Kraichgau [Udalrichinger] & his wife Imma (758-Thionville, Moselle 30 Apr 783[64], bur Metz, église abbatiale de Saint-Arnoul[65]). Einhard refers to Hildegard as "de gente Suavorum"[66]. Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names her "Hildigardam quæ erat de cognatione Gotefridi ducis Alamannorum" and specifies that she was the daughter of Imma[67]. The Annales Laurissenses record the death "783 pridie Kal Mai" of "Hildegardis regina" and her burial "iuxta urbem Mettensem in basilica apostolorum et beati Arnulfi"[68]. She died from the after effects of childbirth, according to the epitaph of her daughter Hildegard[69]. Paulus Diaconus wrote an epitaph to "Hildegardis regina"[70]. [http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

By her he had nine children:

3.1 Charles the Younger (ca. 772–4 December 811) , Duke of Maine, and crowned King of the Franks on 25 December 800 [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne CHARLES ([772/73]-in Bavaria 4 Dec 811[91]). He is named, and his parentage recorded, in the Gesta Mettensium, which specifies that he was his parents' first son[92]. The Chronicon Fontanellense records that Charles I King of the Franks proposed a marriage between “Offæ Rege Anglorum sive Merciorum…filiam” and “Carolus iunior”, but that King Offa refused unless “Berta filia Caroli Magni” was also married to his son which was unacceptable to the Frankish king[93]. King Charles ordered an embargo on trade imports from England as a result[94]. His father associated Charles in the government of Francia and Saxony in 790[95]. The Annales Laurissenses record that "rex Carolus" installed "primogenitum filium suum Carolum" in "ultra Sequaname…ducatum Cenomannicum" but that this reverted to his father in the summer of the same year[96]. From this time Charles used the title king, and was crowned King of the Franks at Rome 25 Dec 800. Einhard records that "Karolum filium suum [Karoli imperatoris]" invaded "terram Sclavorum…Sorabi" in 806 as far as "super Albium fluvium" and that "Miliduoch Sclavorum dux" was killed during the campaign[97]. At the partition agreed at Thionville in 806, Charles was designated sovereign of Francia (Austrasia and Neustria), northern Burgundy, northern Alemannia, Thuringia, Saxony, Frisia and the Bavarian Nordgau[98]. The Gesta Francorum records the death "811 II Non Dec" of "Karolus filius imperatoris qui maior natu erat"[99]. Einhard's Annales also record the death "811 II Non Dec" of "Karlus filius imperatoris qui maior natu erat"[100]. The Annales Fuldenses record the death "811 II Non Dec" of "Karolus filius imperator qui maior natu erat"[101]. :[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

3.2 Adalhaid (774), who was born whilst her parents were on campaign in Italy. She was sent back to Francia, but died before reaching Lyons[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne ADELAIS (in Italy [Sep 773/Jun 774]-in Italy [Jul/Aug] 774, bur Metz, église abbatiale de Saint-Arnoul). She was born during the siege of Pavia, but died during the return journey to France[102]. "Adelaid" is named daughter of King Charles in the Pauli Gesta, when recording her place of burial[103]. Paulus Diaconus wrote an epitaph to "Adeleidis filia Karoli regis" specifying that she was born in Italy[104]. :[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

3.3 Rotrude (or Hruodrud) (775–6 June 810) [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne HROTHRUDIS [Rotrud] ([775]-6 Jun 810[105]). "Hruodrudem et Bertham et Gislam" are named daughters of King Charles & Hildegard by Einhard[106]. Angilbert's poem Ad Pippinum Italiæ regum names (in order) "Chrodthrudis…Berta…Gisla et Theodrada" as daughters of King Charles[107]. Theodulf's poem Ad Carolum Rege changes the order slightly when he names "Berta…Chrodtrudh…Gisla …Rothaidh…Hiltrudh, Tetdrada" as daughters of the king[108]. The betrothal of "Hruodrudem…quæ filiarum eius primogenita" with "Constantino, Græcorum imperatore" is recorded by Einhard[109]. Theophanes records that Empress Eirene sent ambassadors to "Carolum Francorum rege" to negotiate the betrothal of "filiæ eius Erythrus" and "filio suo Constantino", dated to 781, in a later passage recording that the empress terminating the treaty "cum Francis" (dated to 787)[110]. The Annales Fuldenses record the betrothal of "Hruodtrudis filia regis" and "Constantino imperator" in 787[111]. She was given the name ERYTHRO in Greek[112]. Her father kept her and her sisters at court refusing them permission to marry[113]. Her relationship with Rorico [I] is proved by the Annales Bertiniani which record the death "867 V Id Ian" of "Hludowicus abbas monasterii et nepos Karoli imperatoris ex filia maiori natu Rohtrude"[114], read together with an earlier part of the same source in which her son Louis is named "Ludowicum abbatem monasterii Sancti Dyonisii cum fratre ipsius Gauzleno"[115]. The Gesta Francorum records the death "810 VIII Id Iun" of "Hruoddrud filia imperatoris quæ natu maior erat"[116]. Einhard records the death "VIII Id Iun 810" of "Hruodtrud filia imperatories"[117]. The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "III Non Jun" of "Rotrudis filia Karoli imperatoris"[118]. Betrothed (781, contract broken 787[119]) to Emperor KONSTANTINOS VI, son of Emperor LEON IV & his wife Eirene (14 Jan 771-Prinkipo Island [15 Aug 797/before 806][120], bur Constantinople, Monastery of St Euphrosyne). Mistress: ([800]) of RORICO [I], son of GAUZLIN & his wife Adeltrudis --- (-after 1 Mar 839 [840], bur Abbaye de Saint-Maur de Glanfeuil, Anjou). He lived at the court of Charlemagne. Comte de Rennes 819. Comte du Maine [832]. :[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

3.4 Carloman, renamed Pippin (April 777–8 July 810), King of Italy[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne CARLOMAN [Pepin] (777-Milan 8 Jul 810, bur Verona, San Zeno Maggiore). "Pippinus" is named, and his parentage recorded, in the Gesta Mettensium, which specifies that he was his parents' second son[121]. He was baptised "PEPIN" in Rome 15 Apr 781 by Pope Hadrian, Settipani commenting that his name was changed from Carloman[122] but the primary source which identifies him by this name has not so far been identified. Crowned PEPIN I King of Italy 15 Apr 781 at Rome. :[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

3.5 Louis (778–20 June 840), twin of Lothair, King of Aquitaine since 781, crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 813, senior Emperor from 814[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne HLUDOWIC [Louis] (Chasseneuil-du-Poitou {Vienne} [16 Apr/Sep] 778-island in the Rhine near Ingelheim 20 Jun 840, bur Metz, église abbatiale de Saint-Arnoul). He is named, and his parentage recorded, in the Gesta Mettensium, which specifies that he was his parents' third son, born a twin with Hlothar[123]. On his father's death, he adopted the title Emperor LOUIS I “der Fromme/le Pieux” 2 Feb 814, crowned at Reims [Jul/Aug] 816 by Pope Stephen IV. :[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

3.6 Lothair (778–6 February 779/780), twin of Louis, he died in infancy[37] [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne HLOTHAR [Lothar] (Chasseneuil-du-Poitou {Vienne} [16 Apr/Sep] 778-[779/780]). He is named, and his parentage recorded, in the Gesta Mettensium, which specifies that he was his parents' fourth son "qui biennis occubuit", born a twin with Hludowic[124]. Paulus Diaconus wrote an epitaph to "Chlodarii pueri regis" naming "Karolus…rex genitorque tuus, genitrix regina…Hildigarda" and specifying that he was a twin[125]. :[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

3.7 Bertha (779-826) [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne BERTRADA [Berta] ([779/80]-11 Mar, 824 or after). "Hruodrudem et Bertham et Gislam" are named daughters of King Charles & Hildegard by Einhard[126]. Angilbert's poem Ad Pippinum Italiæ regum names (in order) "Chrodthrudis…Berta…Gisla et Theodrada" as daughters of King Charles[127]. Theodulf's poem Ad Carolum Rege changes the order slightly when he names "Berta…Chrodtrudh …Gisla…Rothaidh…Hiltrudh, Tetdrada" as daughters of the king[128]. The Chronicon Fontanellense records that Charles I King of the Franks proposed a marriage between “Offæ Rege Anglorum sive Merciorum…filiam” and “Carolus iunior”, but that King Offa refused unless “Berta filia Caroli Magni” was also married to his son which was unacceptable to the Frankish king[129]. Her father kept her and her sisters at the court of Aix-la-Chapelle refusing them permission to marry, but she was banished from court by her brother Emperor Louis I on his accession[130]. The Vita Angilberti records the relationship between "Berta filia [rex de regina Hildigarda]" and "domnus Angilbertus"[131]. The Chronicon Centulensis records that “Angilbertus” married “regis filiam Bertam” and that they had “duos filios Harnidum et Nithardum”[132]. Nithard names Bertha, daughter of King Charles, as his mother[133]. The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "V Id Mar" of "Berta filia Karoli imperatoris qui dedit superiorem Curtem"[134]. Mistress: (from [795]) of ANGILBERT "the Saint", son of [NITHARD & his wife Richarda] ([750]-18 Feb 814, bur Saint-Riquier, église du Saint-Sauveur et de Saint-Richard). :[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

3.8 Gisela (781-808) [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne GISELA (781 before May-after 800, maybe after 814). "Hruodrudem et Bertham et Gislam" are named daughters of King Charles & Hildegard by Einhard[135]. Angilbert's poem Ad Pippinum Italiæ regum names (in order) "Chrodthrudis…Berta…Gisla et Theodrada" as daughters of King Charles[136]. Theodulf's poem Ad Carolum Rege changes the order slightly when he names "Berta…Chrodtrudh …Gisla…Rothaidh…Hiltrudh, Tetdrada" as daughters of the king[137]. The Annales Laurissenses record that "filia eius [Karoli regis] domna Gisla" was baptised by "archiepiscopo…Thoma" in 781[138]. She was baptised in Milan in [May] 781[139]. :[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

3.9 Hildegarde (782-783) [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne HILDEGARD (Thionville [Mar/Apr] 783-[1/8] Jun 783, bur Metz, église abbatiale de Saint-Arnoul). "Hildigard" is named daughter of King Charles in the Pauli Gesta, when recording her place of burial[140]. Paulus Diaconus wrote an epitaph to "Hildegardis filiæ [Karoli regis]" specifying that she lived 40 days[141]. :[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

