About King David of Israel / דוד המלך
Did David, Solomon Exist? Dig Refutes Naysayers
King David (דוד, داوُود ) c. 1040–970 BCE, his reign over Judah c. 1010–970 BCE. David is an important figure to members of the Jewish, Christian, and Islamic faiths. Depicted as an acclaimed courageous warrior, and a poet and musician credited for composing much of the psalms contained in the Book of Psalms, King David is widely viewed as a righteous and effective king in battle and civil justice. He is described as a man after God's own heart in 1 Samuel 13:14 and Acts 13:22. Biblical tradition maintains the Messiah's direct descent from the line of David. In Islam, David is considered a prophet.
- Genealogy of David
- Questionable Paternity
- Family Tree
- The Davidid Dynasty Organization
- King David
- Davidic Ancestral Lines -See Discussion 3/18/2013 Justin Swanstrom & Jaim Harlow
David (Hebrew: דָּוִד, Standard Dawid Tiberian dɔwið, Arabic: داوود or داود, dawud, "beloved"), was the third king of the united Kingdom of Israel according to the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament (Saul & Ish Boshet preceded him on the throne). He is depicted as a righteous king — although not without fault — as well as an acclaimed warrior, musician and poet, traditionally credited with the authorship of many of the Psalms. The biblical chronology places his life c.1037 - 967 BC, his reign over Judah c.1007 - 1000 BC, and over Judah and Israel c.1000 - 967 BC. There is little archaeological evidence to confirm the picture of David from the Bible, although there is reasonable evidence (the Tel Dan stele) that a king named David was regarded as the founder of the Judean royal dynasty by the 9th century BC. Nevertheless, his story has been of immense importance to later Jewish and Christian culture, and the Biblical history remains a compelling literary monument.
David had eight wives, although he appears to have had children from other women as well:
- -1. Michal, the second daughter of King Saul
- -2. Ahinoam the Jezreelite
- -3. Abigail the Carmelite, previously wife of the evil Nabal
- -4. Maachah, daughter of Talmai, king of Geshur
- -5. Haggith
- -6. Abital
- -7. Eglah
- -8. Bathsheba, previously the wife of Uriah the Hittite
In his old age he took the beautiful Abishag into his bed for health reasons, "but the king knew her not (intimately)" (1 Kings 1:1-4).
Chronicles lists David's sons by various wives and concubines. In Hebron he had six sons (1 Chronicles 3:1-3):
- -2.1. Amnon, by Ahinoam
- -3.1. Daniel, by Abigail
- -4.1. Absalom, by Maachah
- -5.1 Adonijah, by Haggith
- -6.1 Shephatiah, by Abital
- -7.1 Ithream, by Eglah
By Bathsheba, his sons were:
- -8.1 Shammua
- -8.2 Shobab
- -8.3 Nathan
- -8.4 Solomon
His sons born in Jerusalem by other mothers included:
- x1 Ibhar
- x2 Elishua
- x3 Eliphelet
- x4 Nogah
- x5 Nepheg
- x6 Japhia
- x7 Elishama
- x8 Eliada
According to 2 Chronicles 11:18, another son was born to David who is not mentioned in any of the genealogies:
- x9 Jerimoth
And according to 2 Samuel 9 David adopts Johnathan's son
- x10 Mephibosheth as his own.
David also had at least one daughter,
- -4.2 Tamar, progeny of David and Maachah and the full sister of Absalom, who is later raped by her brother Amnon, leading to Amnon's death.
This shepherd, musician, poet, soldier, statesman, prophet, and king stands out in the Hebrew Scriptures in great prominence. Here was a fierce fighter on the battlefield who showed endurance under hardships, a leader and commander strong and unwavering in courage, yet humble enough to acknowledge his mistakes and repent of his gross sins, a man capable of tender compassion and mercy, a lover of truth and righteousness, and above all, one with implicit trust and confidence in his God Jehovah.
David, a descendant of Boaz and Ruth, had an ancestry running back through Perez to Judah. (Ru 4:18-22; Mt 1:3-6) This youngest of Jesse’s eight sons also had two sisters or half sisters. (1Sa 16:10, 11; 17:12; 1Ch 2:16) One of David’s brothers evidently died without having children and was thus dropped from later genealogical records. (1Ch 2:13-16) The name of David’s mother is not given. Some have suggested that Nahash was his mother, but it is more probable that Nahash was the father of David’s half sisters.—2Sa 17:25; see NAHASH No. 2.
Bethlehem, located about 9 km (5.5 mi) SSW of Jerusalem, was David’s hometown, the town where his forefathers Jesse, Obed, and Boaz had lived, and which was sometimes called “David’s city” (Lu 2:4, 11; Joh 7:42), not to be confused with “the City of David,” that is, Zion in Jerusalem.—2Sa 5:7.
