Patriarch Jacob

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Jacob .

Hebrew: יעקב אבינו, Arabic: يَعْقُوب, Estonian: Jaakob, Bosnian: Rahela, German: Des Sicambred des Francs, Greek, Ancient: Ιάκωβος
Also Known As: "Ya'quob", "Yaakov", "Yakob", "Israel", "Jacob", "Jacob "Israel" Ben Issac", "Twin"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Syria (Syrian Arab Republic)
Death: -1744 (147-149)
Rameses, Goshen, Egypt (Old Age)
Place of Burial: Hebron, Israel
Immediate Family:

Son of Patriarch Isaac / יצחק אבינו and Matriarch Rebecca / רבקה אמנו
Husband of Matriarch Leah / לאה אמנו; Matriarch Rachel / רחל אמנו; Bilhah . and Zilpah / זלפה
Father of Imran; Reuben .; Simeon .; Levi .; Judah . and 9 others
Brother of Esau / Edom / עשו / אדום
Half brother of (No Name)

Occupation: Forefather, Shepeard / One of the three primary ancestors of Israel.
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Patriarch Jacob

Profile image of Jacob (?)

Esau Sells Jacob the Right of Seniority for a Bowl of Lentils 1653 Oil on canvas, 109 x 137 cm Muzeum £azienki Królewskie, Warsaw

He was born when his father was fifty-nine and Abraham one hundred and fifty-nine years old (probably at Lahai-Roi). Like his father, he was of a quiet and gentle disposition, and when he grew up followed the life of a shepherd, while his brother Esau became an enterprising hunter. His dealing with Esau, however, showed much mean selfishness and cunning (Gen. 25:29-34). When Isaac was about 160 years of age, Jacob and his mother conspired to deceive the aged patriarch (Gen. 27), with the view of procuring the transfer of the birthright to himself. The birthright secured to him who possessed it (1) superior rank in his family (Gen. 49:3); (2) a double portion of the paternal inheritance (Deut. 21:17); (3) the priestly office in the family (Num. 8:17-19); and (4) the promise of the Seed in which all nations of the earth were to be blessed (Gen. 22:18). Soon after his acquisition of his father's blessing (Gen. 27), Jacob became conscious of his guilt; and afraid of the anger of Esau, at the suggestion of Rebekah, Isaac sent him away to Haran, 400 miles or more, to find a wife among his cousins, the family of Laban, the Syrian (28). There he met with Rachel (29). Laban would not consent to give him his daughter in marriage till he had served seven years; but to Jacob these years "seemed but a few days, for the love he had to her." But when the seven years were expired, Laban craftily deceived Jacob, and gave him his daughter Leah. Other seven years of service had to be completed probably before he obtained the beloved Rachel. But "life-long sorrow, disgrace, and trials, in the retributive providence of God, followed as a consequence of this double union." At the close of the fourteen years of service, Jacob desired to return to his parents, but at the entreaty of Laban he tarried yet six years with him, tending his flocks (31:41). He then set out with his family and property "to go to Isaac his father in the land of Canaan" (Gen. 31). Laban was angry when he heard that Jacob had set out on his journey, and pursued after him, overtaking him in seven days. The meeting was of a painful kind. After much recrimination and reproach directed against Jacob, Laban is at length pacified, and taking an affectionate farewell of his daughters, returns to his home in Padanaram. And now all connection of the Israelites with Mesopotamia is at an end. Soon after parting with Laban he is met by a company of angels, as if to greet him on his return and welcome him back to the Land of Promise (32:1, 2). He called the name of the place Mahanaim, i.e., "the double camp," probably his own camp and that of the angels. The vision of angels was the counterpart of that he had formerly seen at Bethel, when, twenty years before, the weary, solitary traveler, on his way to Padan-aram, saw the angels of God ascending and descending on the ladder whose top reached to heaven (28:12). He now hears with dismay of the approach of his brother Esau with a band of 400 men to meet him. In great agony of mind he prepares for the worst. He feels that he must now depend only on God, and he betakes himself to him in earnest prayer, and sends on before him a munificent present to Esau, "a present to my lord Esau from thy servant Jacob." Jacob's family were then transported across the Jabbok; but he himself remained behind, spending the night in communion with God. While thus engaged, there appeared one in the form of a man who wrestled with him. In this mysterious contest Jacob prevailed, and as a memorial of it his name was changed to Israel (wrestler with God); and the place where this occurred he called Peniel, "for", said he, "I have seen God face to face, and my life is preserved" (32:25-31). After this anxious night, Jacob went on his way, halting, mysteriously weakened by the conflict, but strong in the assurance of the divine favour. Esau came forth and met him; but his spirit of revenge was appeased, and the brothers met as friends, and during the remainder of their lives they maintained friendly relations. After a brief sojourn at Succoth, Jacob moved forward and pitched his tent near Shechem (q.v.), 33:18; but at length, under divine directions, he moved to Bethel, where he made an altar unto God (35:6,7), and where God appeared to him and renewed the Abrahamic covenant. While journeying from Bethel to Ephrath (the Canaanitish name of Bethlehem), Rachel died in giving birth to her second son Benjamin (35:16-20), fifteen or sixteen years after the birth of Joseph. He then reached the old family residence at Mamre, to wait on the dying bed of his father Isaac. The complete reconciliation between Esau and Jacob was shown by their uniting in the burial of the patriarch (35:27-29). Jacob was soon after this deeply grieved by the loss of his beloved son Joseph through the jealousy of his brothers (37:33). Then follows the story of the famine, and the successive goings down into Egypt to buy corn (42), which led to the discovery of the long-lost Joseph, and the patriarch's going down with all his household, numbering about seventy souls (Ex. 1:5; Deut. 10:22; Acts 7:14), to sojourn in the land of Goshen. Here Jacob, "after being strangely tossed about on a very rough ocean, found at last a tranquil harbour, where all the best affections of his nature were gently exercised and largely unfolded" (Gen. 48). At length the end of his checkered course draws nigh, and he summons his sons to his bedside that he may bless them. Among his last words he repeats the story of Rachel's death, although forty years had passed away since that event took place, as tenderly as if it had happened only yesterday; and when "he had made an end of charging his sons, he gathered up his feet into the bed, and yielded up the ghost" (49:33). His body was embalmed and carried with great pomp into the land of Canaan, and buried beside his wife Leah in the cave of Machpelah, according to his dying charge. There, probably, his embalmed body remains to this day (50:1-13). (See HEBRON ¯T0001712.) The history of Jacob is referred to by the prophets Hosea (12:3, 4, 12) and Malachi (1:2). In Micah 1:5 the name is a poetic synonym for Israel, the kingdom of the ten tribes. There are, besides the mention of his name along with those of the other patriarchs, distinct references to events of his life in Paul's epistles (Rom. 9:11-13; Heb. 12:16; 11:21). See references to his vision at Bethel and his possession of land at Shechem in John 1:51; 4:5, 12; also to the famine which was the occasion of his going down into Egypt in Acts 7:12 (See LUZ ¯T0002335; BETHEL ¯T0000554.)


Genesis35 Jacob Is Named Israel

9Then God appeared to Jacob again when he came from Paddan-aram, and He blessed him.
10God said to him,
        "Your name is Jacob;
        You shall no longer be called Jacob,
        But Israel shall be your name."
        Thus He called him Israel.
11God also said to him,
        "I am God Almighty;
        Be fruitful and multiply;
        A nation and a company of nations shall come from you,
        And kings shall come forth from you.
   12"The land which I gave to Abraham and Isaac,
        I will give it to you,
        And I will give the land to your descendants after you."

Genesis 35 The Sons of Israel Now there were twelve sons of Jacob--

23the sons of Leah: Reuben, Jacob's firstborn, then Simeon and Levi and Judah and Issachar and Zebulun;
24the sons of Rachel: Joseph and Benjamin;
25and the sons of Bilhah, Rachel's maid: Dan and Naphtali;
26and the sons of Zilpah, Leah's maid: Gad and Asher. These are the sons of Jacob who were born to him in Paddan-aram.

Jacob nació con una mano agarrada del talón de su hermano mellizo Esaú; por tal razón le llamaron Jacob. (Gén. 25:26). En hebreo, Jacob tiene un sonido parecido a “talón”, y también está relacionado con el verbo “suplantar” o “hacer trampa”. . . Ésto se hace evidente en el capítulo 27 de Génesis cuando Jacob se roba la bendición que le pertenecía a su hermano, ayudado por el subterfugio de su madre! . . . Isaac ya era muy viejo, y estaba ciego, cuando manda a llamar a Esaú y le pide que le traiga un animal del campo y que lo prepare para que él pueda comer y bendecirle. Pero Rebeca estaba oyendo, y cuando Esaú salió, ella le relata a Jacob lo que había oído y lo insta para que le lleve unos carneritos y ella misma preparárselos a su esposo; y, de esa manera, hacer que Jacob, su preferido, suplante a su hermano mayor y se lleve la bendición de su padre antes de que él muera. De esa forma, Jacob, ayudado por su madre, logra robarse la bendición que, por derecho, le pertenecía a Esaú. (Gén. 27:1-40). Y entonces huye del enojo de su hermano y se dirige a Harán a casa de Labán, hermano de su madre Rebeca. (Gén. 27:41-45). . .Dios, ahora, le hace la misma promesa que le hizo a su padre y abuelo. (Gén. 28:10-15). . . En casa de labán, después de haberle trabajado por 14 años, toma por esposas a sus dos hijas. (Gén. 29:16-28). . . Cuando la familia de Jacob llegó a Egipto huyendo de la hambruna de su tierra eran 66, sin contar las esposas de sus hijos, los hijos de José eran dos, que nacieron en Egipto. Así que a Egipto llegaron 70 personas de la familia de Jacob. (Gén. 46:26-27).


aka Israel (Yisrael, eponym af Israel), aka Jacob ben ISAAC den semit alias Yaqub; poss. identificeret med Horus, qv, tilranede trone fra sin tvillingebror Esau; poss. aka Yaqaru (King) i Ugarit, aka Jakob YISRA'EL

Poss. Jullus i Roms 9-oldefar.

HM George I s 97-oldefar.
HRE Ferdinand I s 93-oldefar. 

Osawatomie 'Browns 103-oldefar.


Wives / Partnere:       Leah (Lia) bint Laban   ,   Rachel bint Laban   ,   Zilpas, Tjenerinde   ,   Bilha, Tjenerinde 
 Børn:       Levi ibn JACOB   ,   Juda (Judas Juda) ibn JACOB   ,   (NN) ... (NN) Judas   ,   Joseph ben JACOB   ,   Dinah (Dina)   ,   Asher (Aser) ibn JACOB   ,   Gad ibn JACOB   ,   Naftali ibn JACOB   ,   Benjamin (Benoni) ibn JACOB   ,   Zebulum ibn JACOB   ,   Issakar ibn JACOB   ,   Simeon (Shim'on ) ibn JACOB   ,   Reuben (Ruben) ibn JACOB   ,   Dan ibn JACOB

--

Mulig Barn:       Barayah (bas JACOB?) 
 Alternativ Father of Mulig Barn:       Levi ibn JACOB

--- Fra http://fabpedigree.com/s032/f008888.htm


http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=royals&id=I60659

Israel or Jacob 1837-1690 B.C. Twin to Esau. m. Rachel m.(2) Keturah. 1 Chr. 1:34. Jacob or Israel (identified with Cronos and Saturn of Crete by Sanchoniatho, an ancient Phoneician author, who writes of "Kronos, whom the Phoenicians call Israel.' Kronos (Saturn) had a special son Jehurd (cf. Judah and Jupiter). "Baetylos, the Stone swallowed by Kronos, the sacred stone of Zeus," corresponds to "Bethel-El, the Stone carried by Israel." See "Ancient Fragments of Sanchoniatho, etc.," by L.P. Cory. Brit. Mus. 800 g. 10) quoted by Milner: The Royal House of Britain" pp. 12-13.


Nabi Ya'kub A.S. atau Israil. Kembar 'Isho. Menurunkan Bani Israil (Yahudi).
Jacob (later given the name Israel) is considered a patriarch of the Israelites. According to the Book of Genesis, Jacob (/ˈdʒeɪkəb/; Hebrew: יַעֲקֹב Standard Yaʿakov[1]) was the third Hebrew progenitor with whom God made a covenant.