A4. Gersuinda

His first known concubine was Gersuinda.[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne] Mistress (4): GERSWINDA ---. Einhard names King Charles's concubine "Gersuindam Saxonici generis",[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

By her he had:

4.1 Adaltrude (b.774) [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne. ADALTRUD . Einhard names "Adaltrud" daughter of King Charles by his concubine "Gersuindam Saxonici generis [http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

A5. Madelgard

His second known concubine was Madelgard. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne Note: Wikipedia seems possibly to conflate what Charles Cawley sees as 2 mistresses and their respective daughters Ruodhaid / Chrothias / Rotaide / Ruodhaidem / Rothildis / Rouhaut, in a manner that seems worth considering. Although Cawley designates an unknown Mistress 2 before Madelgard - who he sees as Mistress 3, he lists the daughters of both mistresses as being born in 784. Despite this, he specifies that Madelgard’s daughter was Abess of Faremoutiers, - although Wikipedia sees her as being born in 775. The Wikipedia sources for this date weren’t apparent, but Cawley’s use of Theodulf's poem Ad Carolum Rege naming the daughters (supposedly in order) provides another form of data: "Berta…Chrodtrudh…Gisla…Rothaidh…Hiltrudh, Tetdrada" [156] As both Wikipedia & Cawley agree that Gisela was born 781, Hiltrude in 787 & Theodrata 785 (so much for correct order), this places one Rothaide - between 781 & 787, so I am deferring to Cawley on the date, but going with Wikipedia in conflating the women whose children he has born in the same year, with names that are sufficiently similar as to be synonymous. Compare: Cawley: NN Mistress 2's daughter: 784. Ruodhaidem CHROTHAIS [Rotaïde]. Cawley: Madelgard, Mistress 3's daughter: 784. ROTHILDIS [Rouhaut]. Abbess. Wikipedia: Madelgard's daughter:775.Ruodhaid. Abbess.

Mistress (3): [MADELGARD] ---. Settipani names Madelgardis as the mistress of King Charles, and mother of Rothildis abbess of Faremoutiers[86]. However, he cites no primary source on which this is based, apart from a reference to an early 9th century list of nuns at Faremoutiers which includes the name. No reference has been found to her in any of the sources so far consulted. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192] Mistress (2):Einhard refers to "Ruodhaidem" as the daughter of King Charles and an unnamed concubine[85]. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

By her he had:

5.1 Ruodhaid (775–810), Abbess of Faremoutiers [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne] ROTHILDIS [Rouhaut] ([784]-24 Mar 852). Abbess at Faremoutiers from before Oct 840[157]. Her parentage is proved by the necrology of the abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés which records the death "XI Kal Apr" of "Rothildis abbatisse et monache filia regis magni Karoli"[158]. The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "XI Kal Mar" of "Rotildis abbatissa"[159]. [http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192] CHROTHAIS [Rotaïde] ([784]-after 800, maybe after 814). "Ruodhaidem" is named daughter of King Charles and an unnamed concubine by Einhard[155]. Theodulf's poem Ad Carolum Rege names (in order) "Berta…Chrodtrudh…Gisla…Rothaidh…Hiltrudh, Tetdrada" as daughters of the king[156]. :[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

A6. Fastrada

His third wife was Fastrada, married 784, died 794. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne

m thirdly (Worms Oct 783[71]) FASTRADA, daughter of RADULF Graf & his wife --- (-Frankfurt-am-Main 10 Oct 794, bur Mainz, St Alban[72]). The Annales Laurissenses record the marriage in 783 at Worms of King Charles and "domne Fastradæ regina"[73]. Einhard's Annals record the king's marriage in 783 to "filiam Radolfi comitis natione Francam, nomine Fastradam"[74]. Fastrada, wife of King Charles, is referred to as "de Orientalium Francorum, Germanorum videlicet" by Einhard[75]. Her cruelty triggered the revolt of her husband's illegitimate son Pépin "le Bossu" in 792[76]. The Annales Xantenses record the death in Frankfurt in 794 of "Fastrada regina"[77]. Einhard records the death in 794 of "Fastrada regina" at Frankfurt and her burial "Mogontiaci apud sanctum Albanum"[78]. Theodulf wrote the epitaph of "Fastradæ reginæ"[79]. [http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

By her he had:

6.1 Theodrada (b.784), abbess of Argenteuil [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne THEODRADA ([785]-[9 Jan 844/853]). "Theoderadam et Hiltrudem" are named daughters of King Charles & Fastrada by Einhard[142]. Angilbert's poem Ad Pippinum Italiæ regum names (in order) "Chrodthrudis…Berta…Gisla et Theodrada" as daughters of King Charles[143]. Theodulf's poem Ad Carolum Rege changes the order slightly when he names "Berta…Chrodtrudh…Gisla…Rothaidh…Hiltrudh, Tetdrada" as daughters of the king[144]. Named as abbess of Notre-Dame d'Argenteuil, near Paris by her father before 814, until 828. "Ludowicus…rex" names "Theodrada amita nostra filia…avi nostri" in a charter dated 9 Jan 844 which confirms her life interest in the abbey of Schwarzach-am-Main, donated to the church of Würzburg, previously belonging to "Blutendæ filiæ Folkberti quondam comitis"[145]. Theodrada arranged for the church of Würzburg to recognise her great niece Hildegard, daughter of Ludwig II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks as her successor. This must have taken place before 853, at which date Hildegard was abbess of Zürich[146]. :[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

6.2 Hiltrude (b.787) [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne HILTRUD ([787]-after 800, maybe after 814). "Theoderadam et Hiltrudem" are named daughters of King Charles & Fastrada by Einhard[147]. Theodulf's poem Ad Carolum Rege names (in order) "Berta…Chrodtrudh…Gisla…Rothaidh…Hiltrudh, Tetdrada" as daughters of the king[148]. She lived at her father’s court until his death in 814. Wilhelm Kurze appears to have disproved the theory of the alleged marriage of Hiltrud to Eberhard [I] Graf [von Calw], a court official of Emperor Charlemagne[149]. According to Rösch[150], Hiltrud was the mistress (between [799/804]) of Richwin Count of Padua, brother of Richbod Bishop of Trier, who was at the court of Emperor Charlemagne between 792 and 814, and was the mother of an illegitimate son by him. He cites no primary source on which this is based and no reference to this has been found in the sources so far consulted. It is possibly based on onomastic speculation from the use of the first name Richbod. One possible illegitimate son: [http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192] 6.2.1 [RICHBOD ([800/805]-killed in battle Angoulême 14 Jun 844). Abbé de Saint-Riquier 840/44. The Annales Bertiniani record that "Richbote abbas…consobrinus regum, nepos…Karoli imperatoris ex filia" was among those killed in 844[151]. It is possible, but not certain, that his mother was Hiltrud, as explained above.] :[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192] Note: Wikipedia thinks Richbod is more likely to be Charlemagne’s son through his last concubine Ethilind – who Cawley calls Adelindis

A7. Luitgard

His fourth wife was Luitgard, married 794, died childless. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne] m fourthly ([794/autumn 796]) LIUTGARD, daughter of --- (-Tours 4 Jun 800, bur Tours, église Saint-Martin[80]). Einhard names "Liudgardam Alamannam" as King Charles's fourth wife, specifying that she died childless[81]. Angilbert's poem Ad Pippinum Italiæ regum names "Liutgardis" as the wife of King Charles[82]. The Annales Laurissenses Continuatio records the death "II Non Iun 800" at Tours of "domnæ Liutgardæ coniugis" and her burial at Tours[83]. :[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

A8. Amaltrude

His third known concubine was Amaltrud of Vienne. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne


By her he had:

8.1 Alpaida (b.794) [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne NOTE: It seems worth mentioning that this is the Wikipedia version Jan 2011, and Cawley's Medlands don't mention an Alpaida or an Amaltrude. A possible reason is that the Wikipedia concubine, Amaltrud is the NN concubine of Cawley, whose daughter - Ruodhaid/Rotaide (784) actually looks like the same person as the concubine Madelgard's daughter Rothildis, who Cawley gives as born in the same year (784), and which Wikipedia doesn't duplicate.

A9. Regina

His fourth known concubine was Regina. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne] Mistress (5): REGINA ---. 800. Einhard names King Charles's concubine "Reginam", and her sons "Drogonem et Hugum"[88]. :[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

By her he had:

9.1 Drogo (801–855), Bishop of Metz from 823 and abbot of Luxeuil Abbey[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne DROGO [Dreux] (17 Jun 801-drowned Himeriacum, Bourgogne 8 Dec 855, bur Metz, église abbatiale de Saint-Arnoul). Einhard names "Drogonem et Hugum" as sons of King Charles by his concubine "Reginam"[161]. The Annales Weissemburgenses record the birth "802 aut 803 15 Kal Iul" of Drogo[162]. He and his brother Hugues, and their half-brother Thierry, were brought up in the palace of their half-brother Emperor Louis I after their father died, but after the revolt of Bernard King of Italy in 818 they were forcibly tonsured and "put under free custody into monasteries"[163]. Abbé de Luxeuil 820. Emperor Louis installed "Druagoni fratri suo" as Bishop of Metz in 823[164]. The Annales Fuldenses record that "Druogonem archicapellum et Adalbertum comitem" were sent to the east bank of the Rhine in 840[165]. He became Vicar of the Pope in France in Jun 844. He died after falling into the River Oignon in which he was fishing[166]. A list of bishops of Metz records "domnus Drogo archiepiscopus et sacri palate summus capellanus, filius Karoli imperatoris" as 40th bishop, holding the position for 32 years, 5 months and 7 days, his death "VI Id Dec in Burgundia, prædio sancti Petri Mimeriaco" and his burial in "urbem Medimmatricorum…in ecclesia beati Iohannis apostoli"[167]. [http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

9.2 Hugh (802–844), archchancellor of the Empire[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne HUGO [Hugues] "l´Abbé" ([802/06]-killed in battle Angoulême 14 Jun 844, bur Abbaye de Charroux). Einhard names "Drogonem et Hugum" as sons of King Charles by his concubine "Reginam"[168]. He is named "Hugo venerabilis filius Karoli regis magni" in the Cartulaire of Saint-Bertin[169]. He and his brother Drogo, and their half-brother Thierry, were brought up in the palace of their half-brother Emperor Louis I after their father died, but after the revolt of Bernard King of Italy in 818 they were forcibly tonsured and "put under free custody into monasteries"[170]. Monk at Charroux 818. Abbé de Saint-Quentin 822/23, Abbé de Lobbes. Abbé de Saint-Bertin 836[171]. Abbé de Noaillé. Arch-chancellor of Emperor Louis I 834-840. The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "Hugonem fratrem suum sed et Adalgarium comitem" visited the emperor [in 836][172]. He joined Charles "le Chauve" in Sep 841 after the battle of Fontenoy, becoming his Arch-chaplain[173]. The Annales Fuldenses record that "Hugo abbas, patruus Karoli et Rihboto abbas, Rhaban quoque signifer" were killed "844 VII Id Jun" in the battle in which "Pippini duces" defeated the army of Charles II " le Chauve" King of the Franks[174]. [http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