As a Youth. We first meet up with David as he is tending his father’s sheep in a field near Bethlehem, reminding us that it was also in a field near Bethlehem where shepherds more than a millennium later were overawed at being chosen to hear Jehovah’s angel announcing the birth of Jesus. (Lu 2:8-14) Samuel, sent by God to the house of Jesse to anoint one of his sons to be the future king, turns down David’s seven older brothers, saying, “Jehovah has not chosen these.” Finally David is fetched from the field. There is an atmosphere of suspense when he enters—“ruddy, a young man with beautiful eyes and handsome in appearance”—for until now no one knows why Samuel has come. “Get up,” Samuel is commanded by Jehovah, “anoint him, for this is he!” This is the one of whom Jehovah says, “I have found David the son of Jesse, a man agreeable to my heart, who will do all the things I desire.”—1Sa 16:1-13; 13:14; Ac 13:22. David’s years spent as a shepherd lad had a profound influence on the rest of his life. Outdoor life prepared him to live as a fugitive when, in later life, he fled the wrath of Saul. He also acquired skill in throwing slingstones, and he developed endurance, courage, and a willingness to pursue and rescue sheep separated from the flock, not hesitating to kill a bear or a lion when necessary.—1Sa 17:34-36.
But for all of his valor as a warrior, David will also be remembered as one skilled on the harp and as a composer of song, abilities he perhaps acquired during the long hours spent tending the sheep. David also had a reputation for developing new musical instruments. (2Ch 7:6; 29:26, 27; Am 6:5) David’s love for Jehovah raised his lyrics far above the common level of simple entertainment and made them classical masterpieces dedicated to the worship and praise of Jehovah. The superscriptions of no less than 73 psalms indicate that David was their composer, but still other psalms are elsewhere attributed to David. (Compare Ps 2:1 with Ac 4:25; Ps 95:7, 8 with Heb 4:7.) Some, for example Psalms 8, 19, 23, 29, quite likely reflect David’s experiences as a shepherd. All this training while caring for sheep prepared David for the greater role of shepherding Jehovah’s people, as it is written: “[Jehovah] chose David his servant and took him from the pens of the flock. From following the females giving suck he brought him in to be a shepherd over Jacob his people and over Israel his inheritance.” (Ps 78:70, 71; 2Sa 7:8) However, when David first left his father’s sheep it was not to take over the kingship. Instead, he served as the court musician upon the recommendation of an adviser of Saul, who described David not only as “skilled at playing” but also as “a valiant, mighty man and a man of war and an intelligent speaker and a well-formed man, and Jehovah is with him.” (1Sa 16:18) So David became the harpist to troubled Saul, as well as his armor-bearer.—1Sa 16:19-23. Later, for reasons not disclosed, David returns to his father’s house for an indeterminate period. Upon bringing provisions to his brothers in Saul’s army, which at the time is in a standoff position with the Philistines, he is incensed at seeing and hearing Goliath reproach Jehovah. “Who is this uncircumcised Philistine that he has to taunt the battle lines of the living God?” David asks. (1Sa 17:26) “Jehovah,” he adds, “who delivered me from the paw of the lion and from the paw of the bear, he it is who will deliver me from the hand of this Philistine.” (1Sa 17:37) Granted permission, the killer of the lion and the bear approaches Goliath with the words: “I am coming to you with the name of Jehovah of armies, the God of the battle lines of Israel, whom you have taunted.” Suddenly David hurls the stone in his sling and brings the enemy champion down. Then with Goliath’s own sword David decapitates him, and he returns to camp with the trophies of war, the giant’s head and sword.—1Sa 17:45-54;
It is noteworthy that the Septuagint, as it appears in the fourth-century Greek manuscript Vatican 1209, omits 1 Samuel 17:55 through the word “down” in 18:6a. Hence Moffatt marks all except the last of these verses in double brackets, calling them “either editorial additions or later interpolations.” However, there is evidence favoring the reading of the Masoretic text.—See SAMUEL, BOOKS OF (Sections Missing in the Greek Septuagint).
As a Fugitive. (MAP, Vol. 1, p. 746) These fast-moving events catapulted David from the obscurity of the wilderness to public notice before the eyes of all Israel. Placed over the men of war, David was greeted with dancing and rejoicing when he returned from a victorious expedition against the Philistines, the popular song of the day being, “Saul has struck down his thousands, and David his tens of thousands.” (1Sa 18:5-7) “All Israel and Judah were lovers of David,” and Saul’s own son Jonathan concluded with him a lifelong covenant of mutual love and friendship, the benefits of which extended to Jonathan’s son Mephibosheth and grandson Mica.—1Sa 18:1-4, 16; 20:1-42; 23:18; 2Sa 9:1-13.
This popularity stirred up envy in Saul, who kept “looking suspiciously at David from that day forward.” Twice when David was playing as in former times, Saul hurled a spear with the intent of pinning David to the wall, and both times Jehovah delivered him. Saul had promised to give his daughter to whoever killed Goliath, but now he was reluctant to give her to David. Finally Saul agreed to the marriage of a second daughter, provided David brought him “a hundred foreskins of the Philistines,” an unreasonable demand that Saul calculated would mean David’s death. Courageous David, however, doubled the dowry, presented Saul with 200 foreskins, and was married to Michal. So now two of Saul’s children had lovingly entered covenants with David, circumstances that made Saul hate him all the more. (1Sa 18:9-29) When David was again playing before Saul, the king for the third time sought to pin him to the wall. Under the cover of night David fled, to see Saul again only under different and indeed strange circumstances.—1Sa 19:10.