In the Hebrew Bible, he is the son of Isaac and Rebekah, the grandson of Abraham, Sarah and of Bethuel, and the younger twin brother of Esau. Jacob had twelve sons and at least one daughter, by his two wives, Leah and Rachel, and by their handmaidens Bilhah and Zilpah. The children named in Genesis were Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Dan, Naphtali, Gad, Asher, Issachar, Zebulun, daughter Dinah, Joseph, and Benjamin.[2]

Before the birth of Benjamin, Jacob is renamed Israel by God (Genesis 32:28-29 and 35:10). Etymologically, it has been suggested that the name "Israel" comes from the Hebrew words לִשְׂרות (lisrot, "wrestle") and אֵל (El, "God").[3] Popular English translations typically reference the face off with God, ranging from active "wrestles with God" to passive "God contends",[4][5] but various other meanings have also been suggested. Some commentators say the name comes from the verb śārar ("to rule, be strong, have authority over"), thereby making the name mean "God rules" or "God judges";[6] or "the prince of God" (from the King James Version) or "El (God) fights/struggles".[7]

His original name Ya'akov is sometimes explained as having meant "holder of the heel" or "supplanter", because he was born holding his twin brother Esau's heel, and eventually supplanted Esau in obtaining their father Isaac's blessing. Other scholars speculate that the name is derived from a longer form such as יַעֲקֹבְאֵל (Ya'aqov'el) meaning "may God protect".

Jacob's Dream statue and display on the campus of Abilene Christian University. The artwork is based on Genesis 28:10-22 and graphically represents the scenes alluded to in the hymn "Nearer, My God, to Thee" and the spiritual "We Are Climbing Jacob's Ladder" as well as other musical works. As a result of a severe drought in Canaan, Jacob and his sons moved to Egypt at the time when his son Joseph was viceroy. After Jacob died there 17 years later, Joseph carried Jacob's remains to the land of Canaan, and gave him a stately burial in the same Cave of Machpelah as were buried Abraham, Sarah, Isaac, Rebekah, and Jacob's first wife, Leah.

Jacob figures in a number of sacred scriptures, including the Hebrew Bible, the Talmud, the New Testament, the Qur'an, and Bahá'í scripture.[8]

Jacob's ladder[edit] Main article: Jacob's Ladder

Jacob's Ladder by William Blake (c. 1800, British Museum, London) Near Luz en route to Haran, Jacob experienced a vision of a ladder, or staircase, reaching into heaven with angels going up and down it, commonly referred to as "Jacob's ladder". He heard the voice of God, who repeated many of the blessings upon him, coming from the top of the ladder.

According to Rashi, the ladder signified the exiles that the Jewish people would suffer before the coming of the Jewish Messiah: the angels that represented the exiles of Babylonia, Persia, and Greece each climbed up a certain number of steps, paralleling the years of the exile, before they "fell down"; but the angel representing the last exile, that of Rome or Edom, kept climbing higher and higher into the clouds.[citation needed] Jacob feared that his descendants would never be free of Esau's domination, but God assured him that at the End of Days, Edom too would come falling down.

In the morning, Jacob awakened and continued on his way to Haran, after naming the place where he had spent the night "Bethel", "God's house".

Jacob's marriages[edit] Arriving in Haran, Jacob saw a well where shepherds were gathering their flocks to water them and met Laban's younger daughter, Rachel, Jacob's first cousin; she was working as a shepherdess. He loved her immediately, and after spending a month with his relatives, asked for her hand in marriage in return for working seven years for Laban. Laban agreed to the arrangement. These seven years seemed to Jacob "but a few days, for the love he had for her", but when they were complete and he asked for his wife, Laban deceived Jacob by switching Rachel's older sister, Leah, as the veiled bride.

Rachel and Jacob by William Dyce In the morning, when the truth became known, Laban justified his action, saying that in his country it was unheard of to give a younger daughter before the older. However, he agreed to give Rachel in marriage as well if Jacob would work another seven years. After the week of wedding celebrations with Leah, Jacob married Rachel, and he continued to work for Laban for another seven years.

Jacob loved Rachel more than Leah, and Leah felt hated. God opened Leah's womb and she gave birth to four sons rapidly: Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah. Rachel, however, remained barren. Following the example of Sarah, who gave her handmaid to Abraham after years of infertility, Rachel gave Jacob her handmaid, Bilhah, in marriage so that Rachel could raise children through her. Bilhah gave birth to Dan and Naphtali. Seeing that she had left off childbearing temporarily, Leah then gave her handmaid Zilpah to Jacob in marriage so that Leah could raise more children through her. Zilpah gave birth to Gad and Asher. (According to The Testaments of the Patriarchs, Testament of Naphtali, Chapter 1, lines 9-12, Bilhah and Zilpah were daughters of Rotheus and Euna, servants of Laban.)[citation needed] Afterwards, Leah became fertile again and gave birth to Issachar, Zebulun, and Dinah, Jacob's first and only daughter. God remembered Rachel, who gave birth to Joseph and Benjamin. If pregnancies of different marriages overlapped, the first twelve births (all the sons except Benjamin, and the daughter Dinah) could have occurred within seven years. That is one obvious, but not universally held, interpretation of Genesis 29:27-30:25.[13]

After Joseph was born, Jacob decided to return home to his parents. Laban was reluctant to release him, as God had blessed his flock on account of Jacob. Laban asked what he could pay Jacob. Jacob proposed that all the spotted, speckled, and brown goats and sheep of Laban's flock, at any given moment, would be his wages. Jacob placed peeled rods of poplar, hazel, and chestnut within the flocks' watering holes or troughs, an action he later attributes to a dream.

As time passed, Laban's sons noticed that Jacob was taking the better part of their flocks, and so Laban's friendly attitude towards Jacob began to change. God told Jacob that he should leave, which he and his wives and children did without informing Laban. Before they left, Rachel stole the teraphim, considered to be household idols, from Laban's house.

In a rage, Laban pursued Jacob for seven days. The night before he caught up to him, God appeared to Laban in a dream and warned him not to say anything good or bad to Jacob. When the two met, Laban played the part of the injured father-in-law, demanding his teraphim back. Knowing nothing about Rachel's theft, Jacob told Laban that whoever stole them should die and stood aside to let him search. When Laban reached Rachel's tent, she hid the teraphim by sitting on them and stating she could not get up because she was menstruating. Jacob and Laban then parted from each other with a pact to preserve the peace between them. Laban returned to his home and Jacob continued on his way.

Journey back to Canaan[edit]

Jacob Wrestling with the Angel by Eugène Delacroix. Main article: Jacob wrestling with the angel As Jacob neared the land of Canaan, he sent messengers ahead to his brother Esau. They returned with the news that Esau was coming to meet Jacob with an army of 400 men. With great apprehension, Jacob prepared for the worst. He engaged in earnest prayer to God, then sent on before him a tribute of flocks and herds to Esau, "a present to my lord Esau from thy servant Jacob".

Jacob then transported his family and flocks across the ford Jabbok by night, then recrossed back to send over his possessions, being left alone in communion with God. There, a mysterious being appeared ("man", Genesis 32:24, 28; or "God", Genesis 32:28, 30, Hosea 12:3, 5; or "angel", Hosea 12:4), and the two wrestled until daybreak. When the being saw that he did not overpower Jacob, he touched Jacob on the sinew of his thigh (the gid hanasheh, גיד הנשה), and, as a result, Jacob developed a limp (Genesis 32:31). Because of this, "to this day the people of Israel do not eat the sinew of the thigh that is on the hip socket" (Genesis 32:32). This incident is the source of the mitzvah of porging.[14]

Jacob then demanded a blessing, and the being declared in Genesis 32:28 that, from then on, Jacob would be called יִשְׂרָאֵל, Israel (Yisrael, meaning "one that struggled with the divine angel" (Josephus), "one who has prevailed with God" (Rashi), "a man seeing God" (Whiston), "he will rule as God" (Strong), or "a prince with God" (Morris), from Hebrew: שרה‎, "prevail", "have power as a prince").[15] While he is still called Jacob in later texts, his name Israel makes some consider him the eponymous ancestor of the Israelites.

Jacob asked the being's name, but he refused to answer. Afterwards, Jacob named the place Penuel (Penuwel, Peniyel, meaning "face of God"),[16] saying: "I have seen God face to face and lived."

Because the terminology is ambiguous ("el" in Yisrael) and inconsistent, and because this being refused to reveal his name, there are varying views as to whether he was a man, an angel, or God. Josephus uses only the terms "angel", "divine angel", and "angel of God", describing the struggle as no small victory. According to Rashi, the being was the guardian angel of Esau himself, sent to destroy Jacob before he could return to the land of Canaan. Trachtenberg theorized that the being refused to identify itself for fear that, if its secret name was known, it would be conjurable by incantations.[17] Literal Christian interpreters like Henry M. Morris say that the stranger was "God Himself and, therefore, Christ in His preincarnate state", citing Jacob's own evaluation and the name he assumed thereafter, "one who fights victoriously with God", and adding that God had appeared in the human form of the Angel of the Lord to eat a meal with Abraham in Genesis 18.[18] Geller wrote that, "in the context of the wrestling bout, the name implies that Jacob won this supremacy, linked to that of God's, by a kind of theomachy."[19]

In the morning, Jacob assembled his 4 wives and 11 sons, placing the maidservants and their children in front, Leah and her children next, and Rachel and Joseph in the rear. Some commentators cite this placement as proof that Jacob continued to favor Joseph over Leah's children, as presumably the rear position would have been safer from a frontal assault by Esau, which Jacob feared. Jacob himself took the foremost position. Esau's spirit of revenge, however, was apparently appeased by Jacob's bounteous gifts of camels, goats and flocks. Their reunion was an emotional one.

Peter Paul Rubens, The Reconciliation of Jacob and Esau, 1624. Esau offered to accompany them on their way back to Israel, but Jacob protested that his children were still young and tender (born 6 to 13 years prior in the narrative); Jacob suggested eventually catching up with Esau at Mount Seir. According to the Sages, this was a prophetic reference to the End of Days, when Jacob's descendants will come to Mount Seir, the home of Edom, to deliver judgment against Esau's descendants for persecuting them throughout the millennia (see Obadiah 1:21). Jacob actually diverted himself to Succoth and was not recorded as rejoining Esau until, at Machpelah, the two bury their father Isaac, who lived to 180 and was 60 years older than them.

Jacob then arrived in Shechem, where he bought a parcel of land, now identified as Joseph's Tomb. In Shechem, Jacob's daughter Dinah was kidnapped and raped by the ruler's son, who desired to marry the girl. Dinah's brothers, Simeon and Levi, agreed in Jacob's name to permit the marriage as long as all the men of Shechem first circumcised themselves, ostensibly to unite the children of Jacob in Abraham's covenant of familial harmony. On the third day after the circumcisions, when all the men of Shechem were still in pain, Simeon and Levi put them all to death by the sword and rescued their sister Dinah, and their brothers plundered the property, women, and children. Jacob condemned this act, saying: "You have brought trouble on me by making me a stench to the Canaanites and Perizzites, the people living in this land."[20] He later rebuked his two sons for their anger in his deathbed blessing (Genesis 49:5-7).

Jacob struggles with the angel. Gutenberg Bible, 1558. Jacob returned to Bethel, where he had another vision of blessing. Although the death of Rebecca, Jacob's mother, is not explicitly recorded in the Bible, Deborah, Rebecca's nurse, died and was buried at Bethel, at a place that Jacob calls Allon Bachuth (אלון בכות), "Oak of Weepings" (Genesis 35:8). According to the Midrash,[21] the plural form of the word "weeping" indicates the double sorrow that Rebecca also died at this time.

Jacob then made a further move while Rachel was pregnant; near Bethlehem, Rachel went into labor and died as she gave birth to her second son, Benjamin (Jacob's twelfth son). Jacob buried her and erected a monument over her grave. Rachel's Tomb, just outside Bethlehem, remains a popular site for pilgrimages and prayers to this day. Jacob then settled in Migdal Eder, where his firstborn, Reuben, slept with Rachel's servant Bilhah; Jacob's response was not given at the time, but he did condemn Reuben for it later, in his deathbed blessing. Jacob was finally reunited with his father Isaac in Mamre (outside Hebron).