A10. Ethelind

His fifth known concubine was Ethelind. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne

Mistress (6): ADELINDIS ---. 806. Einhard names King Charles's concubine "Adallindem", and her son "Theodricum"[89]. :[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

By her he had:

10.1 Richbod (805–844) , Abbott of Saint-Riquier[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne

Note: Cawley thinks Richbod MAY actually have been Charlemagne’s grandson through Fastrada’s daughter, Hiltrude: [RICHBOD ([800/805]-killed in battle Angoulême 14 Jun 844). Abbé de Saint-Riquier 840/44. The Annales Bertiniani record that "Richbote abbas…consobrinus regum, nepos…Karoli imperatoris ex filia" was among those killed in 844[151]. It is possible, but not certain, that his mother was Hiltrud, as explained below.] :[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192] Hiltrud ([787]-after 800, maybe after 814). "Theoderadam et Hiltrudem" are named daughters of King Charles & Fastrada by Einhard[147]. Theodulf's poem Ad Carolum Rege names (in order) "Berta…Chrodtrudh…Gisla…Rothaidh…Hiltrudh, Tetdrada" as daughters of the king[148]. She lived at her father’s court until his death in 814. Wilhelm Kurze appears to have disproved the theory of the alleged marriage of Hiltrud to Eberhard [I] Graf [von Calw], a court official of Emperor Charlemagne[149]. According to Rösch[150], Hiltrud was the mistress (between [799/804]) of Richwin Count of Padua, brother of Richbod Bishop of Trier, who was at the court of Emperor Charlemagne between 792 and 814, and was the mother of an illegitimate son by him. He cites no primary source on which this is based and no reference to this has been found in the sources so far consulted. It is possibly based on onomastic speculation from the use of the first name Richbod. One possible illegitimate son:

10.2 Theodoric (b. 807) [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne] Note: Cawley thinks Theoderic was the only son, and Richbod was actually a grandson of Charlemagne through Fastrada’s daughter, Himiltrud THEODERIC [Thierry] (807-after 818). Einhard names "Theodricum" as son of King Charles by his concubine "Adallindem"[175]. The birth of "imperatori filius nomine Theodericus" is recorded in 807[176]. He and his half-brothers Drogo and Hugues were brought up in the palace of their half-brother Emperor Louis I after their father died, but after the revolt of Bernard King of Italy in 818 they were forcibly tonsured and "put under free custody into monasteries"[177]. :[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

B. CHARLEMAGNE'S CHILDREN & GRANDCHILDREN

A1 Himiltrude’s 2 children:

A1.B1 Amaudru

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne Note: Charles Cawley’s MedLands has no record of this daughter

A1.B2 Pippin the Hunchback (ca. 769–811)

[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pippin_the_Hunchback] PEPIN “le Bossu” ([770]-Abbey of Prüm 811). He is named, and his parentage recorded, in the Gesta Mettensium, which specifies that he was born before his father married Queen Hildegard[152]. He rebelled against his father in 792, allegedly due to the cruelty of Queen Fastrada[153], was judged by an assembly at Regensburg and imprisoned in the Abbey of St-Gallen. He was transferred to the Abbey of Prüm in 794[154]. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

A2. Desiderata had no children

A3. Hildegard’s 9 children:

A3.B1 Charles the Younger (ca. 772–4 December 811)

Duke of Maine, and crowned King of the Franks on 25 December 800 [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne CHARLES ([772/73]-in Bavaria 4 Dec 811[91]). He is named, and his parentage recorded, in the Gesta Mettensium, which specifies that he was his parents' first son[92]. The Chronicon Fontanellense records that Charles I King of the Franks proposed a marriage between “Offæ Rege Anglorum sive Merciorum…filiam” and “Carolus iunior”, but that King Offa refused unless “Berta filia Caroli Magni” was also married to his son which was unacceptable to the Frankish king[93]. King Charles ordered an embargo on trade imports from England as a result[94]. His father associated Charles in the government of Francia and Saxony in 790[95]. The Annales Laurissenses record that "rex Carolus" installed "primogenitum filium suum Carolum" in "ultra Sequaname…ducatum Cenomannicum" but that this reverted to his father in the summer of the same year[96]. From this time Charles used the title king, and was crowned King of the Franks at Rome 25 Dec 800. Einhard records that "Karolum filium suum [Karoli imperatoris]" invaded "terram Sclavorum…Sorabi" in 806 as far as "super Albium fluvium" and that "Miliduoch Sclavorum dux" was killed during the campaign[97]. At the partition agreed at Thionville in 806, Charles was designated sovereign of Francia (Austrasia and Neustria), northern Burgundy, northern Alemannia, Thuringia, Saxony, Frisia and the Bavarian Nordgau[98]. The Gesta Francorum records the death "811 II Non Dec" of "Karolus filius imperatoris qui maior natu erat"[99]. Einhard's Annales also record the death "811 II Non Dec" of "Karlus filius imperatoris qui maior natu erat"[100]. The Annales Fuldenses record the death "811 II Non Dec" of "Karolus filius imperator qui maior natu erat"[101]. :[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

A3.B2 Adalhaid (774)

who was born whilst her parents were on campaign in Italy. She was sent back to Francia, but died before reaching Lyons[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne ADELAIS (in Italy [Sep 773/Jun 774]-in Italy [Jul/Aug] 774, bur Metz, église abbatiale de Saint-Arnoul). She was born during the siege of Pavia, but died during the return journey to France[102]. "Adelaid" is named daughter of King Charles in the Pauli Gesta, when recording her place of burial[103]. Paulus Diaconus wrote an epitaph to "Adeleidis filia Karoli regis" specifying that she was born in Italy[104]. :[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

A3.B3 Rotrude (or Hruodrud) (775–6 June 810)

[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne HROTHRUDIS [Rotrud] ([775]-6 Jun 810[105]). "Hruodrudem et Bertham et Gislam" are named daughters of King Charles & Hildegard by Einhard[106]. Angilbert's poem Ad Pippinum Italiæ regum names (in order) "Chrodthrudis…Berta…Gisla et Theodrada" as daughters of King Charles[107]. Theodulf's poem Ad Carolum Rege changes the order slightly when he names "Berta…Chrodtrudh…Gisla …Rothaidh…Hiltrudh, Tetdrada" as daughters of the king[108]. The betrothal of "Hruodrudem…quæ filiarum eius primogenita" with "Constantino, Græcorum imperatore" is recorded by Einhard[109]. Theophanes records that Empress Eirene sent ambassadors to "Carolum Francorum rege" to negotiate the betrothal of "filiæ eius Erythrus" and "filio suo Constantino", dated to 781, in a later passage recording that the empress terminating the treaty "cum Francis" (dated to 787)[110]. The Annales Fuldenses record the betrothal of "Hruodtrudis filia regis" and "Constantino imperator" in 787[111]. She was given the name ERYTHRO in Greek[112]. Her father kept her and her sisters at court refusing them permission to marry[113]. Her relationship with Rorico [I] is proved by the Annales Bertiniani which record the death "867 V Id Ian" of "Hludowicus abbas monasterii et nepos Karoli imperatoris ex filia maiori natu Rohtrude"[114], read together with an earlier part of the same source in which her son Louis is named "Ludowicum abbatem monasterii Sancti Dyonisii cum fratre ipsius Gauzleno"[115]. The Gesta Francorum records the death "810 VIII Id Iun" of "Hruoddrud filia imperatoris quæ natu maior erat"[116]. Einhard records the death "VIII Id Iun 810" of "Hruodtrud filia imperatories"[117]. The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "III Non Jun" of "Rotrudis filia Karoli imperatoris"[118]. Betrothed (781, contract broken 787[119]) to Emperor KONSTANTINOS VI, son of Emperor LEON IV & his wife Eirene (14 Jan 771-Prinkipo Island [15 Aug 797/before 806][120], bur Constantinople, Monastery of St Euphrosyne). Mistress: ([800]) of RORICO [I], son of GAUZLIN & his wife Adeltrudis --- (-after 1 Mar 839 [840], bur Abbaye de Saint-Maur de Glanfeuil, Anjou). He lived at the court of Charlemagne. Comte de Rennes 819. Comte du Maine [832]. :[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

A3.B4 Carloman, renamed Pippin (April 777–8 July 810)

King of Italy[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne CARLOMAN [Pepin] (777-Milan 8 Jul 810, bur Verona, San Zeno Maggiore). "Pippinus" is named, and his parentage recorded, in the Gesta Mettensium, which specifies that he was his parents' second son[121]. He was baptised "PEPIN" in Rome 15 Apr 781 by Pope Hadrian, Settipani commenting that his name was changed from Carloman[122] but the primary source which identifies him by this name has not so far been identified. Crowned PEPIN I King of Italy 15 Apr 781 at Rome. :[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

A3.B5 Louis I The Pious (778–20 June 840)