For the next several years David lived as a fugitive, constantly in flight from place to place, relentlessly pursued by an obstinate and wicked king bent on killing him. David first took refuge with the prophet Samuel in Ramah (1Sa 19:18-24), but when this ceased to be a hiding place he headed for the Philistine city of Gath, stopping on the way to see High Priest Ahimelech in Nob, where he obtained Goliath’s sword. (1Sa 21:1-9; 22:9-23; Mt 12:3, 4) However, it was only by disguising his sanity, making childish cross marks on the gate and letting saliva run down his beard, that he was able to escape from Gath. (1Sa 21:10-15) Based on this experience, David composed Psalms 34 and 56. He then fled to the cave of Adullam, where his family and about 400 unfortunate and distressed men joined him. Psalm 57 or 142, or both, may commemorate his stay in this cave. David kept on the move—from there to Mizpeh in Moab and then back to the forest of Hereth in Judah. (1Sa 22:1-5) When living in Keilah, he learned that Saul was preparing to attack, whereupon he and his men, now numbering about 600, departed for the Wilderness of Ziph. Saul continued the chase from one place to another, from the Wilderness of Ziph at Horesh to the Wilderness of Maon. When Saul was about to seize his prey, word came of a Philistine raid, so for a period of time Saul abandoned the chase, allowing the fugitive to escape to En-gedi. (1Sa 23:1-29) Beautiful Psalms praising Jehovah for providing miraculous deliverance (Ps 18, 59, 63, 70) were born out of similar experiences. At En-gedi, Saul entered a cave to ease nature. David, who had been hiding there in the back of the cave, crept up and cut off the skirt of Saul’s garment but spared his life, saying that it was unthinkable on his part to harm the king, “for he is the anointed of Jehovah.”—1Sa 24:1-22. Following Samuel’s death. After Samuel’s death, David, still in a state of exile, took up dwelling in the Wilderness of Paran. (See PARAN.) He and his men extended kindness to Nabal, a wealthy stock raiser whose work was in Carmel, to the S of Hebron, only to be rebuffed by this ingrate. Quick thinking on the part of Nabal’s wife Abigail stayed David’s hand from exterminating the males of the household, but Nabal was stricken by Jehovah and died. Thereupon David married the widow, so that now, in addition to Ahinoam from Jezreel, David had yet another wife, Abigail of Carmel; during David’s long absence, Saul had given Michal to another man.—1Sa 25:1-44; 27:3. For the second time David took refuge in the Wilderness of Ziph, and again the hunt was on. David likened Saul and his 3,000 men to those searching “for a single flea, just as one chases a partridge upon the mountains.” One night David and Abishai crept into the sleeping camp of Saul and made off with his spear and water jug. Abishai wanted to kill Saul, but David spared Saul’s life the second time, saying that, from Jehovah’s viewpoint, it was unthinkable for him to thrust out his hand against God’s anointed one. (1Sa 26:1-25) This occasion was the last time David saw his adversary.
David settled at Ziklag in Philistine territory, out of Saul’s reach for a period of 16 months. A number of mighty men deserted Saul’s forces and joined the exiles at Ziklag, enabling David to raid towns of Israel’s enemies on the S, thus securing Judah’s boundaries and strengthening his future position as king. (1Sa 27:1-12; 1Ch 12:1-7, 19-22) When the Philistines were preparing to assault Saul’s forces, King Achish, thinking David was “a stench among his people Israel,” invited him to go along. However, the other axis lords rejected David as a security risk. (1Sa 29:1-11) In the battle that culminated on Mount Gilboa, Saul and three of his sons, including Jonathan, died.—1Sa 31:1-7.
Meanwhile, the Amalekites robbed and burned out Ziklag, carrying off all the women and children. Immediately David’s forces pursued, overtook the marauders, and recovered their wives and children and all the goods. (1Sa 30:1-31) Three days later an Amalekite brought the diadem and bracelet of Saul, deceitfully boasting that he had put the wounded king to death and hoping to receive a reward. Even though he lied in the matter, David ordered him killed for claiming to have “put the anointed of Jehovah to death.”—2Sa 1:1-16; 1Sa 31:4, 5.
As King. (MAP, Vol. 1, p. 746) The tragic news of Saul’s death grieved David very much. He was not so concerned that his archenemy was dead as he was that the anointed one of Jehovah had fallen. In lamentation, David composed a dirge entitled “The Bow.” In it he bewails how his worst enemy and his best friend had fallen together in battle—“Saul and Jonathan, the lovable ones and the pleasant ones during their life, and in their death they were not separated.”—2Sa 1:17-27.
David now moved to Hebron, where the older men of Judah anointed him as king over their tribe in 1077 B.C.E., when he was 30 years old. Saul’s son Ish-bosheth was made king of the other tribes. About two years later, however, Ish-bosheth was assassinated, his assailants bringing his head to David hoping to receive a reward, but they too were put to death like the pretended killer of Saul. (2Sa 2:1-4, 8-10; 4:5-12) This paved the way for the tribes who had till then supported Saul’s son to join Judah, and in time, a force numbering 340,822 rallied and made David king of all Israel.—2Sa 5:1-3; 1Ch 11:1-3; 12:23-40.