When Isaac died at the age of 180, Jacob and Esau buried him in the Cave of the Patriarchs, which Abraham had purchased as a family burial plot. At this point in the biblical narrative, two genealogies of Esau's family appear under the headings "the generations of Esau". A conservative interpretation is that, at Isaac's burial, Jacob obtained the records of Esau, who had been married 80 years prior, and incorporated them into his own family records, and that Moses augmented and published them.[22]


Patriarch of Israel

  1. Israel (Jacob) , King of Goshen, Saturn Crete

Buriel in cave of Machpelah near Marnre in the field of Ephrom.

other sources say:

b: 1862/1891 bc - Haran, Padan-aram d: 1715/1744 bc - Rameses, Goshen, Egypt


Jacob, lately also called Israel, was the forefather of the Hebrew Israelites. he fathered 12 son and a daughter. his twelve sons was also called "The twelve tribe of Israel." Levi his son was the great grandfather of Moses. and Judah his son was the forefather of David.


According to the Book of Genesis, Jacob was the third Hebrew progenitor with whom God made a covenant. He is the son of Isaac and Rebecca, the grandson of Abraham, Sarah and Bethuel, the nephew of Ishmael, and the younger twin brother of Esau. more here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacob

Isikust Jaakob . (eesti)

Jeesuse Kristuse, Aabrahami poja, Taaveti poja sugupuu:


Aabrahamile sündis Iisak, Iisakile sündis Jaakob, Jaakobile sündisid Juuda ja tema vennad (Mt 1:1-2)

He was born when his father was fifty-nine and Abraham one hundred and fifty-nine years old (probably at Lahai-Roi). Like his father, he was of a quiet and gentle disposition, and when he grew up followed the life of a shepherd, while his brother Esau became an enterprising hunter. His dealing with Esau, however, showed much mean selfishness and cunning (Gen. 25:29-34). When Isaac was about 160 years of age, Jacob and his mother conspired to deceive the aged patriarch (Gen. 27), with the view of procuring the transfer of the birthright to himself. The birthright secured to him who possessed it (1) superior rank in his family (Gen. 49:3); (2) a double portion of the paternal inheritance (Deut. 21:17); (3) the priestly office in the family (Num. 8:17-19); and (4) the promise of the Seed in which all nations of the earth were to be blessed (Gen. 22:18). Soon after his acquisition of his father's blessing (Gen. 27), Jacob became conscious of his guilt; and afraid of the anger of Esau, at the suggestion of Rebekah, Isaac sent him away to Haran, 400 miles or more, to find a wife among his cousins, the family of Laban, the Syrian (28). There he met with Rachel (29). Laban would not consent to give him his daughter in marriage till he had served seven years; but to Jacob these years "seemed but a few days, for the love he had to her." But when the seven years were expired, Laban craftily deceived Jacob, and gave him his daughter Leah. Other seven years of service had to be completed probably before he obtained the beloved Rachel. But "life-long sorrow, disgrace, and trials, in the retributive providence of God, followed as a consequence of this double union." At the close of the fourteen years of service, Jacob desired to return to his parents, but at the entreaty of Laban he tarried yet six years with him, tending his flocks (31:41). He then set out with his family and property "to go to Isaac his father in the land of Canaan" (Gen. 31). Laban was angry when he heard that Jacob had set out on his journey, and pursued after him, overtaking him in seven days. The meeting was of a painful kind. After much recrimination and reproach directed against Jacob, Laban is at length pacified, and taking an affectionate farewell of his daughters, returns to his home in Padanaram. And now all connection of the Israelites with Mesopotamia is at an end. Soon after parting with Laban he is met by a company of angels, as if to greet him on his return and welcome him back to the Land of Promise (32:1, 2). He called the name of the place Mahanaim, i.e., "the double camp," probably his own camp and that of the angels. The vision of angels was the counterpart of that he had formerly seen at Bethel, when, twenty years before, the weary, solitary traveler, on his way to Padan-aram, saw the angels of God ascending and descending on the ladder whose top reached to heaven (28:12). He now hears with dismay of the approach of his brother Esau with a band of 400 men to meet him. In great agony of mind he prepares for the worst. He feels that he must now depend only on God, and he betakes himself to him in earnest prayer, and sends on before him a munificent present to Esau, "a present to my lord Esau from thy servant Jacob." Jacob's family were then transported across the Jabbok; but he himself remained behind, spending the night in communion with God. While thus engaged, there appeared one in the form of a man who wrestled with him. In this mysterious contest Jacob prevailed, and as a memorial of it his name was changed to Israel (wrestler with God); and the place where this occurred he called Peniel, "for", said he, "I have seen God face to face, and my life is preserved" (32:25-31). After this anxious night, Jacob went on his way, halting, mysteriously weakened by the conflict, but strong in the assurance of the divine favour. Esau came forth and met him; but his spirit of revenge was appeased, and the brothers met as friends, and during the remainder of their lives they maintained friendly relations. After a brief sojourn at Succoth, Jacob moved forward and pitched his tent near Shechem (q.v.), 33:18; but at length, under divine directions, he moved to Bethel, where he made an altar unto God (35:6,7), and where God appeared to him and renewed the Abrahamic covenant. While journeying from Bethel to Ephrath (the Canaanitish name of Bethlehem), Rachel died in giving birth to her second son Benjamin (35:16-20), fifteen or sixteen years after the birth of Joseph. He then reached the old family residence at Mamre, to wait on the dying bed of his father Isaac. The complete reconciliation between Esau and Jacob was shown by their uniting in the burial of the patriarch (35:27-29). Jacob was soon after this deeply grieved by the loss of his beloved son Joseph through the jealousy of his brothers (37:33). Then follows the story of the famine, and the successive goings down into Egypt to buy corn (42), which led to the discovery of the long-lost Joseph, and the patriarch's going down with all his household, numbering about seventy souls (Ex. 1:5; Deut. 10:22; Acts 7:14), to sojourn in the land of Goshen. Here Jacob, "after being strangely tossed about on a very rough ocean, found at last a tranquil harbour, where all the best affections of his nature were gently exercised and largely unfolded" (Gen. 48). At length the end of his checkered course draws nigh, and he summons his sons to his bedside that he may bless them. Among his last words he repeats the story of Rachel's death, although forty years had passed away since that event took place, as tenderly as if it had happened only yesterday; and when "he had made an end of charging his sons, he gathered up his feet into the bed, and yielded up the ghost" (49:33). His body was embalmed and carried with great pomp into the land of Canaan, and buried beside his wife Leah in the cave of Machpelah, according to his dying charge. There, probably, his embalmed body remains to this day (50:1-13). (See HEBRON ¯T0001712.) The history of Jacob is referred to by the prophets Hosea (12:3, 4, 12) and Malachi (1:2). In Micah 1:5 the name is a poetic synonym for Israel, the kingdom of the ten tribes. There are, besides the mention of his name along with those of the other patriarchs, distinct references to events of his life in Paul's epistles (Rom. 9:11-13; Heb. 12:16; 11:21). See references to his vision at Bethel and his possession of land at Shechem in John 1:51; 4:5, 12; also to the famine which was the occasion of his going down into Egypt in Acts 7:12 (See LUZ ¯T0002335; BETHEL ¯T0000554.)


Genesis35 Jacob Is Named Israel

9Then God appeared to Jacob again when he came from Paddan-aram, and He blessed him.
10God said to him,
        "Your name is Jacob;
        You shall no longer be called Jacob,
        But Israel shall be your name."
        Thus He called him Israel.
11God also said to him,
        "I am God Almighty;
        Be fruitful and multiply;
        A nation and a company of nations shall come from you,
        And kings shall come forth from you.
   12"The land which I gave to Abraham and Isaac,
        I will give it to you,
        And I will give the land to your descendants after you."

Genesis 35 The Sons of Israel Now there were twelve sons of Jacob--

23the sons of Leah: Reuben, Jacob's firstborn, then Simeon and Levi and Judah and Issachar and Zebulun;
24the sons of Rachel: Joseph and Benjamin;
25and the sons of Bilhah, Rachel's maid: Dan and Naphtali;
26and the sons of Zilpah, Leah's maid: Gad and Asher. These are the sons of Jacob who were born to him in Paddan-aram.

Jacob nació con una mano agarrada del talón de su hermano mellizo Esaú; por tal razón le llamaron Jacob. (Gén. 25:26). En hebreo, Jacob tiene un sonido parecido a “talón”, y también está relacionado con el verbo “suplantar” o “hacer trampa”. . . Ésto se hace evidente en el capítulo 27 de Génesis cuando Jacob se roba la bendición que le pertenecía a su hermano, ayudado por el subterfugio de su madre! . . . Isaac ya era muy viejo, y estaba ciego, cuando manda a llamar a Esaú y le pide que le traiga un animal del campo y que lo prepare para que él pueda comer y bendecirle. Pero Rebeca estaba oyendo, y cuando Esaú salió, ella le relata a Jacob lo que había oído y lo insta para que le lleve unos carneritos y ella misma preparárselos a su esposo; y, de esa manera, hacer que Jacob, su preferido, suplante a su hermano mayor y se lleve la bendición de su padre antes de que él muera. De esa forma, Jacob, ayudado por su madre, logra robarse la bendición que, por derecho, le pertenecía a Esaú. (Gén. 27:1-40). Y entonces huye del enojo de su hermano y se dirige a Harán a casa de Labán, hermano de su madre Rebeca. (Gén. 27:41-45). . .Dios, ahora, le hace la misma promesa que le hizo a su padre y abuelo. (Gén. 28:10-15). . . En casa de labán, después de haberle trabajado por 14 años, toma por esposas a sus dos hijas. (Gén. 29:16-28). . . Cuando la familia de Jacob llegó a Egipto huyendo de la hambruna de su tierra eran 66, sin contar las esposas de sus hijos, los hijos de José eran dos, que nacieron en Egipto. Así que a Egipto llegaron 70 personas de la familia de Jacob. (Gén. 46:26-27).


aka Israel (Yisrael, eponym af Israel), aka Jacob ben ISAAC den semit alias Yaqub; poss. identificeret med Horus, qv, tilranede trone fra sin tvillingebror Esau; poss. aka Yaqaru (King) i Ugarit, aka Jakob YISRA'EL

Poss. Jullus i Roms 9-oldefar.

HM George I s 97-oldefar.
HRE Ferdinand I s 93-oldefar. 

Osawatomie 'Browns 103-oldefar.


Wives / Partnere:       Leah (Lia) bint Laban   ,   Rachel bint Laban   ,   Zilpas, Tjenerinde   ,   Bilha, Tjenerinde 
 Børn:       Levi ibn JACOB   ,   Juda (Judas Juda) ibn JACOB   ,   (NN) ... (NN) Judas   ,   Joseph ben JACOB   ,   Dinah (Dina)   ,   Asher (Aser) ibn JACOB   ,   Gad ibn JACOB   ,   Naftali ibn JACOB   ,   Benjamin (Benoni) ibn JACOB   ,   Zebulum ibn JACOB   ,   Issakar ibn JACOB   ,   Simeon (Shim'on ) ibn JACOB   ,   Reuben (Ruben) ibn JACOB   ,   Dan ibn JACOB

--

Mulig Barn:       Barayah (bas JACOB?) 
 Alternativ Father of Mulig Barn:       Levi ibn JACOB

--- Fra http://fabpedigree.com/s032/f008888.htm


http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=royals&id=I60659

Israel or Jacob 1837-1690 B.C. Twin to Esau. m. Rachel m.(2) Keturah. 1 Chr. 1:34. Jacob or Israel (identified with Cronos and Saturn of Crete by Sanchoniatho, an ancient Phoneician author, who writes of "Kronos, whom the Phoenicians call Israel.' Kronos (Saturn) had a special son Jehurd (cf. Judah and Jupiter). "Baetylos, the Stone swallowed by Kronos, the sacred stone of Zeus," corresponds to "Bethel-El, the Stone carried by Israel." See "Ancient Fragments of Sanchoniatho, etc.," by L.P. Cory. Brit. Mus. 800 g. 10) quoted by Milner: The Royal House of Britain" pp. 12-13.


Nabi Ya'kub A.S. atau Israil. Kembar 'Isho. Menurunkan Bani Israil (Yahudi).
Jacob (later given the name Israel) is considered a patriarch of the Israelites. According to the Book of Genesis, Jacob (/ˈdʒeɪkəb/; Hebrew: יַעֲקֹב Standard Yaʿakov[1]) was the third Hebrew progenitor with whom God made a covenant.