(See also excellent summary on the MP Overview) LOUIS [Hludowic], son of CHARLES I King of the Franks & his second wife Hildegard (Chasseneuil-du-Poitou {Vienne} [16 Apr/Sep] 778-island in the Rhine near Ingelheim 20 Jun 840, bur Metz, église abbatiale de Saint-Arnoul[179]). He is named, and his parentage recorded, in the Gesta Mettensium, which specifies that he was his parents' third son, born a twin with Hlothar[180]. Crowned King of the Aquitainians in Rome 15 Apr 781 by Pope Hadrian I. His armies occupied Girona, Urgel and Cerdanya in 785 and besieged Barcelona in 802, establishing the "March of Spain"[181]. At the partition of territories agreed at Thionville in 806, he was designated sovereign of Aquitaine, Gascony, Septimania, Provence and southern Burgundy. His father named him as his successor at Aix-la-Chapelle, crowning him as joint emperor 11 Sep 813[182]. On his father's death, he adopted the title Emperor LOUIS I “der Fromme/le Pieux” 2 Feb 814, and was crowned at Reims [Jul/Aug] 816 by Pope Stephen IV. He did not use the titles king of the Franks or king of Italy so as to emphasise the unity of the empire[183]. He promulgated the Ordinatio Imperii at Worms in 817, which established his eldest son as his heir, his younger sons having a subordinate status, a decision which was eventually to lead to civil war between his sons. His nephew Bernard King of Italy, ignored in the Ordinatio Imperii, rebelled against his uncle, but was defeated and killed. After his death, Italy was placed under the direct rule of the emperor. Emperor Louis crowned his son Lothaire as joint emperor at Aix-la-Chapelle in Jul 817, his primary status over his brothers being confirmed once more at the assembly of Nijmegen 1 May 821. In Nov 824, Emperor Louis placed Pope Eugene II under his protection, effectively subordinating the papal role to that of the emperor. The birth of his son Charles by his second marriage in 823 worsened relations with his sons by his first marriage, the tension being further increased when Emperor Louis invested Charles with Alemannia, Rhætia, Alsace and part of Burgundy at Worms in Aug 829, reducing the territory of his oldest son Lothaire to Italy. His older sons revolted in Mar 830 and captured their father at Compiègne, forcing him to revert to the 817 constitutional arrangements. However, Emperor Louis reasserted his authority at the assemblies of Nijmegen in Oct 830 and Aix-la-Chapelle in Feb 831, depriving Lothaire of the imperial title and relegating him once more to Italy. A further revolt of the brothers followed. Emperor Louis was defeated and deposed by his sons at Compiègne 1 Oct 833. He was exiled to the monastery of Saint-Médard de Soissons. His eldest son Lothaire declared himself sole emperor but was soon overthrown by his brothers Pépin and Louis, who freed their father. Emperor Louis was crowned once more at Metz 28 Feb 835. He proposed yet another partition of territories in favour of his son Charles at the assembly of Aix-la-Chapelle in 837, implemented at the assembly of Worms 28 May 839 when he installed his sons Lothaire and Charles jointly, setting aside the claims of his sons Pépin and Louis. This naturally led to revolts by Pépin in Aquitaine and Louis in Germany, which their father was in the process of suppressing when he died[184]. The Annales Fuldenses record the death "in insulam quondam Rheni fluminis prope Ingilenheim XII Kal Iul 840" of Emperor Louis and his burial "Mettis civitatem…in basilica sancti Arnulfi"[185]. The necrology of Prüm records the death "840 12 Kal Iul" of "Ludvicus imperator"[186]. The necrology of St Gall records the death "XII Kal Jul" of "Hludowicus imperator in insula Rheni quiæ est sita iuxta palatium Ingelheim"[187]. The Obituaire de Notre-Dame de Paris records the death "XII Kal Jul" of "Ludovicus imperator"[188]. The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "XII Kal Jul" of "Ludovicus imperator"[189]. [http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

m1. Ermengard

m firstly ([794]) ERMENGARD, daughter of ENGUERRAND Comte [de Hesbaye] & his wife --- ([775/80]-Angers 3 Oct 818[189], bur Angers). Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names the wife of Emperor Ludwig "filiam nobilissimi ducis Ingorammi…Irmingarda"[190]. The Gesta Francorum records the death "818 V Non Oct" of "Irmingardis regina"[191]. The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records the death "V Non Oct" of "Hirmingardis regina" three days after falling ill[192]. [http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192] Ermengarde of Hesbaye (married ca 794-98) [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_the_Pious]

With her he had six children [http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192] three sons and three daughters:[ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_the_Pious]

A3.B5.C1. 1 Lothaire(795-855) [Lothar] (795-Kloster Prüm 29 Sep 855, bur Kloster Prüm). Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names (in order) "Hlutharius, Pippinus, Hludowicus" as sons of Emperor Ludwig I & his wife Ermengard[200]. He was crowned joint Emperor LOTHAIRE I, jointly with his father, in Jul 817 at Aix-la-Chapelle. [http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192] ,king of Middle Francia:[ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_the_Pious]  His father sent him to govern Bavaria in [Aug] 814[9].  He was crowned joint Emperor LOTHAIRE I in Jul 817 at Aachen, ruling jointly with his father.  He was sent to Italy in 822, where he established his court at Pavia and was crowned King of Italy by the Archbishop of Milan.  The Annales Xantenses record that "Ludewicus imperator" gave "filio suo Lothario regnum Langobardorum" in 822[10].  Einhard's Annales record that the emperor sent "Walahum monachum propinquum suum [imperatoris] fratrem…Adalhardi abbatis" to Italy in 822 with "Hlotharius…filium suum"[11].  He was again crowned Emperor, at Rome 5 Apr 823 by Pope Pascal I.  The rivalry with his father and brothers was exacerbated by the unexpected birth of his half-brother Charles in 823.  Tension was increased when Emperor Louis invested Charles with Alemannia, Rhetia, Alsace and part of Burgundy at Worms in Aug 829, reducing Lothaire's territory to Italy.  Lothaire and his brothers rebelled in Mar 830, captured their father at Compiègne, and forced him to revert to the constitutional arrangements decided in 817.  However, Emperor Louis reasserted his authority at the assemblies of Nijmegen in Oct 830 and Aix-la-Chapelle in Feb 831, and deprived Lothaire of the imperial title and relegated him once more to Italy.  A further revolt of the brothers followed.  Emperor Louis was defeated and deposed by his sons at Compiègne 1 Oct 833.  He was exiled to the monastery of Saint-Médard de Soissons.  Lothaire declared himself sole emperor 30 Jun 833, but was forced to flee to Vienne by his brothers Pepin and Louis, who freed their father.  Emperor Louis was restored 1 Mar 834, crowned once more at Metz 28 Feb 835.  Lothaire captured Chalon-sur-Saône, but was arrested by his father's troops near Chouzy.  His father pardoned him and sent him back to Italy as king.  Emperor Louis proposed yet another partition in favour of his son Charles at the assembly of Aachen in 837, which was implemented at the assembly of Worms 28 May 839 when he installed his sons Lothaire and Charles jointly, the former taking all land east of the River Meuse, the latter everything to the west, and set aside the claims of his son Louis and the successors of his late son Pepin.  Lothaire succeeded as sole emperor on his father’s death 20 Jun 840.  He sought to extend his power base northwards from Italy across the Alps, and deprive his half-brother Charles.  The latter allied himself with his half-brother Louis, and together they defeated Lothaire at Fontenoy-en-Puisaye, near Auxerre 25 Jun 841.  After retreating to Aachen, Lothaire was forced out to Lyon in Apr 842 by his brothers, who declared him incapable of governing the empire.  Preliminary peace proposals signed on an island in the Saône, near Mâcon 15 Jun 842 led to the Treaty of Verdun 11 Aug 843, under which the territory of the empire was divided between the three brothers.  Lothaire retained the imperial title and was also installed as LOTHAIRE I King of Lotharingia, a newly created territory covering a wide strip of land from the North Sea coast southwards to Italy, the new country being named after him.  He established his seat of government at Aachen, and installed his son Louis as King of Italy.  Over the following ten years, a series of meetings aimed to maintain peace between the three brothers, with varying success.  After a serious illness, Emperor Lothaire abdicated in Sep 855 at Kloster Schüller, near Prüm, and divided his territories between his sons Louis II, Lothaire II and Charles.  The Annales Bertiniani record that Emperor Lothaire entered "monasterium Proneæ in Arduenna", was tonsured, died "IV Kal Oct" and was buried in the monastery[12].  The necrology of Prüm records the death "855 III Kal Oct" of "Lotharius imperator"[13].  m (Thionville, Moselle mid-Oct 821) ERMENGARDE, daughter of HUGUES Comte [de Tours] [Etichonen] & his wife Ava --- (-20 Mar 851, bur Kloster Erstein, near Strasbourg).  Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris refers to the wife of Emperor Lothaire as "filiam Hugi comitis, qui erat de stirpe cuiusdam ducis nomine Etih" and in the following paragraph names her "Irmingarda"[14].  The Annales Xantensesrecord the marriage in 821 of "Ludewicus imperator…filio suo Lothario" and "Ermingardam filiam Hugonis comitis Turonicorum"[15].  She founded Kloster Erstein in Alsace in 849.  The Annales Xantensesrecord the death in 851 of "imperatrix…Irmingard, coniunx Lotharii imperatoris"[16].  The Annales Formoselenses record the death in 851 of "Irmingard regina"[17]. 