Rule at Jerusalem. David ruled at Hebron seven and a half years before moving his capital, at Jehovah’s direction, to the captured Jebusite stronghold, Jerusalem. There he built the City of David on Zion and continued to rule another 33 years. (2Sa 5:4-10; 1Ch 11:4-9; 2Ch 6:6) While living at Hebron, King David took more wives, had Michal returned, and fathered a number of sons and daughters. (2Sa 3:2-5, 13-16; 1Ch 3:1-4) After moving to Jerusalem, David acquired still more wives and concubines who, in turn, bore him more children.—2Sa 5:13-16; 1Ch 3:5-9; 14:3-7.
When the Philistines heard that David was king of all Israel, they came up to overthrow him. As in the past (1Sa 23:2, 4, 10-12; 30:8), David inquired of Jehovah whether he should go against them. “Go up,” was the answer, and Jehovah burst upon the enemy with such overpowering destruction that David called the place Baal-perazim, meaning “Owner of Breakings Through.” In a return encounter Jehovah’s strategy shifted, and he ordered David to circle around and strike the Philistines from the rear.—2Sa 5:17-25; 1Ch 14:8-17.
David attempted to bring the ark of the covenant to Jerusalem, but this failed when Uzzah touched it and was struck down. (2Sa 6:2-10; 1Ch 13:1-14) Some three months later, with careful preparations, including sanctifying the priests and Levites and making sure the Ark was carried on their shoulders instead of being placed on a wagon as at first, it was brought to Jerusalem. David, simply clad, showed his joy and enthusiasm on this great occasion by “leaping and dancing around before Jehovah.” But his wife Michal chided David, saying he acted “just as one of the empty-headed men.” For this unjustified complaint Michal “came to have no child down to the day of her death.”—2Sa 6:11-23; 1Ch 15:1-29.
David also arranged for expanded worship of Jehovah at the Ark’s new location by assigning gatekeepers and musicians and seeing that there were “burnt offerings . . . constantly morning and evening.” (1Ch 16:1-6, 37-43) In addition, David thought of building a temple-palace of cedar to house the Ark, to replace its tent. But David was not permitted to build the house, for God said: “Blood in great quantity you have spilled, and great wars you have waged. You will not build a house to my name, for a great deal of blood you have spilled on the earth before me.” (1Ch 22:8; 28:3) However, Jehovah made a covenant with him promising that the kingship would everlastingly remain in his family, and in connection with this covenant God assured him that his son Solomon, whose name is from a root meaning “peace,” would build the temple.—2Sa 7:1-16, 25-29; 1Ch 17:1-27; 2Ch 6:7-9; Ps 89:3, 4, 35, 36.
It was therefore in line with this kingdom covenant that Jehovah permitted David to expand his territorial rule from the river of Egypt to the Euphrates, securing his borders, maintaining peace with the king of Tyre, battling and conquering opponents on all sides—Philistines, Syrians, Moabites, Edomites, Amalekites, and Ammonites. (2Sa 8:1-14; 10:6-19; 1Ki 5:3; 1Ch 13:5; 14:1, 2; 18:1–20:8) These God-given victories made David a most powerful ruler. (1Ch 14:17) However, David was always conscious that this position was not his by conquest or inheritance but that it was from Jehovah, who had placed him on the throne of this typical theocracy.—1Ch 10:14; 29:10-13.
Sins bring calamity. During the continued campaign against the Ammonites, one of the saddest episodes of David’s life occurred. It all began when the king, upon observing from his rooftop beautiful Bath-sheba bathing herself, entertained wrong desires. (Jas 1:14, 15) After learning that her husband Uriah was off to war, David had the woman brought to his palace, where he had relations with her. In time the king was notified that she was pregnant. No doubt fearing that Bath-sheba would be publicly exposed and put to death for immoral conduct, David quickly sent word to the army that Uriah should report to him in Jerusalem, with the hope that Uriah would spend the night with his wife. But even though David got him drunk, Uriah refused to sleep with Bath-sheba. In desperation, David sent him back to the army with secret instructions to the commander Joab to have Uriah put in the front lines, where he would surely be killed. The scheme worked. Uriah died in battle, his widow observed the customary period of mourning, and then David married the widow before the townspeople were aware of her pregnancy.—2Sa 11:1-27.
Jehovah was watching, however, and uncovered the whole reprehensible matter. If Jehovah had permitted the case involving David and Bath-sheba to be handled by human judges under the Mosaic Law, both of the wrongdoers would have been put to death, and of course, the unborn offspring of their adultery would have died with the mother. (De 5:18; 22:22) However, Jehovah dealt with the case himself and showed mercy to David because of the Kingdom covenant (2Sa 7:11-16), no doubt because David himself had shown mercy (1Sa 24:4-7; compare Jas 2:13) and because of repentance that God observed on the part of the wrongdoers. (Ps 51:1-4) But they did not escape all punishment. By the mouth of the prophet Nathan, Jehovah pronounced: “Here I am raising up against you calamity out of your own house.”—2Sa 12:1-12.
And so it proved to be. The adulterine child born to Bath-sheba soon died, even though David fasted and mourned over the sick child for seven days. (2Sa 12:15-23) Then David’s firstborn son Amnon raped his own half sister Tamar, and he was subsequently murdered by her brother, to the grief of his father. (2Sa 13:1-33) Later, Absalom, the third and beloved son of David, not only attempted to usurp the throne but openly despised and publicly disgraced his father by having relations with David’s concubines. (2Sa 15:1–16:22) Finally, the humiliation reached its peak when civil war plunged the country into a struggle of son against father, ending in Absalom’s death, contrary to the wishes of David and much to his grief. (2Sa 17:1–18:33) During his flight from Absalom, David composed Psalm 3, in which he says, “Salvation belongs to Jehovah.”—Ps 3:8.