In the Hebrew Bible, he is the son of Isaac and Rebekah, the grandson of Abraham, Sarah and of Bethuel, and the younger twin brother of Esau. Jacob had twelve sons and at least one daughter, by his two wives, Leah and Rachel, and by their handmaidens Bilhah and Zilpah. The children named in Genesis were Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Dan, Naphtali, Gad, Asher, Issachar, Zebulun, daughter Dinah, Joseph, and Benjamin.[2]

Before the birth of Benjamin, Jacob is renamed Israel by God (Genesis 32:28-29 and 35:10). Etymologically, it has been suggested that the name "Israel" comes from the Hebrew words לִשְׂרות (lisrot, "wrestle") and אֵל (El, "God").[3] Popular English translations typically reference the face off with God, ranging from active "wrestles with God" to passive "God contends",[4][5] but various other meanings have also been suggested. Some commentators say the name comes from the verb śārar ("to rule, be strong, have authority over"), thereby making the name mean "God rules" or "God judges";[6] or "the prince of God" (from the King James Version) or "El (God) fights/struggles".[7]

His original name Ya'akov is sometimes explained as having meant "holder of the heel" or "supplanter", because he was born holding his twin brother Esau's heel, and eventually supplanted Esau in obtaining their father Isaac's blessing. Other scholars speculate that the name is derived from a longer form such as יַעֲקֹבְאֵל (Ya'aqov'el) meaning "may God protect".

Jacob's Dream statue and display on the campus of Abilene Christian University. The artwork is based on Genesis 28:10-22 and graphically represents the scenes alluded to in the hymn "Nearer, My God, to Thee" and the spiritual "We Are Climbing Jacob's Ladder" as well as other musical works. As a result of a severe drought in Canaan, Jacob and his sons moved to Egypt at the time when his son Joseph was viceroy. After Jacob died there 17 years later, Joseph carried Jacob's remains to the land of Canaan, and gave him a stately burial in the same Cave of Machpelah as were buried Abraham, Sarah, Isaac, Rebekah, and Jacob's first wife, Leah.

Jacob figures in a number of sacred scriptures, including the Hebrew Bible, the Talmud, the New Testament, the Qur'an, and Bahá'í scripture.[8]

Jacob's ladder[edit] Main article: Jacob's Ladder

Jacob's Ladder by William Blake (c. 1800, British Museum, London) Near Luz en route to Haran, Jacob experienced a vision of a ladder, or staircase, reaching into heaven with angels going up and down it, commonly referred to as "Jacob's ladder". He heard the voice of God, who repeated many of the blessings upon him, coming from the top of the ladder.

According to Rashi, the ladder signified the exiles that the Jewish people would suffer before the coming of the Jewish Messiah: the angels that represented the exiles of Babylonia, Persia, and Greece each climbed up a certain number of steps, paralleling the years of the exile, before they "fell down"; but the angel representing the last exile, that of Rome or Edom, kept climbing higher and higher into the clouds.[citation needed] Jacob feared that his descendants would never be free of Esau's domination, but God assured him that at the End of Days, Edom too would come falling down.

In the morning, Jacob awakened and continued on his way to Haran, after naming the place where he had spent the night "Bethel", "God's house".

Jacob's marriages[edit] Arriving in Haran, Jacob saw a well where shepherds were gathering their flocks to water them and met Laban's younger daughter, Rachel, Jacob's first cousin; she was working as a shepherdess. He loved her immediately, and after spending a month with his relatives, asked for her hand in marriage in return for working seven years for Laban. Laban agreed to the arrangement. These seven years seemed to Jacob "but a few days, for the love he had for her", but when they were complete and he asked for his wife, Laban deceived Jacob by switching Rachel's older sister, Leah, as the veiled bride.

Rachel and Jacob by William Dyce In the morning, when the truth became known, Laban justified his action, saying that in his country it was unheard of to give a younger daughter before the older. However, he agreed to give Rachel in marriage as well if Jacob would work another seven years. After the week of wedding celebrations with Leah, Jacob married Rachel, and he continued to work for Laban for another seven years.

Jacob loved Rachel more than Leah, and Leah felt hated. God opened Leah's womb and she gave birth to four sons rapidly: Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah. Rachel, however, remained barren. Following the example of Sarah, who gave her handmaid to Abraham after years of infertility, Rachel gave Jacob her handmaid, Bilhah, in marriage so that Rachel could raise children through her. Bilhah gave birth to Dan and Naphtali. Seeing that she had left off childbearing temporarily, Leah then gave her handmaid Zilpah to Jacob in marriage so that Leah could raise more children through her. Zilpah gave birth to Gad and Asher. (According to The Testaments of the Patriarchs, Testament of Naphtali, Chapter 1, lines 9-12, Bilhah and Zilpah were daughters of Rotheus and Euna, servants of Laban.)[citation needed] Afterwards, Leah became fertile again and gave birth to Issachar, Zebulun, and Dinah, Jacob's first and only daughter. God remembered Rachel, who gave birth to Joseph and Benjamin. If pregnancies of different marriages overlapped, the first twelve births (all the sons except Benjamin, and the daughter Dinah) could have occurred within seven years. That is one obvious, but not universally held, interpretation of Genesis 29:27-30:25.[13]

After Joseph was born, Jacob decided to return home to his parents. Laban was reluctant to release him, as God had blessed his flock on account of Jacob. Laban asked what he could pay Jacob. Jacob proposed that all the spotted, speckled, and brown goats and sheep of Laban's flock, at any given moment, would be his wages. Jacob placed peeled rods of poplar, hazel, and chestnut within the flocks' watering holes or troughs, an action he later attributes to a dream.

As time passed, Laban's sons noticed that Jacob was taking the better part of their flocks, and so Laban's friendly attitude towards Jacob began to change. God told Jacob that he should leave, which he and his wives and children did without informing Laban. Before they left, Rachel stole the teraphim, considered to be household idols, from Laban's house.

In a rage, Laban pursued Jacob for seven days. The night before he caught up to him, God appeared to Laban in a dream and warned him not to say anything good or bad to Jacob. When the two met, Laban played the part of the injured father-in-law, demanding his teraphim back. Knowing nothing about Rachel's theft, Jacob told Laban that whoever stole them should die and stood aside to let him search. When Laban reached Rachel's tent, she hid the teraphim by sitting on them and stating she could not get up because she was menstruating. Jacob and Laban then parted from each other with a pact to preserve the peace between them. Laban returned to his home and Jacob continued on his way.

Journey back to Canaan[edit]

Jacob Wrestling with the Angel by Eugène Delacroix. Main article: Jacob wrestling with the angel As Jacob neared the land of Canaan, he sent messengers ahead to his brother Esau. They returned with the news that Esau was coming to meet Jacob with an army of 400 men. With great apprehension, Jacob prepared for the worst. He engaged in earnest prayer to God, then sent on before him a tribute of flocks and herds to Esau, "a present to my lord Esau from thy servant Jacob".

Jacob then transported his family and flocks across the ford Jabbok by night, then recrossed back to send over his possessions, being left alone in communion with God. There, a mysterious being appeared ("man", Genesis 32:24, 28; or "God", Genesis 32:28, 30, Hosea 12:3, 5; or "angel", Hosea 12:4), and the two wrestled until daybreak. When the being saw that he did not overpower Jacob, he touched Jacob on the sinew of his thigh (the gid hanasheh, גיד הנשה), and, as a result, Jacob developed a limp (Genesis 32:31). Because of this, "to this day the people of Israel do not eat the sinew of the thigh that is on the hip socket" (Genesis 32:32). This incident is the source of the mitzvah of porging.[14]

Jacob then demanded a blessing, and the being declared in Genesis 32:28 that, from then on, Jacob would be called יִשְׂרָאֵל, Israel (Yisrael, meaning "one that struggled with the divine angel" (Josephus), "one who has prevailed with God" (Rashi), "a man seeing God" (Whiston), "he will rule as God" (Strong), or "a prince with God" (Morris), from Hebrew: שרה‎, "prevail", "have power as a prince").[15] While he is still called Jacob in later texts, his name Israel makes some consider him the eponymous ancestor of the Israelites.

Jacob asked the being's name, but he refused to answer. Afterwards, Jacob named the place Penuel (Penuwel, Peniyel, meaning "face of God"),[16] saying: "I have seen God face to face and lived."

Because the terminology is ambiguous ("el" in Yisrael) and inconsistent, and because this being refused to reveal his name, there are varying views as to whether he was a man, an angel, or God. Josephus uses only the terms "angel", "divine angel", and "angel of God", describing the struggle as no small victory. According to Rashi, the being was the guardian angel of Esau himself, sent to destroy Jacob before he could return to the land of Canaan. Trachtenberg theorized that the being refused to identify itself for fear that, if its secret name was known, it would be conjurable by incantations.[17] Literal Christian interpreters like Henry M. Morris say that the stranger was "God Himself and, therefore, Christ in His preincarnate state", citing Jacob's own evaluation and the name he assumed thereafter, "one who fights victoriously with God", and adding that God had appeared in the human form of the Angel of the Lord to eat a meal with Abraham in Genesis 18.[18] Geller wrote that, "in the context of the wrestling bout, the name implies that Jacob won this supremacy, linked to that of God's, by a kind of theomachy."[19]

In the morning, Jacob assembled his 4 wives and 11 sons, placing the maidservants and their children in front, Leah and her children next, and Rachel and Joseph in the rear. Some commentators cite this placement as proof that Jacob continued to favor Joseph over Leah's children, as presumably the rear position would have been safer from a frontal assault by Esau, which Jacob feared. Jacob himself took the foremost position. Esau's spirit of revenge, however, was apparently appeased by Jacob's bounteous gifts of camels, goats and flocks. Their reunion was an emotional one.

Peter Paul Rubens, The Reconciliation of Jacob and Esau, 1624. Esau offered to accompany them on their way back to Israel, but Jacob protested that his children were still young and tender (born 6 to 13 years prior in the narrative); Jacob suggested eventually catching up with Esau at Mount Seir. According to the Sages, this was a prophetic reference to the End of Days, when Jacob's descendants will come to Mount Seir, the home of Edom, to deliver judgment against Esau's descendants for persecuting them throughout the millennia (see Obadiah 1:21). Jacob actually diverted himself to Succoth and was not recorded as rejoining Esau until, at Machpelah, the two bury their father Isaac, who lived to 180 and was 60 years older than them.

Jacob then arrived in Shechem, where he bought a parcel of land, now identified as Joseph's Tomb. In Shechem, Jacob's daughter Dinah was kidnapped and raped by the ruler's son, who desired to marry the girl. Dinah's brothers, Simeon and Levi, agreed in Jacob's name to permit the marriage as long as all the men of Shechem first circumcised themselves, ostensibly to unite the children of Jacob in Abraham's covenant of familial harmony. On the third day after the circumcisions, when all the men of Shechem were still in pain, Simeon and Levi put them all to death by the sword and rescued their sister Dinah, and their brothers plundered the property, women, and children. Jacob condemned this act, saying: "You have brought trouble on me by making me a stench to the Canaanites and Perizzites, the people living in this land."[20] He later rebuked his two sons for their anger in his deathbed blessing (Genesis 49:5-7).

Jacob struggles with the angel. Gutenberg Bible, 1558. Jacob returned to Bethel, where he had another vision of blessing. Although the death of Rebecca, Jacob's mother, is not explicitly recorded in the Bible, Deborah, Rebecca's nurse, died and was buried at Bethel, at a place that Jacob calls Allon Bachuth (אלון בכות), "Oak of Weepings" (Genesis 35:8). According to the Midrash,[21] the plural form of the word "weeping" indicates the double sorrow that Rebecca also died at this time.

Jacob then made a further move while Rachel was pregnant; near Bethlehem, Rachel went into labor and died as she gave birth to her second son, Benjamin (Jacob's twelfth son). Jacob buried her and erected a monument over her grave. Rachel's Tomb, just outside Bethlehem, remains a popular site for pilgrimages and prayers to this day. Jacob then settled in Migdal Eder, where his firstborn, Reuben, slept with Rachel's servant Bilhah; Jacob's response was not given at the time, but he did condemn Reuben for it later, in his deathbed blessing. Jacob was finally reunited with his father Isaac in Mamre (outside Hebron).