Emperor Lothaire & his wife had eight children:    1.        LOUIS "le Jeune" ([825]-near Brescia 12 Aug 875, bur Milan, San Ambrosio).  Regino names "Hludowicum, Hlotharium et Carolum" as the three sons of Emperor Lothaire & his wife[19].  He was sent to Italy as king in 844, crowned in Rome in 844 as LOUIS King of Italy by Pope Sergius II.  He was crowned joint Emperor LOUIS II, reigning jointly with his father, at Rome in Apr 850 by Pope Leo IV.  He was sole emperor in 855 after the death of his father. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/LOTHARINGIA.htm#LothaireIEmperorB 2.        [ http://www.geni.com/people/Helletrude-Hiltrude-d-Italy/6000000007324321876 HILTRUDE] ([826]-after [865/66]).  Pope Nicholas I names "Helletrude Berengarii Comitis quondam relicta" in an undated letter which refers to her as "Lothario sorore sua"[20].  m BERENGAR, son of --- (-[865/66]). http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/LOTHARINGIA.htm#LothaireIEmperorB 3.         daughter ([825/30]-).  The Gesta Francorum records that "Gisalbertus, vassallus Karoli" abducted "filiam Hlotharii imperatoris" and took her to Aquitaine where they were married[21].  The AnnalesFuldenses also record that "Gisalbertus vassallus Karoli" abducted "filiam Hlotharii imperatoris" and married her in Aquitaine in 846[22].  The Annales Mettenses also date this event in 846[23].  Settipani states that the emperor recognised the marriage in 849[24].  Rösch says that this daughter is often named Ermengarde in secondary sources but that there is no contemporary proof that this is correct[25].  m (Aquitaine 846) GISELBERT Graf von Maasgau, son of --- (-after 14 Jun 877). http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/LOTHARINGIA.htm#LothaireIEmperorB 4.         BERTA ([830]-after 7 May 852, maybe after [877]).  A letter from Hincmar Archbishop of Reims to "Irmingardi augustæ", included by Flodoard in the Historia Remensis Ecclesiæ, names "Bertæ, ipsius imperatricis filiæ" referring to her activities at "Avennaci monasterii", a later passage confirming that she was "abbatissæ Avennaci monasterii"[26].  A poem by Sedulius is addressed to "Berta…proles…Lothari…Ermingardis matris"[27].  Abbess of Avenay before 847.  Maybe Abbess of Faremoutiers 852-after 877.  m NN ([Worms autumn 841]) ---.  Berta was married, as shown by a second poem by Sedulius addressed to "Berta" which names "Ermingardis Cæsareumque" as her mother and refers to Bertha's "earthly spouse…now in heaven"[28].  It is possible that she was the daughter "Hlotharius…filiæ suæ" whose marriage is referred to at Worms in Autumn 841 in the Annals of Fulda [29].  Berta's husband has not been identified. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/LOTHARINGIA.htm#LothaireIEmperorB  5.        GISELA ([830]-860).  The necrology of Brixen records that "Domnus Imperator Lotharius tradidit filiam suam domnam Gislam"[30].  Abbess of San Salvatore at Brescia 851-860.  "Hludwicus…imperator augustus" made grants to San Salvatore in memory of "Gisla soror nostra defuncta" by charter dated 12 Jan [861][31]. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/LOTHARINGIA.htm#LothaireIEmperorB  6.         LOTHAIRE ([835]-Piacenza 8 Aug 869, bur Convent of San Antonio near Piacenza).  Regino names "Hludowicum, Hlotharium et Carolum" as the three sons of Emperor Lothaire & his wife[32].  "Lothario rege" is named "filio imperatoris Lotharii" by Folcuin[33].  The Annales Bertiniani record that Emperor Lothaire gave Frisia to his son Lothaire in 855[34].  He succeeded his father in 855 as LOTHAIRE II King of Lotharingia, with Aachen as his capital.  He attempted to annul his marriage to marry his mistress of many years, but was opposed by Hincmar Archbishop of Reims, and later Pope Nicholas I who ordered him to return to his wife 15 Aug 865.  He was negotiating with Pope Hadrian II for a new decision when he died of malaria[35].  On his death, his lands were divided between Ludwig II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks and Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks, instead of passing to his brother Emperor Louis despite the latter's objections.  The necrology of Prüm records the death "869 Kal Iul" of "Lotharius rex filius eius [=Lotharius imperator]"[36].   m ([855], separated 857, repudiated 860) TEUTBERGA, daughter of BOSO "l'Ancien" Comte d’Arles & his wife --- (-Metz before 25 Nov 875, bur Metz, Abbaye de Sainte-Glossinde).  The Annales Lobienses name "Tietberga, sorore Hucberti abbatis" as lawful wife of "Lotharius"[37].  The Annales Bertiniani name "Teutbergam" as "materteram suam [=Bosone filio Buvini comitis]"[38].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Thieberga regina legitima uxore [Lotharii]", specifying that she relied on the advice of "Bosonis comitis" at the time of her repudiation, although her relationship to him is not specified[39].  Herimannus names "Tiohtpirga uxore legitima" of King Lothaire II when recording his repudiation of her[40].  She protected the wife of Boso Count in Italy after she deserted her husband.  She was repudiated on the grounds of her alleged incest with her brother Hugobert[41].  Her husband kept her prisoner after separating from her.  The Annales Bertiniani record that "uxor Lotharii" fled to "fratrem suum Hucbertum in regno Karli" in 860[42].  She escaped in 860 and sought refuge with Charles II "le Chauve" who gave her the abbey of Avenay in the diocese of Reims.  The Annales Bertiniani records that "uxore [Lothario]" gave support to "uxori Bosonis et Balduino qui filiam eius [=Karoli regis] furatus fuerat in uxorem"[43].  Abbess of Sainte Glossinde at Metz 869.  "Heccardus comes" names "…Teutbergane uxore Lotharii…" among the beneficiaries under his testamentary disposition dated to [Jan 876][44].  It is not certain that this refers to the separated wife of King Lothar II, but no other "Teutberga/Lothaire" couple has been identified at the time.  If this identification is correct, it suggests a family relationship between Teutberga and Ecchard, which has not yet been identified.   Mistress (1): (from [855]) [http://www.geni.com/people/Waldrada-of-Worms/6000000002389893491  WALDRADA], daughter of --- (-9 Apr after 868).  One manuscript of the Gesta Treverorum names "Waldradam sororem…Guntheri Coloniensis archiepiscopus" when recording her adulterous relationship with King Lothaire II[45].  The Cæsarii Heisterbacensis Catalogus of archbishops of Köln records that the concubine of "Lotharius" was "Waldradam, sororem Guntheri archiepiscopi Coloniensis" and that her brother encouraged Lothaire to leave his legitimate wife for Waldrada, for which he was excommunicated by the Pope[46].  The Annales Novesienses record that “Guntherus episcopus Coloniensis” had “sororem…Vastradam…aliis Waldradam” whom “dux Lotharingiæ Lotharius…superdixit” after her brother approved his divorce from “legitima uxore Tyberga”[47].  According to Baron Ernouf[48], Gunther archbishop of Köln was uncle of Waldrada and Thetgaud archbishop of Trier was her brother, but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  The Annales Bertiniani names "Hlotharius Waldradamconcubinam" when recording that Lothaire purported to marry her in 862 and crowned her with the support of "Liutfrido avunculo suo et Waltario"[49].  Waldrada was also related to the Etichonen Grafen im Nordgau (ALSACE), as shown by the Vita Sancti Deicoli which names "Waldrada…Heberardo comitis consanguinitatis"[50], but the precise relationship is not known.  Folcuin records King Lothaire's excommunication after repudiating his wife for Waldrada[51].  King Lothaire purported to marry Waldrada in [Aug/Sep] 862 and crowned her as Queen, but this was not recognised by the church[52].  She became a nun at Remiremont. 

King Lothaire II had four illegitimate children by Mistress (1) http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/LOTHARINGIA.htm#LothaireIEmperorB:

a)         HUGUES ([855/60]-after 895).  Duke of Alsace 867, until after Aug 869.  The Annales Bertiniani record that King Lothaire invested "filioque suo de Waldrada Hugoni" with "ducatum Elisatium" in 867[53].  Herimannus names "Hugonem, Lotharii regis ex Waldrada filium" when recording his rebellion in 879[54].  After his father's death, Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks invaded Alsace and Hugues was obliged to submit to him.  The GestaFrancorum records that "Hugo, Hlutharii et Waldrada filius" caused tyranny in France in 879[55].  Pope John VIII excommunicated "Hugonem Lotharii Regis quondam filium non legitimum" in 878[56].  Hugues challenged Louis II "le Bègue" and his son Louis III "le Jeune" in Lotharingia in 879, but was defeated in 880 and swore allegiance at Gondreville in May 881 to Louis "le Jeune" who gave him the abbey of Lobbes.  The Annales Fuldenses record that Ludwig II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks sent "legatis nepotum suorum" to fight "Hugonem tyrannidem exercentem in Gallia" in 880[57].  Charles III "le Gros" King of the East Franks gave him domains of the Bishopric of Metz in 882, but Hugues rebelled in the same year, was defeated once more and took refuge in Burgundy.  He rebelled again in 885 and sought support from his brother-in-law Gotfrid in Frisia[58].  The Annales Vedastini record that "Hugo…filius Hlotharii regis" was blinded in 885 on the advice of "Heinrico duce"[59].  He was shut in the monastery of Fulda, later transferred to Sankt-Gallen, and finally to the abbey of Prüm[60].  m (883) as her fourth husband, FRIDERADA, widow firstly of ENGUERRAND, secondly of BERNARIUS, and thirdly of WICBERT, daughter of ---.  Regino names "Friderada" as wife of "Engilrammo ex qua filiam quam postmodem Richwinus comes in coniugem accepti", also referring to her subsequent marriages[61].  "Hugo filius Lotharii Regis" had "Wicbertum comitem" murdered and married his wife "Frideradam" in 883[62]. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/LOTHARINGIA.htm#LothaireIEmperorB b)         GISELA ([860/65]-[21 May/26 Oct] 907).  Regino records the marriage in 882 of "Gisla filia Hlotharii" and "rex Godofridus Nordmannorum"[63].  The Annales Fuldenses record the marriage of "Gotafrid Nordmannus qui superiore anno fuerat baptizatus" and "Hugone Hlutharii filio eiusque sororem" in 883[64].  Abbess at Nivelles and Fosses, after her husband died.  "Zendeboldus…rex" gave "proprietatem…in loco…VII Fontes" to "propinqua nostra…Kisla…regis Lotharii filia…abbatisse" by charter dated 30 Jul 896[65].  "Zuendebolchus…rex" gave property to "neptis nostre…Gissele…Nyuialensis abbaciæ" for her abbey by charter dated 26 Jul 897[66].  m (882) GODEFRID, often mistaken for the son of HARALD "Klak" according to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Godfrid,_Duke_of_Frisia, but not him. --- (-murdered Jun 885).  He was one of the leaders of the Danes who ravaged large parts of territory between the Rhine and the Somme.  He converted to Christianity, and Emperor Charles "le Gros" granted him large parts of Frisia as dux. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/LOTHARINGIA.htm#LothaireIEmperorB c)        [http://www.geni.com/people/no-name/6000000011517469142  BERTA] ([863]-8 Mar 925, bur Lucca, Santa Maria).  "Hugo comes et marchio" names "patris mei Teutbaldi et matris meæ Berthe…" in a donation by charter dated 924[67].  "Berte" is also named as mother of "Hugo rex" in the latter's donation to Cluny for the souls of his parents dated 8 Mar 934[68].  Her parentage and first marriage are confirmed by the Annales Bertiniani which name "Hugonem Lotharii iunioris filium" and “sororium illius Theutbaldum” in 880[69].  Her origin and second marriage are confirmed by the epitaph of "Comitissæ…Bertha" specifies that she was "uxor Adalberti Ducis Italiæ…regalis generi…filia Lotharii" and records her death in 925[70].  Liudprand provides the proof that Berta, who married Marchese Adalberto, was the widow of Theotbald when he names "Berta matre regis Hugonis", specifying that she was previously married to Adalberto, when recording her death[71].  She was regent of Tuscany after the death of her second husband in 915.  m firstly ([879/80])  THEOTBALD [Thibaut Comte d’Arles], son of HUBERT d'Arles, Comte de Transjuranie & his wife --- (-[Jun 887]/[895]).  m secondly ([895/98]) ADALBERTO II Marchese of Tuscany, Conte e Duca di Lucca, son of ADALBERT I Marchese of Tuscany & his wife Rothildis of Spoleto (-[10/19] Sep 915, bur Lucca Cathedral). http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/LOTHARINGIA.htm#LothaireIEmperorB d)         ERMENGARDE (-6 Aug after [895/898], bur Lucca, Santa Giustina).  Her epitaph at Lucca records the death "VIII Id Aug" of "Ermingardis…dicata deo" as daughter of "rex…Lotharius"[72].  Nun at Santa Giustina in Lucca.  Gingins-la-Sarra suggests that Ermengarde was the wife of Berlion [I] Vicomte de Vienne, suggesting that she went to Provence with her sister Berta who married Thibaut Comte d´Arles[73].  He says that the charter dated 25 Dec 923, under which “Ludwicus…imperator augustus” confirmed property “in comitatu Viennensi seu et in Lugdunensi in villa…Tadernaco” to “Ingelbertus…et uxori eius Nonie” (Engelbert being this couple´s son)[74], refers to Engelbert as “propinquus” of the emperor.  He says that the term was never used in charters which name Berlion [I] and therefore deduces that the relationship must have been through Engelbert´s mother.  However, the text of the charter in question does not appear to apply the word “propinquus” specifically to Engelbert.  It is used in the phrase “propinquorum et fidelium suorum”, as part of the introductory words in the charter, while Engelbert is named in the document as “fidelis noster”.  There appears to be no other basis for this speculation.  If the hypothesis were correct, it would be difficult to explain why Ermengarde would have left Provence (presumably after the death of her supposed husband, dated to [912]) and established herself as a nun at Lucca, while her two sons remained in Provence. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/LOTHARINGIA.htm#LothaireIEmperorB