But for all his faults and gross sins, David always showed the right heart condition by repenting and begging Jehovah’s forgiveness. This was demonstrated in the affair involving Bath-sheba, after which David wrote Psalm 51, stating, “With error I was brought forth . . . in sin my mother conceived me.” (Ps 51:5) Another instance when David humbly confessed his sins was when Satan incited him to take a census of the men qualified for the military forces.—2Sa 24:1-17; 1Ch 21:1-17; 27:24;
Purchase of temple site. When the pestilence that resulted from the king’s error in this last instance was stopped, David purchased the threshing floor of Ornan and, as a sacrifice to Jehovah, offered up the cattle with the sledge used for the threshing. It was on this site that Solomon later built the magnificent temple. (2Sa 24:18-25; 1Ch 21:18-30; 2Ch 3:1) David always had it in his heart to build that temple, and though not permitted to do so, he was allowed to set a great task force to hewing stones and gathering materials that included 100,000 talents of gold ($38,535,000,000) and 1,000,000 talents of silver ($6,606,000,000), and copper and iron without measure. (1Ch 22:2-16) Out of his personal fortune David contributed gold of Ophir and refined silver valued at more than $1,202,000,000. David also provided the architectural plans, received by inspiration, and organized the tens of thousands of Levites into their many divisions of service, including a great chorus of singers and musicians.—1Ch 23:1–29:19; 2Ch 8:14; 23:18; 29:25; Ezr 3:10.
End of reign. In the closing days of David’s life, the 70-year-old king, now confined to his bed, continued to reap calamity within his family. His fourth son, Adonijah, without the knowledge or consent of his father and, more seriously, without Jehovah’s approval, attempted to set himself up as king. When this news reached David, he moved quickly to have his son Solomon, Jehovah’s choice, officially installed as king and sit upon the throne. (1Ki 1:5-48; 1Ch 28:5; 29:20-25; 2Ch 1:8) David then counseled Solomon to walk in Jehovah’s ways, keep his statutes and commandments, act prudently in everything, and then he would prosper.—1Ki 2:1-9.
40 years king
1 Notes King David: King David Old Testament Warrior
King David is Considered the Greatest King of Israel, and a Man After Gods Own Heart
Brave Young David Slays the Giant So much has been written about David, the man after God's own heart. This brief piece cannot begin to adequately cover the entire life of David, but will cite a few highlights of his reign as king.
David was anointed by the prophet Samuel to be king but did not officially begin his reign until after the death of King Saul. Upon Saul's death, Abner, the captain of Saul's army, made Saul's son, Ishbosheth, king over Israel, but the house of Judah followed David. There was continued conflict between the house of Saul and the house of David, but David grew stronger and the house of Saul became weaker.
After both Abner and Ishbosheth were murdered, all the elders of Israel came to David at Hebron and anointed him as king when he was 30 years old. It was seven years later that David and his men went to the city of Jebus. The people of Jebus said to David, “You shall not come in here!” But David took the city which came to be known as Jerusalem, the stronghold of Zion, the City of David. From here, he reigned an additional 33 years. During David's reign, he defeated the Philistines, the Moabites, the Syrians, the Edomites and the Ammonites, subduing Israel's enemies. Israel's boundaries extended over both sides of the Jordan River, and as far as the Mediterranean Sea.
When David decided to bring the Ark of the Covenant to Jerusalem, his first attempt failed, quickly ending with Uzza's death. When David realized that only Levites were to transport the ark, he made the appropriate corrections. His second attempt was a success, complete with a magnificent celebration with singers, musicians, and offerings.
After bringing the Ark back to Jerusalem, David realized that the Ark sat in a tent while he had a palace. So David consulted with Nathan the prophet about his desire to build a temple for God. At first, Nathan told David to do all that was in his heart. But that night God told Nathan to tell David that he would not be the one to build the temple, but that it would be his son instead.
David's preparations for the temple were extensive and he generously gave of his personal wealth: 100,000 talents or approximately 3,750 tons of gold, a million talents or approximately 37,500 tons of silver, several tons of bronze and iron, and hewn stones. He also had massive amounts of cedar logs imported and stored. When the time came for Solomon to supervise the construction, he was well supplied.
Despite his successes, David's carelessness with Bathsheba was a dreadful error that set in motion a series of heartrending consequences in David's personal life. But by God's grace, David and Bathsheba's second-born son was Solomon, continuing the line that led to Jesus Christ. In comparison to modern-day national leaders, who deceitfully cover their indiscretions, David's immediate humility, honesty and admission of sin pleased God. David didn't excuse or justify his actions, but confessed his wrongdoing, and faced the consequences like a man.
Personal problems continued for David when his son, Amnon, raped his half-sister, Tamar. In revenge, David's son, Absalom, who was also Tamar's brother, killed Amnon then fled the city. He later returned and began rallying the support of 200 men with the intention of rebelling against David and taking over his kingdom. David left Jerusalem, fearing his life. When Absalom arrived in Jerusalem, he took over the city and shamelessly slept with David's concubines who had been left in the palace. But David's soldiers killed 20,000 of Absalom's soldiers, and killed Absalom as well.