When Isaac died at the age of 180, Jacob and Esau buried him in the Cave of the Patriarchs, which Abraham had purchased as a family burial plot. At this point in the biblical narrative, two genealogies of Esau's family appear under the headings "the generations of Esau". A conservative interpretation is that, at Isaac's burial, Jacob obtained the records of Esau, who had been married 80 years prior, and incorporated them into his own family records, and that Moses augmented and published them.[22]

About Patriarch Jacob (עברית)

יעקב (הופנה מהדף יעקב אבינו) Cigoli Le Songe de Jacob Nancy 22122007.jpg פטירה מצרים מקום קבורה מערת המכפלה כינויים נוספים ישראל מקצוע רועה צאן השקפה דתית יהדות בת זוג לאה, רחל, זלפה, בלהה צאצאים ראובן, שמעון, לוי, יהודה, יששכר, זבולון, דינה, יוסף, בנימין, אשר, נפתלי, גד, דן

וַיִּוָּתֵר יַעֲקֹב לְבַדּוֹ וַיֵּאָבֵק אִישׁ עִמּוֹ עַד עֲלוֹת הַשָּׁחַר. וַיַּרְא כִּי לֹא יָכֹל לוֹ וַיִּגַּע בְּכַף-יְרֵכוֹ וַתֵּקַע כַּף-יֶרֶךְ יַעֲקֹב בְּהֵאָבְקוֹ עִמּוֹ. וַיֹּאמֶר שַׁלְּחֵנִי כִּי עָלָה הַשָּׁחַר וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא אֲשַׁלֵּחֲךָ כִּי אִם בֵּרַכְתָּנִי. — ספר בראשית, פרק ל"ב, פסוקים כ"ה-כ"ז המאבק עם המלאך על פי גרסת רמברנדט ציור משנת 1659 מוצג בגמלדה-גאלרי, ברלין יַעֲקֹב, המכונה במסורת היהודית יַעֲקֹב אָבִינוּ, ונקרא גם יִשְׂרָאֵל, הוא דמות מקראית. יעקב הוא השלישי בשלושת האבות, בנם של יצחק ורבקה ונכד לאברהם ושרה. אחיו התאום של עשו, ואביהם של שבטי ישראל והיהודים.

ע"פ המסורת יעקב נולד בערב חג סוכות בשנת ב'ק"ח, ונפטר בערב סוכות בשנת ב'רנ"ה בגיל 147.

תולדות חייו מסופרים במקרא, ותופסים נתח גדול מספר בראשית, בפרקים כ"ה-נ'.

חלק ממדרשי חז"ל מתייחסים ליעקב ועשו כאל אבות-טיפוס של לאומים. יעקב מייצג את עם ישראל ועשו את אדום, או לחלופין התנהגות טיפוסית של חייל רומאי. לפרשנות זו בסיס מייד עם הופעתם - כאשר התקשתה רבקה בהריונה, נאמר: "וַיִּתְרֹצְצוּ הַבָּנִים בְּקִרְבָּהּ וַתֹּאמֶר אִם כֵּן לָמָּה זֶּה אָנֹכִי וַתֵּלֶךְ לִדְרֹשׁ אֶת ה'. וַיֹּאמֶר ה' לָהּ שְׁנֵי [%D7%92%D7%95%D6%B9%D7%99%D6%B4%D7%9D] (גיים) בְּבִטְנֵךְ וּשְׁנֵי לְאֻמִּים מִמֵּעַיִךְ יִפָּרֵדוּ וּלְאֹם מִלְאֹם יֶאֱמָץ וְרַב יַעֲבֹד צָעִיר" (בראשית, כ"ה, כ"ב-כ"ג). משמע, אין הקורא אמור לבחון את הגיבורים בקני מידה אנושיים פשוטים, כפרט, אלא כייצוג למשהו אחר.

תוכן עניינים 1 שמו 2 קורותיו במקרא 2.1 לידה 2.2 מכירת הבכורה וגניבת הברכות 2.3 חלום יעקב 2.4 רחל ולאה ואביהן לבן 2.5 בני יעקב 2.6 הפיוס עם עשו 2.7 שינוי השם מיעקב לישראל 2.8 מעשה שכם ונקמת שמעון ולוי 2.9 מות רחל 2.10 מכירת יוסף 2.11 ראובן ובלהה פילגש אביו 2.12 ברכת יעקב לבניו 2.13 מותו 3 יעקב ועשו כסמל 3.1 ביהדות 3.2 בנצרות 4 ראו גם 5 לקריאה נוספת 6 קישורים חיצוניים 7 הערות שוליים

שמו יעקב מתפרש כשם תאופורי מעיקרו, שהתקצר מיעקבאל או צורה דומה אחרת. שמות דומים הגזורים מן השורש עק"ב מצויים באוצר השמות הפרטיים השמי.[1] במקרא מצויים השמות יַעֲקֹבָה ועַקּוּב, ובמשנה ובתלמוד: עקיבא, עקביא, עוקבא ועוקבן. גיוון הוראותיו של השורש השמי עק"ב מקשה על החוקרים לשחזר את הוראתו המקורית של השם.

במקרא נדרש שמו בכמה אופנים. יעקב נולד "וְיָדוֹ אֹחֶזֶת בַּעֲקֵב עֵשָׂו", כלומר הוא נאבק עמו על הבכורה עוד מבטן. המאבק על הבכורה הוא תמה מרכזית במחזור סיפורי יעקב ובסיפורי האבות בכלל. השורש עק"ב עשוי להתפרש גם במשמעות של עָקְבָּה, מרמה, שאף היא תמה בולטת בתיאור קורותיו של יעקב. מדרש שם זה מובע במפורש בפי עשו בהמשך הכתוב: "הֲכִי קָרָא שְׁמוֹ יַעֲקֹב וַיַּעְקְבֵנִי זֶה פַעֲמַיִם, אֶת בְּכֹרָתִי לָקָח וְהִנֵּה עַתָּה לָקַח בִּרְכָתִי!" (בראשית כז לו), והוא תורם למתח האירוני בין אפיונו המפורש של יעקב כ"איש תם יושב אוהלים" לבין מעשיו שאינם תמיד כה תמימים.

קורותיו במקרא לידה המקרא מספר כי רבקה הייתה עקרה[2]. עתירתו של יצחק לאל לנוכח עקרותה של רבקה נענתה ורבקה הרתה. הריונה של רבקה היה קשה, הבנים "מתרוצצים בקרבה".

רבקה הלכה לשאול את האל לפשר העניין. תשובתו של האל הייתה כי הריונה מבשר את הולדתם של שני עמים יריבים שיתחרו אחד בשני, אשר הצעיר שביניהם יהיה אדון לבכור. שיאה של מגמה ברורה בספר בראשית של "היפוך הבכורות", בהעדפת הבן הצעיר על פני הבן הבכור.

לימים רבקה אכן יולדת תאומים: הראשון אדמוני כולו כאדרת שער ושמו עשו מפני שנולד עשוּי, ואחריו אחיו שנולד כשידו אוחזת בעקב עשו בניסיון לעכב את יציאתו - ושמו יעקב, על שם האחיזה בעקב. ואכן חייו של יעקב התאפיינו במאבקים והתמודדויות רבות, עם עשו אחיו ועם דודו לבן, עם יושבי ארץ כנען, ואף עם בניו.

היריבות מלידה מתפתחת בבגרותם ומתאפיינת בעיסוקים שונים ובמשתמע גם באופיים: יעקב הוא "איש תם, יושב אהלים", כלומר רועה צאן, ואילו עשו הוא "איש יודע ציד". היריבות משתקפת גם בהעדפות שונות של ההורים: יצחק אוהב יותר את עשו "כי ציד בפיו" ואילו רבקה אוהבת יותר את יעקב.

מכירת הבכורה וגניבת הברכות

וַיִּגַּשׁ וַיִּשַּׁק לוֹ וַיָּרַח אֶת רֵיחַ בְּגָדָיו וַיְבָרֲכֵהוּ וַיֹּאמֶר רְאֵה רֵיחַ בְּנִי כְּרֵיחַ שָׂדֶה אֲשֶׁר בֵּרֲכוֹ ה'. וְיִתֶּן לְךָ הָאֱלֹהִים מִטַּל הַשָּׁמַיִם וּמִשְׁמַנֵּי הָאָרֶץ וְרֹב דָּגָן וְתִירֹשׁ. יַעַבְדוּךָ עַמִּים וְיִשְׁתַּחֲווּ לְךָ לְאֻמִּים, הֱוֵה גְבִיר לְאַחֶיךָ וְיִשְׁתַּחֲוּוּ לְךָ בְּנֵי אִמֶּךָ, אֹרְרֶיךָ אָרוּר וּמְבָרֲכֶיךָ בָּרוּךְ. — ספר בראשית, פרק כ"ז, פסוקים כ"ז-כ"ט יצחק מברך את יעקב המחופש לעשו. ציור מעשה ידי לוקה גיורדאנו. שמן על קנבס. מוצג במוזיאון הלאומי לאמנות יפה בבואנוס איירס באחד הימים, כאשר עשו חזר מצֵידו והוא עייף[2], הוא ביקש מיעקב להלעיט אותו מנזיד העדשים שהכין. בכך המקרא תולה את שם האומה שתחילתה בעשו - "אדום" בבקשת עשו "הלעיטני נא מן האדום האדום הזה". ויעקב מסכים בתמורה לכך שעשו יוותר על הבכורה ויעביר אותה אליו. עשו מזלזל בבכורה ואומר: "הנה אנוכי הולך למות, ולמה זה לי בכורה?".

זמן מה לאחר מכן ביקש יצחק לברך את עשו קודם מותו ולשם כך קורא לו ומבקש ממנו לצוד לו ציד כאשר אהב ולאחר שיאכל ממטעמי בנו יברך אותו. רבקה, שרצתה שהברכות יוענקו ליעקב דווקא, מצווה ומשדלת את יעקב החושש להתחפש לאחיו עשו ולקבל את הברכות במרמה. יצחק אמנם חשד מעט שאין זה עשיו העומד לפניו, ובהזדמנות זו טבע את המשפט המפורסם "הקול קול יעקב, והידים ידי עשו". אך כאשר מישש את יעקב (שעטה על עצמו עורות עזים, מבעוד מועד בעצתה של אימו) השתכנע שהוא עשו, בשל שעירותו.

ברכת יצחק ליעקב מגשימה את דברי האל לרבקה "וְרַב יַעֲבֹד צָעִיר", מאחר שיצחק שם את יעקב גביר לכל אחיו. כאשר יעקב יוצא מאת פני אביו מגיע עשו מצידו ושניהם מגלים את התרמית, אך יצחק לא מתחרט, ואף מאשש את הברכה "ואברכהו, וגם ברוך יהיה" .[3] ולאחר תחנונים של עשו, נותן לעשו ברכה פחותה, שבסופה משפט לא מובן: "ועל חרבך תחיה ואת אחיך תעבוד, והיה כאשר תריד ופרקת עולו מעל צוארך". היחסים במשפחה לאחר המקרה עכורים, עד כדי רצונו של עשו, להרוג את יעקב לאחר מיתת יצחק על גזילת הברכות.

חוקרי מקרא רואים בכך שתי גרסאות שמאשרות שיעקב זכה לבכורה אף שלא היה הבכור הביולוגי, אך בגרסה הראשונה הוא קונה אותה באופן לגיטימי, גם אם אפשר לבקר את הנסיבות בהן נערכה הקנייה, ואילו בגרסה השנייה הוא מרמה את אביו כדי לזכות בה. פרופ' יאיר זקוביץ רואה גם באזכור היריבות בהושע, י"ב, ד' הד למאבק בין מסורות שונות בנוגע לדמותו של יעקב והדרך בה הגיע לבכורה, כמו גם שני השמות שלו, יעקב וישראל. לפי זקוביץ, השם השני מרמז לשורש י.ש.ר., ונועד לטהר את רבב הרמייה שדבק ביעקב.[4]

חלום יעקב על פי עצת אמו ובקשת אביו לקחת אישה דווקא מבנות לבן אחי אמו נמלט יעקב לחרן ולמעשה הוא גולה ממולדתו לארץ זרה בה הוא נחשב לזר ונכרי.[5]

בדרכו מבאר שבע לחרן במסעו צפונה, הוא שוכב לישון באזור היישוב לוז וחולם על סולם מוצב ארצה וראשו בשמים ומלאכים עולים ויורדים בו. בחלום מתגלה האל אל יעקב ומבטיח לו את הארץ אשר הוא שוכב עליה כמו גם הגנה בדרכו.[6] יעקב קם נפעם בבוקר מהחלום ומצהיר שזהו בית אלוהים ושער השמים וקורא למקום "בית אל" ומקים שם מצבה ונודר נדר שאם אלוהים ישמור ויגן עליו, הוא יקבע את המקום כאשר יחזור כבית אלוהים ויתן מעשר מרכושו לאל. היישוב בית אל הוקם במקום זה ומכאן שמו.