7.        ROTRUDE (chr Pavia [835/40]-).  The baptism of Rotrudis daughter of Lothaire is recorded at Pavia in [835/40][75].  [same person as…?  ROTRUDE .  "Witbertus…comes" donated property at Ornois to the abbey of Tournus, for the souls of "Lanberti genitoris mei necnon et Rutrudis genetricis meæ", by charter dated 28 Jan 870[76].  Hlawitschka suggests that she was the daughter of Emperor Lothaire I, as her son's charter dated 28 Jan 870 records that the property he donated to the abbey of Tournus had been granted to his father by Emperor Lothaire[77].  However, the copy of the charter reproduced in the Histoire de Tournus, cited above, states that the property had been donated to Wicbert by "senioris mei Hlotharii Regis".  m ([850/51]) LAMBERT Comte et Marquis de Nantes, son of LAMBERT [I] Comte et Marquis de Nantes [Guidonen] & his wife [--- of Italy] (-killed in battle 1 May 852).] http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/LOTHARINGIA.htm#LothaireIEmperorB 8.        CHARLES ([845]-Lyon 25 Jan 863, bur Lyon, Saint-Pierre).  Regino names "Hludowicum, Hlotharium et Carolum" as the three sons of Emperor Lothaire & his wife[78].  His father invested him in Sep 855 with Provence, Lyon and Transjuranian Burgundy.    http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/LOTHARINGIA.htm#LothaireIEmperorB

Emperor Lothaire I had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1): Mistress (1): DODA, daughter of --- (-after 9 Jul 855).  The Annales Bertiniani records that "Lotharius imperator" took "duas sibi ancillas ex villa regia", of whom Doda gave birth to "filium…Karlomannum"[18]. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/LOTHARINGIA.htm#LothaireIEmperorB 9.          CARLOMAN ([853]-).  The Annales Bertiniani name "Karlomannum" as the son of "Lotharius imperator" and his mistress Doda[79]. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/LOTHARINGIA.htm#LothaireIEmperorB

m2. Judith

m secondly (Aix-la-Chapelle Feb 819) JUDITH, daughter of WELF [I] Graf [von Altdorf] & his wife Heilwig --- ([805]-Tours 19 Apr 843, bur Tours Saint-Martin). The Annales Xantenses record the marriage in Feb 819 of "Ludewicus imperator" and "Iudith"[193]. Thegan names "filiam Hwelfi ducis sui, qui erat de nobolissima progenie Bawariorum…Iudith…ex parte matris…Eigilwi nobilissimi generic Saxonici" as second wife of Emperor Ludwig, specifying that she was "enim pulchra valde"[194]. Einhard's Annales record that Emperor Louis chose "Huelpi comitis filiam…Judith" as his wife in 819 after "inspectis plerisque nobelium filiabus"[195]. Judith was influential with her husband, which increased the tensions with the emperor's sons by his first marriage. Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "quondam duce Bernhardo, qui erat de stirpe regali" was accused of violating "Iudith reginam" but comments that this was all lies[196]. Judith was exiled to the monastery of Sainte-Croix de Poitiers during the first rebellion of her stepsons in 830, was released in 831, but exiled again to Tortona in Italy in 833 from where she was brought back in Apr 834[197]. The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "XIII Kal Mai" of "Judith regina"[198]. The Annales Xantenses record the death in 843 of "Iudhit imperatrix mater Karoli" at Tours[199]. [http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192] His second wife was, Judith of Bavaria:[ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_the_Pious]

With her had three children[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192] / a daughter and a son: :[ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_the_Pious]

A3.B5.C2.1 Gisela (c819-c874) GISELA ([819/822]-after 1 Jul 874, bur Cysoing, Abbey of St Calixtus). The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Karolum et Gislam" children of "Hludovicus ymperator…ex Iudith ymperatrice"[209]. Her marriage is deduced from a charter in which Gisela states that their eldest son Unruoch brought back the body of Eberhard from Italy[210]. She founded the abbey of St Calixtus at Cysoing, Flanders, where she lived as a widow. "Gisle" granted "le fisc de Somain en Ostrevant" to "filii…Adelarde" by charter dated 14 Apr 869, which names "rex Karolus meus…germanus…senioris mei dulcis memorie Evrardi…tres infantes meos Rodulfum…et Berengarium…et…Adelarde"[211]. The Historia Ecclesiæ Cisoniensis records that “Gisla” donated property to Cysoing abbey for her burial next to “coniugis mei dulcis memoriæ Evrardi”, by charter dated 2 Apr 870 which names “filiæ meæ Ingiltrudis…filius meus Rodulfus”, and by charter dated “Kal Jul anno XXXV regnante Carolo Rege”, naming “filii mei Unroch…filiorum meorum Adalardo atque Rodulfo” and signed by “Odelrici Comitis”[212]. "Gisle" donated property to Cysoing for the anniversaries of "Ludovico imperatore patre meo et…Judith imperatrice matre mea et…rege Karolo…germano et…prole mea…Hengeltrude, Hunroc, Berengario, Adelardo, Rodulpho, Hellwich, Gilla, Judith" by charter dated to [874][213]. [http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192] 'm ([836]) EBERHARD Marchese di Friulia, son of UNRUOCH Comte [en Ternois] & his wife Engeltrude (-in Italy 16 Dec 866, bur Cysoing, Abbey of St Calixtus). [http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192] Gisela, married Eberhard I of Friuli:[ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_the_Pious]

A3.B5.C2.2 Charles (823-877) CHARLES (Frankfurt-am-Main 13 Jun 823-Avrieux or Brides-les-Bains, Savoie 6 Oct 877, bur Nantua Abbey, transferred to église de l'abbaye royale de Saint-Denis). The Annales S. Benigni Divisionensis record the birth of "Karolus filius Ludowici" in Frankfurt "Idus Iun 824"[214]. Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names Charles as son of his father by his second wife[215]. Under the division of Imperial territories by the Treaty of Verdun 11 Aug 843, he became CHARLES II “le Chauve” King of the West Franks. [http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192] Charles the Bald, king of West Francia:[ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_the_Pious]

A3.B5.C2.3? Daughter [daughter . The Casus Monasterii Petrishusensis records that "rex Francorum qui et imperator Romanorum" (which appears to indicate Charles II "le Chauve") gave his sister in marriage to "vir nobilissimo genere decoratus", that the couple had two sons to whom their uncle gave "in Alemannia loca…Potamum et Brigantium, Ubirlingin et Buochorn, Ahihusin et Turingen atque Heistirgou, Wintirture…et in Retia Curiensi Mesouch", and that one of the sons returned to France while the other "Oudalricus" retained all the property in Alamannia[216]. The editor of the MGH SS compilation dates this source to the mid-12th century[217]. The information has not been corroborated in any earlier primary source, although it is not known what prior documentation may have been available to the compiler of the Casus. There are several other difficulties with this marriage which suggest that the report in the Casus should be treated with caution. If the information is accurate, it is likely that the bride was a full sister of King Charles, although if this is correct her absence from contemporary documentation is surprising. If she had been Charles's half-sister, it is difficult to see how Charles would have had much influence on her marriage, which would have been arranged by one of her full brothers. In any case, it is unlikely that Emperor Louis's first wife would have had further children after [812/15] at the latest, given the birth of her eldest son in 795. If that estimated birth date is correct, then it is more likely that this daughter's marriage would have been arranged by her father Emperor Louis before his death in 840. Another problem is the potential consanguinity between the parties. Although the precise relationship between the couple's son Udalrich [III] and the earlier Udalrichinger cannot be established from available documentation, it is probable that he was closely related to Hildegard, first wife of Emperor Charles I, who was the paternal grandmother of Emperor Louis's children. Lastly, Udalrich [III] is recorded in charters dated 847 and 854, suggesting a birth date in the 820s assuming that he was adult at the time, which is inconsistent with Charles II "le Chauve" (born in 823) having arranged his parents' marriage. [http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192] m --- [Udalrichinger].] [http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192] Note: Wikipaedia doesn’t record this daughter.