David then returned to Jerusalem, though he grieved deeply over the death of his son. In David's old age, his oldest son, Adonijah, declared himself king, but David publicly anointed Solomon. Though Solomon initially pardoned Adonijah, after David's death Solomon had him executed for conspiracy.
David unified Israel and built the military, treasury and national dignity to an unparalleled height. He conquered all surrounding enemies and established an empire that was so powerful that his son Solomon never had to fight a war. Of all the kings, there was none like David, to whom the Lord promised that “David shall never lack a man to sit on the throne of the house of Israel.” (Jeremiah 33:17) David was a versatile man who enjoyed and also suffered a multiplicity of life's experiences, but in the end was the most beloved king of all time.
Now these are the last words of David. “He who rules over men must be just, ruling in the fear of God. And he shall be like the light of the morning when the sun rises, a morning without clouds, like the tender grass springing out of the earth, by clear shining after rain.”
(1 Samuel 16 - 31; 2 Samuel 1 - 24; 1 Kings 1:1 - 2:11; 1 Chronicles 11 - 29)
2 Notes King David:
The United Jewish Kingdom David Crowned In Hebron
After the death of Saul, David thought the time had come for him to emerge from exile and take over the leadership of his people. He left Ziklag and proceeded to the ancient city of Hebron in Judah. There the people of Judah gathered and anointed him king. In the prime and vigor of his life (he was then thirty years old), wise in council, prompt in action, G-d-fearing and earnest, he seemed to all men best fitted to be king in those troubled times. He was the warrior king, the poet, and at times the priest.
David was surrounded by a band of valiant heroes who had long shared his adventurous exploits. Chief among his followers, bravest of his captains, was Joab, his kinsman, son of his sister Zeruiah. Joab had two brothers, Abishai and Asahel. The former was renowned for his fiery courage, and had slain three hundred Philistines with his own hands; the latter was "as swift of foot as the wild gazelle."
There are mentioned by name many other heroes, who accomplished wonderful feats of boldness. One of these adventures affords a touching proof of the feeling of strong attachment with which David had inspired his followers. At one time when war was being waged with the Philistines, he was hidden with his men near Adullam, while his enemies were encamped at Beth-Lehem. Tormented with thirst and wearied by the scorching rays of the sun, he longed for some water from his own pure well at Beth-Lehem. Eager to do his bidding at the peril of their lives, three of his most courageous men fought their way through the Philistine host and returned with the longed-for draught. David, though praising their heroism and devotion, would not taste the water they had obtained by risking their own life-blood, and poured it out as an offering to G-d. It was with the aid of followers so resolute and so undaunted that David might well hope to establish the new kingdom, and to become the protector of his people.
He began his rule by a graceful act. He sent his greeting to the men of Jabesh in Gilead, thanked them for burying the bodies of Saul and his sons, and promised them his assistance whenever they should need it.
In the meantime, Abner, the commander of Saul's army and his ever faithful follower, was determined that the sceptre should not depart from the house of Saul, and proclaimed Ishbosheth king over Israel. But considering him unsafe so near the land of Judah, Abner went with him to the old town of Mahanaim, east of the Jordan, where the prince took up his temporary residence; Abner himself soon returned to the province of Benjamin, and remained in Gibeon at the head of the army. Soon he was met there by Joab, captain of David's soldiers. A battle ensued, in which many of Abner's soldiers were slain. As this chief himself turned and fled, he was boldly pursued by the fleet-footed Asahel.
Abner knew the young Asahel was no match for him, and begged Asahel to avoid a hand-to-hand combat with him; but the youth heard this advice with disdain. Again in the heat of pursuit, Abner repeated his request, and again it was tauntingly rejected. At last Abner, to save his honor, felt obliged to take up the challenge. The next moment Asahel lay dead, easily slain by Abner. Enraged at the sad untimely end of their brother, Joab and Abishai carried on the pursuit. .At last Abner made a personal appeal to Joab to stop the bloodshed. Joab was moved; he commanded his men to leave off fighting, and both generals parted that day apparently reconciled. Yet the feeling of revenge was not extinguished in the heart of Joab. After burying his brother in Beth-Lehem, he returned with his men to Hebron, while Abner and his soldiers passed safely over the Jordan, and joined their master in Mahanaim.
This reconciliation did not last long, and frequent clashes between the two parties occurred from time to time. David was as yet too weak to stop the powerful and popular Joab from continuing his feud with Abner.
Abner Swears Allegiance to David
At last, Abner could not help being convinced that the whole land would ere long acknowledge David, who alone was able to lead and shield the people.
He spoke with the elders of Israel and showed them the utter hopelessness of the struggle. He then sent messengers to David at Hebron, and offered him his alliance. Sincere in his proffered loyalty to David, Abner proceeded to Hebron fearlessly, accompanied by no more than twenty men. He was kindly received by David, and a feast was prepared for him and his followers. He finally left Hebron in peace, promising David to win over all Israel to him.
At the time of Abner's visit to Hebron, Joab was absent on a military expedition. When he returned victorious and laden with spoil and heard what had happened meanwhile, he upbraided the king for having given his old enemy a friendly reception and allowed him to leave Hebron unhurt. Without David's knowledge, he secretly sent messengers to entice Abner back into the town. At the gates of the city he ambushed the unsuspecting general and killed him to avenge the death of his brother Asahel. David heard of this act of treachery with horror. Addressing the people, he declared himself guiltless of Abner's blood, and lamented the death of the brave Abner with these words: "A chief and great man is fallen in Israel."