וַיַּחֲלֹם וְהִנֵּה סֻלָּם מֻצָּב אַרְצָה וְרֹאשׁוֹ מַגִּיעַ הַשָּׁמָיְמָה וְהִנֵּה מַלְאֲכֵי אֱלֹהִים עֹלִים וְיֹרְדִים בּוֹ. — ספר בראשית, פרק כ"ח, פסוק י"ב חלום סולם יעקב, מיכאל לוקס לאופולד ווילמאן, 1691 רחל ולאה ואביהן לבן בחרן פוגש יעקב על שפת הבאר את רחל, בת דודו שהמקרא טורח לציין את יופיה הרב, ומתאהב בה במה שנראה אהבה ממבט ראשון. כבר ליד הבאר ניכרת האקטיביות שלו, כאשר יעקב הזר מציע לרועים להשקות את הצאן וללכת למרעה. ושם הוא מקבל את התשובה שהאבן המונחת על פי הבאר כבדה ונהוג שכולם ביחד גוללים את האבן משקים את העדרים ומחזירים אותה למקומו.[7] אך כאשר יעקב רואה את רחל, הוא פורץ את המנהג המקובל, גולל לבדו את האבן הכבדה מעל פי הבאר, ומסייע לרחל להשקות את צאנה.[8] לאחר מכן הוא מתקבל בבית לבן אחי אמו בהתרגשות רבה, ולאחר תקופה שהוא שוהה במקום, הוא מציע ללבן לעבדו שבע שנים תמימות ברחל בתו הקטנה.

לבן שמסכים לא עומד בסיכום ומגניב במרמה את לאה לאהל יעקב. למחרת לאחר שמתגלה התרמית, לאחר דין ודברים עם לבן, מקבל יעקב בעל כורחו את לאה, האישה הלא אהובה ביחס לרחל,[9] אך מכאן ואילך נפתח הפתח ליחסים בעייתים במשפחה בין רחל ללאה[10] ובין צאצאיהם[%D7%93%D7%A8%D7%95%D7%A9 מקור]. בנוסף לכך נאלץ יעקב לעבוד שבע שנים נוספות, על מנת לקבל את רחל, אם כי לפי הסיכום עם לבן מתקיימת חתונתו עמה מיד לאחר שבעת ימי משתה חתונת לאה. עם רחל ולאה מגיעות שתי שפחות: זלפה ובלהה. במשך שנים אלו נולדים ליעקב 11 בנים ובת אחת, כאשר מכל אלה לרחל - אהובתו היחידה, שאף היא עקרה כאימו של יעקב, יש רק בן אחד ושמו יוסף.(כי אסף אלהים את חרפתי). בן נוסף ושמו בנימין יוולד מאוחר יותר בארץ כנען.[11]

לאחר 14 שנים אלו, עובד יעקב שש שנים נוספות תמורת שכר משתנה עם צאן לבן. יעקב מחזיר בעורמה מלחמה שערה, כנגד רמייתו של לבן והחלפת שכרו ומתעשר בשל כך. שילוב של התעשרותו המהירה של יעקב, יחסים עכורים עם לבן ובניו וחלום בו מתגלה האל ליעקב ומצווה אותו לשוב לכנען גורמים לבריחה נוספת של יעקב. הפעם מחרן בחזרה אל ארץ כנען. לבן דולק אחריו ובפיו טענות רבות ואחת הקשות שיעקב גנב את אלוהיו, בעוד שידה של רחל הייתה במעל, לאחר חיפוש שמסתיים בלא כלום, והתנצחות של יעקב עם לבן, המפגש הטעון ביניהם מסתיים בהקמת "גל-עד", המציין את טוהר כוונותיו של כל אחד מהצדדים.

בני יעקב המדרש[12] מספר כי יוסף מת הראשון ולוי "האריך ימים מכולם". וכתוב[13]: "נמצאו כל השבטים שנולדו לשבע שנים, חוץ מבנימין"

בני יעקב אם נולד[12] שנת הלידה לבריאת העולם נפטר בן[12] יום ההילולה מקור השם מקום קבורה משוער[14] ראובן לאה י"ד בכסליו ב'קצ"ב 155 או 124 י"ד כיסלו "כִּי אָמְרָה כִּי-רָאָה ה' בְּעָנְיִי כִּי עַתָּה יֶאֱהָבַנִי אִישִׁי" (בראשית, כ"ט, ל"ב) נבי רובין (מערבית לרמלה) שמעון לאה כ"ח בטבת ב'קצ"ג 120 כ"ד כיסלו "כִּי-שָׁמַע ה' כִּי-שְׂנוּאָה אָנֹכִי" (ל"ג) דרומית לקיבוץ אייל לוי לאה ט"ז בניסן ב'קצ"ד 137[15] ה' תשרי "הַפַּעַם יִלָּוֶה אִישִׁי אֵלַי" (ל"ד) יהודה לאה ט"ו בסיון ב'קצ"ה 119 ט"ו בסיוון "הַפַּעַם אוֹדֶה אֶת ה'" (ל"ה) יהוד דן בלהה ט' באלול ב'קצ"ד 125 ט' אלול "דָּנַנִּי אֱלֹהִים" (ל', ו') אשתאול, כפר דנה בעמק יזרעאל נפתלי בלהה ה' בתשרי ב'קצ"ה 133 "נַפְתּוּלֵי אֱלֹהִים נִפְתַּלְתִּי עִם-אֲחֹתִי גַּם יָכֹלְתִּי" (ח') גד זלפה י' במרחשון ב'קצ"ז 125 י' מרחשוון "(בָּגָד) [%D7%91%D6%B8%D6%BC%D7%90 גָד]" (י"א) אשר זלפה כ' בשבט ב'קצ"ח 123 י"ב טבת "בְּאָשְׁרִי כִּי אִשְּׁרוּנִי בָּנוֹת" (י"ג) יששכר לאה י' באב ב'קצ"ו 122 י' באב "נָתַן אֱלֹהִים שְׂכָרִי אֲשֶׁר-נָתַתִּי" (י"ח) זבולון לאה ז' בתשרי ב'קצ"ח 110 ה' תשרי "זְבָדַנִי אֱלֹהִים אֹתִי זֶבֶד טוֹב הַפַּעַם יִזְבְּלֵנִי אִישִׁי" (כ') דינה לאה ז' בתשרי ב'קצ"ח ארבל יוסף רחל כ"ז תמוז ב'קצ"ט 110 א' תמוז " אָסַף אֱלֹהִים אֶת-חֶרְפָּתִי" (כ"ג) קבר יוסף בשכם בנימין רחל י"א במרחשון ב'ר"ח 115 כ"ד מרחשוון "שְׁמוֹ בֶּן-אוֹנִי וְאָבִיו קָרָא-לוֹ בִנְיָמִין" (י"ח) מזרחית מכפר סבא הפיוס עם עשו

פגישת האחים, פרנססקו הייז, 1844 בהמשך מסעו של יעקב בחזרה לכנען, מספר המקרא על מפגש טעון שני, והפעם עם עשו, שלו חשבון פתוח עם יעקב. יעקב משוכנע שעשו שיוצא לקראתו בראש ארבע מאות איש, רוצה להורגו על נשיו וטפיו ומכין את עצמו לקראת כך. הוא שולח אליו מנחה גדולה של עדרי בעלי חיים, כדי לפייס את דעתו של עשו, ואף מחלק את משפחתו לשני מחנות, כדי שלא כולם יפגעו, אם יתחולל קרב. טרם המפגש מתפלל יעקב לאל ומבקש ממנו עזרה: "קָטֹנְתִּי מִכֹּל הַחֲסָדִים, וּמִכָּל-הָאֱמֶת, אֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתָ, אֶת-עַבְדֶּךָ: כִּי בְמַקְלִי, עָבַרְתִּי אֶת-הַיַּרְדֵּן הַזֶּה, וְעַתָּה הָיִיתִי, לִשְׁנֵי מַחֲנוֹת. הַצִּילֵנִי נָא מִיַּד אָחִי, מִיַּד עֵשָׂו" (בראשית, ל"ב, 11-12). לקראת המפגש הטעון, יעקב מסדר את משפחתו באופן מדורג, השפחות ובניהן ראשונות, לאחר מכן לאה וילדיה ולבסוף רחל ויוסף כאשר המועדפים אחרונים, כדי להרחיקם מהמפגש ככל שאפשר. בסופו של דבר פחדו של יעקב לא מתגשם, הוא מקבל את עשו בכניעה, עם מתנות רבות ומשתחווה לו שבע פעמים: "... וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ אַרְצָה שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים, עַד-גִּשְׁתּוֹ עַד-אָחִיו" (בראשית, ל"ג, 3)[16]. המפגש בין השניים הופך למפגש פיוס מרגש, שבו הם מתחבקים ובוכים, ובמהלכו עשו שוויתר על כל מתנות הפיוס, לוקחם בכל זאת בשל הפצרותיו של יעקב, וכך הם נפרדים לשלום איש מעל אחיו, כאשר עשו נוסע לשעיר.

שינוי השם מיעקב לישראל שינוי שמו של יעקב ל"ישראל" הגיע בעקבות פרק נפרד, במסגרת ההכנה של יעקב לפגישה הצפויה עם עשו, כנראה כהקדמה לחזרתו לארץ כנען והתבשרותו של סוג הנהגה חדשה שינסה לממש מכאן ואילך. יעקב מעביר את נשיו וילדיו בלילה את מעבר היבוק ונשאר בעברו השני של הנחל. איש נאבק עמו עד עלות השחר ולא יכול לו.[17] האיש מבקש מיעקב שישלחו, ויעקב מסכים בתנאי שיברך אותו. האיש קורא ליעקב בשמו ומשנה אותו לישראל "כִּי-שָׂרִיתָ עִם-אֱלֹהִים וְעִם-אֲנָשִׁים, וַתּוּכָל" (בראשית, ל"ב, כ"ט), מכאן ואילך המקרא יקרא ליעקב גם בשם ישראל מדי פעם. במהלך המאבק, האיש נוגע בכף ירך יעקב וגורם לו לצליעה. המקרא מציין כי בשל כך לא אוכלים בני ישראל את גיד הנשה אשר על כף הירך. בעוד שהשם יעקב מציין את התנהלותו של יעקב באופן עקוב (התנהלותו עם עשו ולבן), השם ישראל שאפשר לקרוא אותו גם באופן "ישר-אל" מציין את התנהלותו בצורה ישרה ללא כל מראית עין. צאצאיו של יעקב נקראים בשם עדת יעקב אך בעיקר בשם בני ישראל. ויש מן הפרשנים וההוגים, שסברו כי השם יעקב מציין התנהלות של צאצאיו בגולה, ואילו השם ישראל מציין את צאצאיו בהתנהלותם בארץ ישראל בשלטון ריבוני ועצמאי.

לשינוי שמו מביאים הפרשנים את הטעמים הבאים:

רש"י מפרש: "לא יאמר עוד שהברכות באו אליך בעקבה ובמרמה כי אם בשררה וגילוי פנים" (בראשית, ל"ב, כ"ט). רמב"ן וספורנו מפרשים שיעקב לא ייקרא עוד "יעקב" מלשון עקב ושפלות, אלא "ישראל" - לשון שררה וגדולה לעתיד לבוא. השם ישראל הוא ראשי התיבות של שמות שלושת האבות וארבע האמהות - יצחק/יעקב, שרה, רחל/רבקה, אברהם, לאה. מעשה שכם ונקמת שמעון ולוי Postscript-viewer-shaded.png ערכים מורחבים – מעשה שכם ודינה, מעשה שמעון ולוי יעקב מגיע לכנען ונוטה את אהלו בשכם. אך גם כאן הוא איננו יושב בשלוה כפי שדימה. שכם בן חמור - נסיך העיר חוטף את דינה בת יעקב ואונס אותה ("וישכב אותה ויענה"), מתאהב בה ומחזיק בה בכוח. יעקב שומע על המאורע ומחריש וכאשר בניו חוזרים הם עצובים וכועסים על מעשה הנבלה. הנשיא אדון המקום, חמור שמו, בא לדבר עם יעקב ואיכשהו הדיון מתרחב, ובמעמד של יעקב ובניו האב ובנו מפצירים ביעקב ובניו לתת את בתם ואחותם לשכם לאישה, כאשר בתמורה להסכמה הם מציעים יחסי שלום ומסחר ואף מוהר גדול, בזמן שדינה החטופה מוחזקת כבת ערובה בביתו של חמור.