'm'3.Theodelinde? / Concubine 1

Mistress (1): ---. The name of Emperor Lothar's mistress or mistresses is not known. [http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192] Theodelinde of Sens[citation needed] :[ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_the_Pious]

With her he had two illegitimate children [http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192] [ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_the_Pious]

A3.B5.C3.1 Alpais (c793-852) [ALPAIS ([793/94]-23 Jul 852 or after, bur [Reims]). Flodoard refers to "Ludowicus Alpheidi filie sue uxori Begonis comitis"[218]. The Annales Hildesheimenses name "filiam imperatoris…Elpheid" as the wife of "Bicgo de amici regis" when recording the death of her husband[219]. Settipani discusses the debate about the paternity of Alpais, preferring the theory that Emperor Charles I was her father[220]. If Emperor Louis was her father, it is unlikely that she was born before [793/94], given his known birth date in 778. It would therefore be chronologically tight for her to have had [three] children by her husband before his death in 816. However, no indication has been found in primary sources of the age of these children when their father died. The question of Alpais's paternity is obviously not beyond doubt, but it is felt preferable to show her as the possible daughter of Emperor Louis in view of the clear statement in Flodoard. No indication has been found of the name of Alpais's mother. If Alpais was the daughter of Emperor Louis, it is likely that she was not her husband's only wife in view of Bego's estimated birth date. After her husband died, she became abbess of Saint-Pierre-le-Bas at Reims in [817]. She was still there 29 May 852. m ([806]) [as his second wife,] BEGO, son of [GERARD [I] Comte de Paris & his wife Rotrud] ([755/60]-28 Oct 816). He governed the county of Toulouse as "marchio" for Septimania in 806. Comte de Paris in [815], succeeding comte Stephanus.] [http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192] Alpais:[ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_the_Pious]

A3.B5.C2 Arnoul (794-841) ARNOUL ([794]-after [Mar/Apr] 841). The Chronicon Moissacense names "quartum…filium [Ludovici]…ex concubina…Arnulfum" recording that his father gave him the county of Sens[221]. Comte de Sens 817. He was a supporter of his half-brother Emperor Lothaire in [Mar/Apr] 841[222]. [http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]Arnulf of Sens:[ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_the_Pious]

A3.B6 Lothair (778–6 February 779/780)

twin of Louis, he died in infancy [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne HLOTHAR [Lothar] (Chasseneuil-du-Poitou {Vienne} [16 Apr/Sep] 778-[779/780]). He is named, and his parentage recorded, in the Gesta Mettensium, which specifies that he was his parents' fourth son "qui biennis occubuit", born a twin with Hludowic[124]. Paulus Diaconus wrote an epitaph to "Chlodarii pueri regis" naming "Karolus…rex genitorque tuus, genitrix regina…Hildigarda" and specifying that he was a twin[125]. :[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

A3.B7 Bertha (779-826)

[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne BERTRADA [Berta] ([779/80]-11 Mar, 824 or after). "Hruodrudem et Bertham et Gislam" are named daughters of King Charles & Hildegard by Einhard[126]. Angilbert's poem Ad Pippinum Italiæ regum names (in order) "Chrodthrudis…Berta…Gisla et Theodrada" as daughters of King Charles[127]. Theodulf's poem Ad Carolum Rege changes the order slightly when he names "Berta…Chrodtrudh …Gisla…Rothaidh…Hiltrudh, Tetdrada" as daughters of the king[128]. The Chronicon Fontanellense records that Charles I King of the Franks proposed a marriage between “Offæ Rege Anglorum sive Merciorum…filiam” and “Carolus iunior”, but that King Offa refused unless “Berta filia Caroli Magni” was also married to his son which was unacceptable to the Frankish king[129]. Her father kept her and her sisters at the court of Aix-la-Chapelle refusing them permission to marry, but she was banished from court by her brother Emperor Louis I on his accession[130]. The Vita Angilberti records the relationship between "Berta filia [rex de regina Hildigarda]" and "domnus Angilbertus"[131]. The Chronicon Centulensis records that “Angilbertus” married “regis filiam Bertam” and that they had “duos filios Harnidum et Nithardum”[132]. Nithard names Bertha, daughter of King Charles, as his mother[133]. The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "V Id Mar" of "Berta filia Karoli imperatoris qui dedit superiorem Curtem"[134]. Mistress: (from [795]) of ANGILBERT "the Saint", son of [NITHARD & his wife Richarda] ([750]-18 Feb 814, bur Saint-Riquier, église du Saint-Sauveur et de Saint-Richard). :[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

A3.B8 Gisela (781-808)

[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne GISELA (781 before May-after 800, maybe after 814). "Hruodrudem et Bertham et Gislam" are named daughters of King Charles & Hildegard by Einhard[135]. Angilbert's poem Ad Pippinum Italiæ regum names (in order) "Chrodthrudis…Berta…Gisla et Theodrada" as daughters of King Charles[136]. Theodulf's poem Ad Carolum Rege changes the order slightly when he names "Berta…Chrodtrudh …Gisla…Rothaidh…Hiltrudh, Tetdrada" as daughters of the king[137]. The Annales Laurissenses record that "filia eius [Karoli regis] domna Gisla" was baptised by "archiepiscopo…Thoma" in 781[138]. She was baptised in Milan in [May] 781[139]. :[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

A3.B9 Hildegarde (782-783)

[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne HILDEGARD (Thionville [Mar/Apr] 783-[1/8] Jun 783, bur Metz, église abbatiale de Saint-Arnoul). "Hildigard" is named daughter of King Charles in the Pauli Gesta, when recording her place of burial[140]. Paulus Diaconus wrote an epitaph to "Hildegardis filiæ [Karoli regis]" specifying that she lived 40 days[141]. :[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

A4. Gersuinda’ 1 child:

A4.B1 Adaltrude (b.774)

[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne. ADALTRUD . Einhard names "Adaltrud" daughter of King Charles by his concubine "Gersuindam Saxonici generis [http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

A5. Madelgard’s 1 child:

A5.B1 Ruodhaid (775–810)

Abbess of Faremoutiers [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne] ROTHILDIS [Rouhaut] ([784]-24 Mar 852). Abbess at Faremoutiers from before Oct 840[157]. Her parentage is proved by the necrology of the abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés which records the death "XI Kal Apr" of "Rothildis abbatisse et monache filia regis magni Karoli"[158]. The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "XI Kal Mar" of "Rotildis abbatissa"[159]. [http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192] CHROTHAIS [Rotaïde] ([784]-after 800, maybe after 814). "Ruodhaidem" is named daughter of King Charles and an unnamed concubine by Einhard[155]. Theodulf's poem Ad Carolum Rege names (in order) "Berta…Chrodtrudh…Gisla…Rothaidh…Hiltrudh, Tetdrada" as daughters of the king[156]. :[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

A6. Fastrada’s 2 children:

A6.B1 Theodrada (b.784)

abbess of Argenteuil [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne THEODRADA ([785]-[9 Jan 844/853]). "Theoderadam et Hiltrudem" are named daughters of King Charles & Fastrada by Einhard[142]. Angilbert's poem Ad Pippinum Italiæ regum names (in order) "Chrodthrudis…Berta…Gisla et Theodrada" as daughters of King Charles[143]. Theodulf's poem Ad Carolum Rege changes the order slightly when he names "Berta…Chrodtrudh…Gisla…Rothaidh…Hiltrudh, Tetdrada" as daughters of the king[144]. Named as abbess of Notre-Dame d'Argenteuil, near Paris by her father before 814, until 828. "Ludowicus…rex" names "Theodrada amita nostra filia…avi nostri" in a charter dated 9 Jan 844 which confirms her life interest in the abbey of Schwarzach-am-Main, donated to the church of Würzburg, previously belonging to "Blutendæ filiæ Folkberti quondam comitis"[145]. Theodrada arranged for the church of Würzburg to recognise her great niece Hildegard, daughter of Ludwig II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks as her successor. This must have taken place before 853, at which date Hildegard was abbess of Zürich[146]. :[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

A6.B2 Hiltrude (b.787)

[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne HILTRUD ([787]-after 800, maybe after 814). "Theoderadam et Hiltrudem" are named daughters of King Charles & Fastrada by Einhard[147]. Theodulf's poem Ad Carolum Rege names (in order) "Berta…Chrodtrudh…Gisla…Rothaidh…Hiltrudh, Tetdrada" as daughters of the king[148]. She lived at her father’s court until his death in 814. Wilhelm Kurze appears to have disproved the theory of the alleged marriage of Hiltrud to Eberhard [I] Graf [von Calw], a court official of Emperor Charlemagne[149]. According to Rösch[150], Hiltrud was the mistress (between [799/804]) of Richwin Count of Padua, brother of Richbod Bishop of Trier, who was at the court of Emperor Charlemagne between 792 and 814, and was the mother of an illegitimate son by him. He cites no primary source on which this is based and no reference to this has been found in the sources so far consulted. It is possibly based on onomastic speculation from the use of the first name Richbod. One possible illegitimate son: [http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192] A6.B2.C1 [RICHBOD ([800/805]-killed in battle Angoulême 14 Jun 844). Abbé de Saint-Riquier 840/44. The Annales Bertiniani record that "Richbote abbas…consobrinus regum, nepos…Karoli imperatoris ex filia" was among those killed in 844[151]. It is possible, but not certain, that his mother was Hiltrud, as explained above.] :[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192] Note: Wikipedia thinks Richbod is more likely to be Charlemagne’s son through his last concubine Ethilind – who Cawley calls Adelindis

A7. Luitgard had no children

A8. Amaltrude’s 1 child:

A8.B1 Alpaida (b.794)

[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne NOTE: It seems worth mentioning that this is the Wikipedia version Jan 2011, and Cawley's Medlands don't mention an Alpaida or an Amaltrude. A possible reason is that the Wikipedia concubine, Amaltrud is the NN concubine of Cawley, whose daughter - Ruodhaid/Rotaide (784) actually looks like the same person as the concubine Madelgard's daughter Rothildis, who Cawley gives as born in the same year (784), and which Wikipedia doesn't duplicate.