Soon afterwards, the feeble Ishbosheth was murdered by two treacherous Benjaminites. The perpetrators of the deed brought their master's head in triumph to David, who, revolted at the crime, ordered them to be put to death. David then interred the head of his slain rival in the vault of Abner. Ishbosheth's sad rule, if rule it could be called, had lasted two years.
David's Coronation in Hebron
David was now the acknowledged king over all Israel. His fine character, his honesty, selflessness, and piety, had won him the hearts of all his people. What a difference there was between the Jewish monarch and the heathen kings of his time!
The people swarmed to Hebron to pay homage to their beloved king and to anoint him publicly. The occasion turned into a great national celebration that lasted for three days. Present also were three thousand warriors who were formerly the body guard of King Ishbosheth and hosts of other warriors as well as scholars, all of whom pledged their allegiance to David.
Capture of Jerusalem
For seven years and six months David had lived and reigned in Hebron. Now that the people were all united under his blessed rule, David decided to move his residence to Jerusalem, where the Holy Temple was destined to be. Jerusalem lay on the border between Judah and Benjamin, and this fact would serve to further cement the friendship between the two sections of the people. Jerusalem was partly held by the Jebusites, for only the people of Judah had succeeded in wresting their share of the city from the heathens. The Jebusites held the citadel. The inhabitants felt so secure, however, at the approach of David and his army, that they contemptuously manned the walls with the blind and the lame. But David had set his heart upon winning the citadel of Zion; he commanded the rocks to be scaled and incited his warriors by promising high military distinction to him who should first enter the stronghold. Joab performed this feat of valor; Jerusalem was taken, and David made it his royal residence. The fortress grew into a large city; it was gradually extended, and its walls were strengthened. The fame of this new capital spread far and wide; it reached Hiram, the king of Tyre, who sent skilled workmen and the wood of his much prized cedar trees for the building of a palace.
Other neighboring peoples, however, began to fear the new united Jewish kingdom and sought to destroy it. Among them were Israel's old enemies, the Philistines, who set out to attack them again. But David marched out to meet their army, defeated it repeatedly, and pursued the fugitives northward as far as Gezer.
After the destruction of Nob, the city of priests, the spiritual center had moved to Gibeon. The Holy Tabernacle and most of its sacred vessels were there. However, the Holy Ark containing the Tablets had for many years been left in Kiryath-Jearim, in the house of Abinadab. David now determined to hallow Jerusalem by the presence of the Holy Ark, and to make this city the spiritual center of Israel. So he marched out with thirty thousand chosen men of Israel, took the Ark from the house of Abinadab, and placed it in a new cart led by Uzzah and Ahio, Abinadab's sons. But the solemn occasion was marred by a sad incident. The Holy Ark had to be borne only on the shoulders of priests, and no laymen were permitted to touch the Ark. Now as the procession marched along, the oxen broke away from the cart, and Uzzah placed his hand on the Ark to protect it. For this disregard of the Law he was punished with instantaneous death. David and the people paused, afraid of the holiness of the Ark. The king then caused it to be brought into the house of Obed-edom, the Gittite, who lived near at hand. There it was left for three months, during which time G-d's blessing descended upon Obed-Edom and his whole family. Thereby encouraged, David resumed his former intention of bringing the Ark into his own city of Jerusalem, and he made great preparations for its appropriate reception. This time the Ark was not entrusted to a cart and oxen; instead, it was borne aloft upon the shoulders of chosen men. Singers and musicians of every kind followed in a long train, whilst before the Ark went David, dressed as a priest in a linen ephod, singing and dancing. At frequent intervals the procession stopped in order to offer solemn sacrifices to G-d. A shout of delight rang from the walls of Jerusalem as the holy Ark was borne into the 'city. It was carried to the Tabernacle, which now became truly the Sanctuary of the nation.
One last wish was now uppermost in David's heart; the city of Jerusalem yet wanted a Temple, where the Ark of G-d, no more enclosed in a movable tent, would rest worthily enshrined. But G-d declared His will, namely, that the building of the Temple should not be undertaken by David, but rather by his son and successor, whose peaceful reign would be unstained by bloodshed. At the same time G-d repeated the most glorious promise of help and favor to David and his posterity forever.
If he was not to build the Holy Temple, David decided that he would at least make the preparations for its construction. Together with the Sanhedrin, the Highest Court in Israel, David worked out the plans for the construction of the Temple and began to store away the necessary building material, gold, silver, bronze, and precious stones, so that nothing would be lacking for the great and sacred edifice that was to be the pride of Israel.
Ralph Ellis alleges that this David is Psusennes II.