קולו של יעקב לא נשמע במשא ומתן, ובמקומו בניו עונים במרמה לאנשי שכם, כי יאותו לנישואין בין דינה לשכם, רק בהימול כל זכר בעיר, כי הערלה בעיניהם היא חרפה .[18] חמור ובנו משתכנעים בכנותם ומשכנעים את כל אנשי שכם לדרישה ונימולים. ביום השלישי למילתם שמעון ולוי בני יעקב, באים בטח על העיר והורגים כל זכר, ומשחררים את אחותם השבויה, כאשר יתר בני יעקב בוזזים את רכוש העיר, על נשם וטפם.[19]

יעקב מוחה בפני שמעון ולוי כנגד הפעולה המיליטנטית בטענה פרגמטית, שהוא המיעוט ועלול להשמד בעקבות תגובת נקם של עמי הכנעני והפריזי, והם עונים לו בתגובה: "הכזונה יעשה את אחותנו?". לימים פעולתם תזכה לתגובה נחרצת יותר, כאשר יעקב בברכותיו לבניו בטרם מותו, מזכה את בניו הנוקמים בקללה נמרצת, ומבשרם שכעונש על מעשיהם, הם יפוזרו בכל ישראל, ולא יהיו מקובצים כשאר השבטים.[20]

מות רחל

קבר רחל על גלויה מתחילת המאה ה-20 לאחר העימות עם אנשי שכם, יעקב מצטווה על ידי האל לעקור ולעבור לבית אל שם חלם את חלום הסולם המפורסם. יעקב מבקש מאנשי ביתו להכין את עצמם ולהטהר לקראת עלייתם לבית אל, במה שנראה כעין מנהג של עליה לרגל. הם נותנים לו את הצלמים שבידיהם ("אלוהי הנכר") והוא טומנם תחת האלה בשכם, בניסיון לקרב את כולם לאלוהיו אשר נגלה בפניו, בעוזבו את ארץ כנען. בהגיעם לבית אל הוא מקים מזבח וזוכה להתגלות נוספת של אלוהים. אך מסיבה לא מוסברת יעקב מחליט לא להשתקע במקום כפי הציווי האלוהי ("קוּם עֲלֵה בֵית-אֵל וְשֶׁב שָׁם") אלא לנדוד דרומה לאפרת. בבוא יעקב לבית לחם כורעת רחל ללדת בן שני לאחר יוסף, אך מתקשה בלדתה ומתה, לאחר שהיא קוראת בשם הולד "בן אוני", יעקב משנה את שמו ל"בנימין" שהופך להיות שמו הרשמי. והיא נקברת בדרך במה שנקרא קבר רחל. המדרש וחלק מהפרשנים טוענים שמותה היה בשל העובדה כי גנבה את התרפים של אביה, והתגשמות ההסתייגות הנחרצת של יעקב מהמעשה, "עִם אֲשֶׁר תִּמְצָא אֶת אֱלֹהֶיךָ, לֹא יִחְיֶה נֶגֶד אַחֵינוּ".[21] תפיסה שנשנית אחר כך אצל בני יעקב, כאשר שליחו של יוסף מאשימם בגניבת גביע הכסף של אדונו, הם מוקיעים את המעשה בדרך דומה ומשיבים לו: "אֲשֶׁר יִמָּצֵא אִתּוֹ מֵעֲבָדֶיךָ, וָמֵת".[22] נראה שהחומרה שהם מייחסים למעשה איננה רק בשל הגניבה, אלא גם בשל כפיות הטובה והחזרת רעה תחת טובה.

מכירת יוסף

הבשורה על מות יוסף לאחר מות רחל יעקב מגלה העדפה ברורה בין בניו ויוסף - בן אשתו האהובה זוכה ליחס מפלה לטובה מצד אביו שמקבל גם ביטוי ממשי - כתונת פסים. יוסף עוד מבעיר שמן למדורת הקנאה, בהביאו את דיבתם הרעה של האחים אל אביו, ובחלומותיו אודות גדולתו ושלטונו על האחים, שהתגשמו בסופו של דבר בהיותו השר הבכיר במצרים. יחסו של יעקב והתנהגותו של יוסף גוררים את משטמת שאר האחים, ובעיקר בני לאה שמרגישים מקופחים, ויוסף ברגע שהשעה לא משחקת לו, מופשט מכותנתו, נזרק לבור, נמכר לעבד לשיירת סוחרים ומורד מצרימה. למעשה האחים ביקשו לרצוח נפש את "בעל החלומות", אך הרעיון סוכל בידי יהודה שהמתיק את המעשה למכירת עבד. לאחר המכירה האחים מביימים את מותו, מכתימים את מושא הקנאה בדם שעיר עזים, ושולחים אותו ליעקב במסר מתריס כאילו אמרו, הדבר שבו ייחדת את יוסף, הוא המבשר לך על מותו. יעקב שמסיק ממראה הכותנת המוכתמת בדם כי יוסף נטרף, מתאבל על בנו המיוחד ימים רבים וממאן להינחם - "כי ארד אל בני אבל שאולה". ואין מי שיגלה לו כי למעשה בנו חי, אפילו לא אביו יצחק.[23] שנים רבות לאחר מכן יראה יעקב את יוסף כנגיד על מצרים טרם מותו, ויברכו ברכה אחת אפים על אחיו, אך את שנות היגון והצער הרבות שהיו מנת חלקו כאב שכול הוא לא שכח.

ראובן ובלהה פילגש אביו Postscript-viewer-shaded.png ערך מורחב – מעשה ראובן ובלהה לאחר מות רחל, ראובן שוכב עם בלהה, הפילגש של אביו. המקרא מתאר את תגובתו של יעקב למעשה בכך ששמע את הדבר בלבד ולא הגיב. יש המפרשים שתגובתו של יעקב הוחסרה בכוונה. תרגום יונתן אף מוסיף שיעקב חשד שגורלו של ראובן יהיה כשל ישמעאל ועשו, שנדחקו מסגולתו של ישראל. המעשה שיש לו מקבילה תנכית בשכיבת אבשלום עם פילגשי דוד אביו, מוסבר בכך שראובן קינא לאימו שהוזנחה בידי יעקב וניסה לחלל את שפחת רחל, ובכך לחבר בכוח בין אביו לאימו. לפני מותו מאשימו יעקב בעליה על משכב אביו ובחילול יצועו ומדירו מהמעמד השלטוני הבכיר אותו הוא מועיד ליהודה, ומלקבל שני חלקים בארץ ישראל על פי משפט הבכורה אותם הוא מעביר ליוסף. יש דעות במדרש שראובן מודר אף מהכהונה שעוברת ללוי. לעצם גוף המעשה חז"ל אמרו: "כל האומר ראובן חטא אינו אלא טועה".[24] ובעקבותיהם רוב פרשני המקרא הסבירו בצורה מעודנת יותר את החטא ופירשו שלא ממש שכב עם בלהה, אלא רק בלבל את היצועים והעביר את מיטת אביו לאהל לאה אימו.

ברכת יעקב לבניו Postscript-viewer-shaded.png ערך מורחב – ברכת יעקב ברכת יעקב לבניו, אשר מצאצאיהם יקום עם ישראל נאמרות כאשר יעקב אבינו חש שקרב יומו למות.[25] הוא הציב לעצמו מטרה להגיד לבניו את אשר יקרא אתכם - דהיינו, דבר נבואה לעתיד. אך בסופו של דבר הציג את תכונותיהם, הראה את המשמעות הנובעת מכך ומכאן גם המסקנה לעתיד. הברכות האישיות נאמרו רק בסוף דבריו לאחר הצגת הסיכום: "כָּל-אֵלֶּה שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר וְזֹאת אֲשֶׁר-דִּבֶּר לָהֶם אֲבִיהֶם (עד כאן, ומעתה) וַיְבָרֶךְ אוֹתָם אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר כְּבִרְכָתוֹ בֵּרַךְ אֹתָם" (פסוק כ"ח) - כלומר הברכות נאמרו בנפרד לאחר דבריו לכל שבט ושבט .[26]

מותו

יעקב מברך את מנשה ואפרים לפני מותו לאחר שיעקב מתבשר כי בנו יוסף חי והוא מושל על כל ארץ מצרים, הוא מבקש להתאחד אתו ומקבל מאלוהים הסכמה ועידוד לעזוב את ארץ כנען, שסבו אברהם נדד אליה במטרה להתיישב בה. כל המשפחה שכבר מונה כ-70 נפש יורדת למצרים. במצרים יעקב זוכה לראות את יוסף בתפארתו ובגדולתו מגשים את חלומותיו, להפגש עם פרעה ואף לברכו, ואף להפגש עם נכדיו מיוסף ולהוסיף להם חלק בירושת הארץ, כאשר הוא מעדיף בדרך האופיינית לו את הצעיר על פני הבכור. במפגש עם פרעה יעקב מסכם את חייו "כמעטים ורעים". והוא ומשפחתו מקבלים אחוזה נוחה להתגורר בה על פי ציוויו של פרעה. לפני מותו קורא יעקב לבניו[27] ומבקש שלא יקברו אותו במצרים אלא בקבורת אבותיו במערת המכפלה (דבר אשר עליו יוסף נשבע בעבר[28]). ואכן לאחר מותו אנשי מצרים חונטים את יעקב, ולאחר גמר האבל בפמליה גדולה, עם כל מכובדי מצרים עולים לארץ ישראל וקוברים את יעקב בחברון. על פי המקרא מאורע זה עורר רושם כל כך גדול, שעל שמו קראו לעיר חדשה בעבר הירדן בשם "אָבֵל מִצְרַיִם" .[29]

יעקב ועשו כסמל ביהדות יעקב אצל חז"ל הוא חלק בלתי נפרד מעשו. תשובתו של האל לרבקה כי המדובר בשני לאומים הציתה את דמיונם של הפרשנים הקדומים. היות שיעקב הוא סימלו של עם ישראל, הפך עשו ליריב המר ביותר של ישראל בכל דור. המן הוא מצאצאיו של עשו, כל ממלכת רומי היא אדום - עמו של עשו. טיטוס שהחריב את המקדש, הוא "רשע בן רשע, בן בנו של עשו הרשע" ובכלל כל התייחסות לעשו תהיה מלווה במילה "רשע".

המאבק בין עשו ליעקב נושא אופי מיסטי, והוא מרומז בבירכת יצחק לעשו "ואת אחיך תעבוד והיה כאשר תריד ופרקת עולו מעל צוארך". השליטה מועברת על ידי חז"ל לעולם הבא. שלטונו המוחלט של עשו/אדום/רומי בעולם הזה, מיוחס על ידי חז"ל לעובדה, שעל אף היותו רשע, כיבד את אביו ללא גבול.

בנוסף, חז"ל מכירים בעובדה שיעקב אכן לקח את הברכות במרמה ומייחסים לזעקתו של עשו בגלותו את התרמית, את העונש שבא בסופו של דבר על עם ישראל בדמות גזירת המן. הסיבה החותמת את הגולל על אי שלטון יעקב בעשו היא חטאיו של יעקב - כלומר חטאיהם של בני ישראל. המשפט שיצחק אומר לעשו על פריקת עול יעקב מפורש על ידי חז"ל כהתניה.