A9. Regina’s 2 children:

A9.B1 Drogo (801–855)

Bishop of Metz from 823 and abbot of Luxeuil Abbey[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne DROGO [Dreux] (17 Jun 801-drowned Himeriacum, Bourgogne 8 Dec 855, bur Metz, église abbatiale de Saint-Arnoul). Einhard names "Drogonem et Hugum" as sons of King Charles by his concubine "Reginam"[161]. The Annales Weissemburgenses record the birth "802 aut 803 15 Kal Iul" of Drogo[162]. He and his brother Hugues, and their half-brother Thierry, were brought up in the palace of their half-brother Emperor Louis I after their father died, but after the revolt of Bernard King of Italy in 818 they were forcibly tonsured and "put under free custody into monasteries"[163]. Abbé de Luxeuil 820. Emperor Louis installed "Druagoni fratri suo" as Bishop of Metz in 823[164]. The Annales Fuldenses record that "Druogonem archicapellum et Adalbertum comitem" were sent to the east bank of the Rhine in 840[165]. He became Vicar of the Pope in France in Jun 844. He died after falling into the River Oignon in which he was fishing[166]. A list of bishops of Metz records "domnus Drogo archiepiscopus et sacri palate summus capellanus, filius Karoli imperatoris" as 40th bishop, holding the position for 32 years, 5 months and 7 days, his death "VI Id Dec in Burgundia, prædio sancti Petri Mimeriaco" and his burial in "urbem Medimmatricorum…in ecclesia beati Iohannis apostoli"[167]. [http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

A9.B2 Hugh (802–844)

archchancellor of the Empire[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne HUGO [Hugues] "l´Abbé" ([802/06]-killed in battle Angoulême 14 Jun 844, bur Abbaye de Charroux). Einhard names "Drogonem et Hugum" as sons of King Charles by his concubine "Reginam"[168]. He is named "Hugo venerabilis filius Karoli regis magni" in the Cartulaire of Saint-Bertin[169]. He and his brother Drogo, and their half-brother Thierry, were brought up in the palace of their half-brother Emperor Louis I after their father died, but after the revolt of Bernard King of Italy in 818 they were forcibly tonsured and "put under free custody into monasteries"[170]. Monk at Charroux 818. Abbé de Saint-Quentin 822/23, Abbé de Lobbes. Abbé de Saint-Bertin 836[171]. Abbé de Noaillé. Arch-chancellor of Emperor Louis I 834-840. The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "Hugonem fratrem suum sed et Adalgarium comitem" visited the emperor [in 836][172]. He joined Charles "le Chauve" in Sep 841 after the battle of Fontenoy, becoming his Arch-chaplain[173]. The Annales Fuldenses record that "Hugo abbas, patruus Karoli et Rihboto abbas, Rhaban quoque signifer" were killed "844 VII Id Jun" in the battle in which "Pippini duces" defeated the army of Charles II " le Chauve" King of the Franks[174]. [http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

A10. Ethelind’s 2 children:

A10.B1 Richbod (805–844)

Abbott of Saint-Riquier[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne

Note: Cawley thinks Richbod MAY actually have been Charlemagne’s grandson through Fastrada’s daughter, Hiltrude: [RICHBOD ([800/805]-killed in battle Angoulême 14 Jun 844). Abbé de Saint-Riquier 840/44. The Annales Bertiniani record that "Richbote abbas…consobrinus regum, nepos…Karoli imperatoris ex filia" was among those killed in 844[151]. It is possible, but not certain, that his mother was Hiltrud, as explained below.] :[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192] Hiltrud ([787]-after 800, maybe after 814). "Theoderadam et Hiltrudem" are named daughters of King Charles & Fastrada by Einhard[147]. Theodulf's poem Ad Carolum Rege names (in order) "Berta…Chrodtrudh…Gisla…Rothaidh…Hiltrudh, Tetdrada" as daughters of the king[148]. She lived at her father’s court until his death in 814. Wilhelm Kurze appears to have disproved the theory of the alleged marriage of Hiltrud to Eberhard [I] Graf [von Calw], a court official of Emperor Charlemagne[149]. According to Rösch[150], Hiltrud was the mistress (between [799/804]) of Richwin Count of Padua, brother of Richbod Bishop of Trier, who was at the court of Emperor Charlemagne between 792 and 814, and was the mother of an illegitimate son by him. He cites no primary source on which this is based and no reference to this has been found in the sources so far consulted. It is possibly based on onomastic speculation from the use of the first name Richbod. One possible illegitimate son:

A10.B2 Theodoric (b. 807)

[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne] Note: Cawley thinks Theoderic was the only son, and Richbod was actually a grandson of Charlemagne through Fastrada’s daughter, Himiltrud THEODERIC [Thierry] (807-after 818). Einhard names "Theodricum" as son of King Charles by his concubine "Adallindem"[175]. The birth of "imperatori filius nomine Theodericus" is recorded in 807[176]. He and his half-brothers Drogo and Hugues were brought up in the palace of their half-brother Emperor Louis I after their father died, but after the revolt of Bernard King of Italy in 818 they were forcibly tonsured and "put under free custody into monasteries"[177]. :[http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955192]

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AREAS OF AMBIGUITY:

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The Problem of Count Begue & his 3 possible wives

Discussion

Count Begue/Beggo/ Begon has 2 (or 3) equally likely wives according to original sources – but only one set of descendents (Luithard, Eberhard, Susanna):

Either his wife (and mother of these 3 kids) was Charlemagne’s daughter:

1) Alpaida (by Adaltrude) Sources below, or

2) Amaudra (by Himiltrude) - less convincingly sourced than the other two, at the moment -Reference to her mother on Die Genealogie der Franken und Frankreichs, noted by Wikipedia, says she later married a Count of Paris.

or she was Charlemagne’s granddaughter:

3) Alpais (through his son, Louis I) Sources Below

Sources: From Charles Cawley's Medieval Lands database

BEGO ([755/60]-28 Oct 816).

m firstly ---. There is no proof of this possible first marriage of Bego. However, as noted below, if his wife Alpais was the daughter of Emperor Louis, there would have been a considerable age difference between her and Bego, which suggests the possibility of an earlier marriage.]

m [secondly] ([806]) ALPAIS, illegitimate daughter of [Emperor LOUIS I & his mistress ---] ([793/94]-23 Jul 852 or after, bur [Reims]). Flodoard refers to "Ludowicus Alpheidi filie sue uxori Begonis comitis"[67]. The Annales Hildesheimenses name "filiam imperatoris…Elpheid" as the wife of "Bicgo de amici regis" when recording the death of her husband[68]. Settipani discusses the debate about the paternity of Alpais, preferring the theory that Emperor Charles I was her father[69]. If Emperor Louis was her father, it is unlikely that she was born before [793/94], given his known birth date in 778. It would therefore be chronologically tight for her to have had [three] children by her husband before his death in 816.

[Sharon’s Note: Not really – it makes her 23yrs old when he dies. Charlemagne’s wife Hildegard had had 9 children by the time she died at 23 or 24yrs]

However, no indication has been found in primary sources of the ages of these children when their father died. The question of her paternity is obviously not beyond doubt, but it is felt preferable to show her as the probable daughter of Emperor Louis in view of the clear statement in Flodoard. If Alpais was the daughter of Emperor Louis, it is likely that she was not her husband's only wife in view of his estimated birth date. After her husband died, she became abbess of Saint-Pierre-le-Bas at Reims in [817]. She was still there 29 May 852.

Bego & his [second] wife had three children: i) LIUTHARD . Flodoard names "ipsius Alpheidis vel filiorum eius Letardi et Ebrardi" when recording their mother's donation to the church of Reims[70]. ii) EBERHARD . Flodoard names "ipsius Alpheidis vel filiorum eius Letardi et Ebrardi" when recording their mother's donation to the church of Reims[71]. iii) SUSANNA ([805/10]-). The primary source which establishes that Susanna was the daughter of Bego has not so far been identified. "Vulfardus" donated property to Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire for the souls of "genitoris mei Vulfardi et genetrice mea Susannane necnon et germanorum fratrum meorum Adelardo, Vulgrino, Ymo et sorore mee Hildeburga vel nepote meo Vulgrino" by charter dated 2 Nov 889[72]. m ([825/30]) VULFHARD, son of ---.

STATUS OF DEBATE by Justin, Pam, Ben, Sharon Jan 2011 The 10th Century chronicler, Flodoard is a primary source, while both Cawley and Settipani are secondary sources - presenting conflicting conclusions. Settipani (arguing for Charlemagne's daughter), contradicts Flodoard (arguing for Louis' daughter), based on consideration of other primary sources (which we haven't found). Cawley appears to be most likely to dominate because, although Settipani's conclusions are possibly more accurate, Cawley is more available to Geni users on the net.

Sharon's STRATEGIC SOLUTION WAS TO INSERT BEGUE in ALL 3 POSITIONS, & TRY TO USE THE CURATOR NOTE TO AVOID MERGES BETWEEN THEM.

STATUS OF DEBATE by Justin, Sharon; George June 2012: Over the past year, despite being locked, the profiles have been merged into each other - suggesting this was not a workable strategy. George IS WORKING ON AN ALTERNATIVE STRATEGY:


http://www.geni.com/people/Justin-Swanstr%C3%B6m/6000000007278581048 Justin]: The Henry Projects says: Alpaïs, filia imperatoris, d. after 29 May 852, on a 23 September, m. Bego, d. 816, count of Paris. ["Picco, primus de amicis regis, qui et filiam imperatoris [nomine Elpheid] duxit uxorem, defunctus est." Annales Laurissenses Minores, s.a. 816, MGH SS 1: 122; see also Werner (1967), 429-441; "... Quod monasterium Ludowicus imperator Alpheidi, filiae suae, uxori Begonis comitis, dono dedit, ..." Flodoard, iv, 46, MGH SS 13: 595] Although it is clear that the imperator who was the father of Alpaïs was either Charlemagne or Louis the Pious, there is no general agreement as to which man was her father. While the testimony of Flodoard would make Louis the father, Flodoard was writing a century later, and the chronology is a factor for making her a daughter of Charlemagne instead. [See the discussion by Settipani (1993), 200-3]

http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/louis000.htm

The reference is to Christian Settipani, La préhistoire des Capétiens.

__________

So many Pepins! Disambiguation Template for discussion & editing

From youngest/ most chronologically recent:

Pepin d810, King of Italy, originally called Carloman, son of Charlemagne & Hildegarde

Pepin The Hunchback d811 , eldest, but 'illegitimate' son of Charlemagne & Himiltrude

Pepin III d768, '”le Bref” The Short', Mayor of the Palace of Neustria, King of the Franks, father Charlemagne - son of Charles Martel & Rotrude

Pepin II d714, 'The Younger' or 'The Middle' 'of Heristal', Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia, Neustria & Burgundy, paternal grandfather of Pepin III d768 through Charles Martel - son of Begga & Ansegis

Pepin I d639, 'The Elder' 'of Landen', Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia m Itta,; maternal grandfather of Pepin II d714 , through Begga

Pepin, the Grandfather of Pepin I - Does he exist? (Input here, please – Sharon) - http://globalgenealogy.com/globalgazette/gazxs/gazxs46.html has NN parents for Pepin I, with a Pepin as one of their parents. But http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pepin_I] names his father as Carloman and NN for his mother, & no grandparents. On our tree, Pepin I's mother is Gertrudis (whose father is Garibald, not Pepin), & his father is Carloman (whose father is Charles, not Pepin) MY DECISION WOULD BE TO REMOVE PEPIN, GRANDFATHER OF PEPIN I , because the source for this: http://globalgenealogy.com/globalgazette/gazxs/gazxs46.htm] also gets the Heristal/Landen Pepins wrong, so I feel I shouldn’t trust it. THAT MEANS WE’RE GOING WITH THE WIKIPAEDIA VERSION OF THE FATHER AS CARLOMAN,;BUT THAT DOESN’T GET AS FAR BACK AS THE GRANDPARENTS – A LTHOUGH OUR TREE DOES.