Acerca de King David of Israel / דוד המלך (Español)
Vinieron todas las tribus de Israel a David en Hebrón y hablaron, diciendo: Henos aquí, hueso tuyo y carne tuya somos. Y aun antes de ahora, cuando Saúl reinaba sobre nosotros, eras tú quien sacabas a Israel a la guerra, y lo volvías a traer. Además Jehová te ha dicho: Tú apacentarás a mi pueblo Israel, y tú serás príncipe sobre Israel. Vinieron, pues, todos los ancianos de Israel al rey de Hebrón, y el rey David hizo pacto con ellos en Hebrón delante de Jehová; y ungieron a David por rey sobre Israel. Era David de treinta años cuando comenzó a reinar, y reinó cuarenta años. En Hebrón reinó sobre Judá siete años y seis meses, y en Jerusalén reinó treinta y tres años sobre todo Israel y Judá. . . Aconteció que cuando ya el rey habitaba en su casa, después que Jehová le había dado reposo de todos sus enemigos en derredor, dijo el rey al profeta Natán: Mira ahora, yo habito en casa de cedro, y el arca de Dios está entre cortinas. Y Natán dijo al rey: Anda, y haz todo lo que está en tu corazón, porque Jehová está contigo. Aconteció aquella noche, que vino palabra de Jehová a Natán, diciendo: Vé y dí a mi siervo David: Así ha dicho Jehová: ¿Tú me has de edificar casa en que yo more? Ciertamente no he habitado en casas desde el día en que saqué a Israel de Egipto hasta hoy, sino que he andado en tienda y en tabernáculo. . . (y he dicho en alguna ocasión) ¿por qué no me habéis edificado casa de cedro? . . . yo fijaré lugar a mi pueblo y lo plantaré, para que habite en su lugar y nunca más sea removido, ni los inicuos le aflijan más, como al principio. . . Y cuando tus días sean cumplidos, y duermas con tus padres, yo levantaré después de ti a uno de tu linaje, el cual procederá de tus entrañas, y afirmaré su reino. Él edificará casa a mi nombre, y yo afirmaré para siempre el trono de su reino . . . Y será afirmada tu casa y tu reino para siempre delante de tu rostro, y tu trono será estable eternamente. . . Y prosperó David y fue un gran rey sobre los hijos de Israel y sobre Judá. . . Y durmió David con sus padres, y fue sepultado en su ciudad. Los días que reinó David sobre Israel fueron cuarenta años; siete años reinó en Hebrón, y treinta y tres años reinó en Jerusalén. Y se sentó Salomón en el trono de David su padre, y su reino fue firme en gran manera. 2 Samuel, capítulos 5-24; 1 Reyes, capítulo primero; 1 Reyes 2:1-12.
Isikust Kuningas Taavet (eesti)
King David (דוד, داوُود ) c. 1040–970 BCE,
18 Ja need on Peretsi järeltulijad: Peretsile sündis Hesron; 19 Hesronile sündis Raam ja Raamile sündis Amminadab; 20 Amminadabile sündis Nahson ja Nahsonile sündis Salma; 21 Salmale sündis Boas ja Boasele sündis Oobed; 22 Oobedile sündis Iisai ja Iisaile sündis Taavet. (Rt 4:18-22)
Foi um rei popular e o homem mais vezes mencionado na Bíblia. Ele foi o oitavo e o mais novo filho de Jessé, um habitante de Belém. O seu pai parece ter sido um homem de situação modesta. O nome da sua mãe não se encontra registrado, mas alguns pensam que ela era a Nahash. Quanto à sua aparência pessoal, sabe-se apenas que ele tinha cabelos ruivos, formoso semblante e gentil aparência.
Na narrativa bíblica ele aparece inicialmente como tocador de harpa na corte de Saul e ganha notoriedade ao matar em combate o gigante guerreiro filisteu Golias, ganhando o direito de casar com a filha do rei Saul e a isenção de impostos. Depois da morte de Saul, Davi governou a tribo de Judá, enquanto o filho de Saul, Isboset, governou o resto de Israel. Com a morte de Isboset, Davi foi escolhido o rei de toda Israel e seu reinado marca uma mudança na realidade dos judeus: de uma confederação de tribos, transformou-se em uma nação estabelecida. Ele transferiu a capital de Hebron para Jerusalém, após conquistá-la, pois esta não tinha nenhuma lealdade tribal anterior, e tornou-a o centro religioso dos israelitas, trazendo consigo a Arca Sagrada (seu mais sagrado objeto).
Expandiu os territórios sobre os quais governou e trouxe prosperidade a Israel. Seus últimos anos foram abalados por rebeliões lideradas por seus filhos e rivalidades familiares na corte. Ele é tradicionalmente visto como o autor do livro dos Salmos, mas apenas uma parte é considerada seu trabalho.
Foi concedido por Deus, de acordo com a Bíblia, que a monarquia israelita e judaica iria certamente vir da sua linha de descendentes. O Judaísmo Ortodoxo acredita que o Messias será um descendente do Rei David. O Novo Testamento qualifica Jesus como descendente de David. Porém é certo que Jose esposo de Maria era descendente de Davi, porém como a historia diz Maria ficou gravida do Espirito Santo logo Jesus não descende de Davi.
Foi ungido rei pelo profeta Samuel ainda durante o reinado de Saul, causando ciúmes de sua parte. Por isto David se exilou por um tempo ( pois confiava em Deus, e não tinha o direito de tocar no ungido do Senhor)
Foi durante seu reinado que Jerusalém foi capturada dos jebusitas, tornando-se capital do reino de Israel.
Foi sucedido por seu filho, Salomão, que foi responsável pelo início da decadência do reino.
King David of Israel / דוד המלך's Timeline
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