אם יעקב (דהיינו, בני ישראל) לא ימלא את התפקיד שהועיד לו האל בעולם אזי ישלוט עשו. יעקב של חז"ל כמו עשו של חז"ל, איננו מייצג את עצמו בלבד כי אם את כל התפיסה היהודית של אותו זמן מול כל התפיסה האלילית. חומרנות לעומת רוחניות, יראת האל לעומת עבודת אלילים ועוד כיוצא באלה דיכוטומיות.[30]

בנצרות פרק זה לוקה בחסר. אנא תרמו לוויקיפדיה והשלימו אותו. ייתכן שתמצאו פירוט בדף השיחה. ראו גם עיינו גם בפורטל: P Bible.png פורטל תנ"ך עץ משפחה של דמויות מקראיות - מתרח ועד שלמה הצילני נא מכירת הבכורה לקריאה נוספת יאיר זקוביץ, יעקב - הסיפור המפתיע של אבי האומה, אור יהודה: דביר, 2012. יונתן גרוסמן , יעקב - סיפורה של משפחה, ידיעות ספרים, 2019. קישורים חיצוניים מיזמי קרן ויקימדיה ויקימילון ערך מילוני בוויקימילון: יעקב לידת יעקב ועשו אצל הושע , בתוך: ד"ר לאה מזור, על מקרא הוראה וחינוך על ספרו של יאיר זקוביץ: יעקב - סיפורו המפתיע של אבי האומה , בתוך: ד"ר לאה מזור, על מקרא הוראה וחינוך תאריכים בחיי יעקב בויקיטקסט בראשית כה ואילך, הטקסט המלא , ניתן גם לשמוע הקלטה, אתר מכון ממרא זאב ח. ארליך (ז'אבו), "מסלול בריחת יעקב" בראי הושע הנביא , מקור ראשון, 28.11.07 יעקב אבינו , באנציקלופדיה "דעת". דניאל שרשבסקי, המפגש בין יעקב לרחל על הבאר , בתוך 'קריאות מדרשיות' הרב חגי לונדין, מושגים ביהדות - אבות האומה , אתר "ערוץ מאיר" קובץ וידאו מאיר שלו, ‏יעקב, רחל ולאה: תמונות מחיי נישואין , הרצאה בסדרת ההרצאות "בכור המהפכה", 29 במאי 2007 קטע קול יאיר זקוביץ ואביגדור שנאן, יעקב ועשו , באתר התסכיתים של האוניברסיטה העברית בירושלים אהוד נאמן, זהו אדם! - יעקב - אישיותו, קורותיו ותולדותיו הערות שוליים

ראו אנציקלופדיה מקראית, ג, טור 717.
ספר בראשית, פרק כ"ה, פסוק כ"ט
ספר בראשית, פרק כ"ז, פסוק ל"ג
זקוביץ, יאיר. "עקבת יעקב (בראשית כ"ה)." בתוך ספר ד"ר ברוך בן יהודה, בעריכת בן-ציון לוריא (תל אביב: החברה לחקר המקרא בישראל, תשמ"א), 121-44
מדרש תנחומא (ויצא א'). ובעל השפת אמת (ויצא, תרל"ד) ראו בגלותו עונש כדין מי שהרג את הנפש בשגגה, בשל גניבת הברכות מעשו וגרימת דחייתו מה'.
בראשית, כ"ה, כ'
מנהג זה ששמים על פי הבאר אבן גדולה וכבדה שרק בכוחות משותפים ניתן לגול אותה, נועד כנראה להנהיג בקרה ופיקוח על חלוקת המים בין הקהילה.
סיפור הבאר בא לציין את ההתלהבות הגדולה של יעקב מרחל, ואולי את כוחו הפיסי הרב של יעקב.
"וַיַּרְא ה' כִּי-שְׂנוּאָה לֵאָה" (ספר בראשית, פרק כ"ט, פסוקים ל"א-ל"ג)
יחסים אלו משתקפים למשל בדברים של לאה לרחל, "וַתֹּאמֶר לָהּ הַמְעַט קַחְתֵּךְ אֶת אִישִׁי וְלָקַחַת גַּם אֶת דּוּדָאֵי בְּנִי?" (בראשית, ל', ט"ו). אם כי מפרשנות המקרא עולה כי לא שררה איבה בין השתיים, עד כדי כך שרחל היא זו שגרמה בעצם לנישואי יעקב ולאה, שכן מסרה ללאה סימנים מוסכמים שנתן לה יעקב לפני החופה, כדי שיזהה אותה בהמשך הלילה
המקרא מתאר איך לאה מנסה להגיע לליבו של יעקב באמצעות הילדים הרבים שהיא יולדת לו והדבר מתבטא במיוחד בשמות שהיא קוראת להם ובפרשנות שלה לשמות אלו. (בראשית, כ"ט, ל"ב-ל"ה.)
ילקוט שמעוני לפרשת שמות
סדר עולם רבה
מקור, בין השאר, מנחם מיכלסון, יהודה סלומון ומשה מילנר, מקומות קדושים וקברי צדיקים בארץ ישראל - משרד הביטחון ההוצאה לאור
רק שמת לוי החל שעבוד מצרים לפי סדר עולם רבה
בראשית, ל"ג, ג'-ז' ורש"י שם
פרק מוזר זה הוא כר נרחב לפרשנויות הן עתיקות והן מודרניות. חוקרי מקרא מזהים כאן שריד למסורות אליליות של היאבקות אנשים ומלאכים. פרשנים מוקדמים ומסורתיים יותר, מציינים כי האיש היה "שרו של עשו".
ייתכן כי סברו שאנשי שכם לא יסכימו לעבור ברית מילה, ולכן יהיה תירוץ הוגן שלא לתת את דינה.
המקרא לא מספר מדוע כל האחים ואף יעקב, שהיו בתחבולה בתחילה, השתמטו ממנה ולבסוף רק שמעון ולוי היו שביצעו את שחרור דינה. האם היה חוסר הסכמה על צורת התגובה ושחרור דינה? הייתכן שיעקב וחלק מהאחים סברו למשל שיש לשחרר את דינה, מבלי לפגוע בנפשם של אנשי המקום. ואולי כאשר היה ברור להם כי שמעון ולוי מתכננים הרג המוני של כל שכם, פרשו לבל יוכתמו בדבר?
(בראשית, מ"ט, ה'-ז')
(בראשית, ל"א, ל"ב)
(בראשית, מ"ד, ט')
ספר בראשית, פרק ל"ז, פסוק ל"ד
(שבת נה, רבי שמואל בר נחמני בשמו של רבי יונתן)
בפרשת ויחי פרק מ"ט
לפי רבי אברהם בן מאיר אֶבּן עזרא
ביאור:בראשית מט – ויקיטקסט

, he.wikisource.org

קטגוריה:בראשית מז כט – ויקיטקסט

, he.wikisource.org

ספר בראשית, פרק נ', פסוק י"א
האמירות דלעיל המיוחסות לחז"ל מופיעות במדרש בראשית רבה בפרשות ס"ג, ס"ה - ס"ח

https://he.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D7%99%D7%A2%D7%A7%D7%91

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He was born when his father was fifty-nine and Abraham one hundred and fifty-nine years old (probably at Lahai-Roi). Like his father, he was of a quiet and gentle disposition, and when he grew up followed the life of a shepherd, while his brother Esau became an enterprising hunter. His dealing with Esau, however, showed much mean selfishness and cunning (Gen. 25:29-34). When Isaac was about 160 years of age, Jacob and his mother conspired to deceive the aged patriarch (Gen. 27), with the view of procuring the transfer of the birthright to himself. The birthright secured to him who possessed it (1) superior rank in his family (Gen. 49:3); (2) a double portion of the paternal inheritance (Deut. 21:17); (3) the priestly office in the family (Num. 8:17-19); and (4) the promise of the Seed in which all nations of the earth were to be blessed (Gen. 22:18). Soon after his acquisition of his father's blessing (Gen. 27), Jacob became conscious of his guilt; and afraid of the anger of Esau, at the suggestion of Rebekah, Isaac sent him away to Haran, 400 miles or more, to find a wife among his cousins, the family of Laban, the Syrian (28). There he met with Rachel (29). Laban would not consent to give him his daughter in marriage till he had served seven years; but to Jacob these years "seemed but a few days, for the love he had to her." But when the seven years were expired, Laban craftily deceived Jacob, and gave him his daughter Leah. Other seven years of service had to be completed probably before he obtained the beloved Rachel. But "life-long sorrow, disgrace, and trials, in the retributive providence of God, followed as a consequence of this double union." At the close of the fourteen years of service, Jacob desired to return to his parents, but at the entreaty of Laban he tarried yet six years with him, tending his flocks (31:41). He then set out with his family and property "to go to Isaac his father in the land of Canaan" (Gen. 31). Laban was angry when he heard that Jacob had set out on his journey, and pursued after him, overtaking him in seven days. The meeting was of a painful kind. After much recrimination and reproach directed against Jacob, Laban is at length pacified, and taking an affectionate farewell of his daughters, returns to his home in Padanaram. And now all connection of the Israelites with Mesopotamia is at an end. Soon after parting with Laban he is met by a company of angels, as if to greet him on his return and welcome him back to the Land of Promise (32:1, 2). He called the name of the place Mahanaim, i.e., "the double camp," probably his own camp and that of the angels. The vision of angels was the counterpart of that he had formerly seen at Bethel, when, twenty years before, the weary, solitary traveler, on his way to Padan-aram, saw the angels of God ascending and descending on the ladder whose top reached to heaven (28:12). He now hears with dismay of the approach of his brother Esau with a band of 400 men to meet him. In great agony of mind he prepares for the worst. He feels that he must now depend only on God, and he betakes himself to him in earnest prayer, and sends on before him a munificent present to Esau, "a present to my lord Esau from thy servant Jacob." Jacob's family were then transported across the Jabbok; but he himself remained behind, spending the night in communion with God. While thus engaged, there appeared one in the form of a man who wrestled with him. In this mysterious contest Jacob prevailed, and as a memorial of it his name was changed to Israel (wrestler with God); and the place where this occurred he called Peniel, "for", said he, "I have seen God face to face, and my life is preserved" (32:25-31). After this anxious night, Jacob went on his way, halting, mysteriously weakened by the conflict, but strong in the assurance of the divine favour. Esau came forth and met him; but his spirit of revenge was appeased, and the brothers met as friends, and during the remainder of their lives they maintained friendly relations. After a brief sojourn at Succoth, Jacob moved forward and pitched his tent near Shechem (q.v.), 33:18; but at length, under divine directions, he moved to Bethel, where he made an altar unto God (35:6,7), and where God appeared to him and renewed the Abrahamic covenant. While journeying from Bethel to Ephrath (the Canaanitish name of Bethlehem), Rachel died in giving birth to her second son Benjamin (35:16-20), fifteen or sixteen years after the birth of Joseph. He then reached the old family residence at Mamre, to wait on the dying bed of his father Isaac. The complete reconciliation between Esau and Jacob was shown by their uniting in the burial of the patriarch (35:27-29). Jacob was soon after this deeply grieved by the loss of his beloved son Joseph through the jealousy of his brothers (37:33). Then follows the story of the famine, and the successive goings down into Egypt to buy corn (42), which led to the discovery of the long-lost Joseph, and the patriarch's going down with all his household, numbering about seventy souls (Ex. 1:5; Deut. 10:22; Acts 7:14), to sojourn in the land of Goshen. Here Jacob, "after being strangely tossed about on a very rough ocean, found at last a tranquil harbour, where all the best affections of his nature were gently exercised and largely unfolded" (Gen. 48). At length the end of his checkered course draws nigh, and he summons his sons to his bedside that he may bless them. Among his last words he repeats the story of Rachel's death, although forty years had passed away since that event took place, as tenderly as if it had happened only yesterday; and when "he had made an end of charging his sons, he gathered up his feet into the bed, and yielded up the ghost" (49:33). His body was embalmed and carried with great pomp into the land of Canaan, and buried beside his wife Leah in the cave of Machpelah, according to his dying charge. There, probably, his embalmed body remains to this day (50:1-13). (See HEBRON ¯T0001712.) The history of Jacob is referred to by the prophets Hosea (12:3, 4, 12) and Malachi (1:2). In Micah 1:5 the name is a poetic synonym for Israel, the kingdom of the ten tribes. There are, besides the mention of his name along with those of the other patriarchs, distinct references to events of his life in Paul's epistles (Rom. 9:11-13; Heb. 12:16; 11:21). See references to his vision at Bethel and his possession of land at Shechem in John 1:51; 4:5, 12; also to the famine which was the occasion of his going down into Egypt in Acts 7:12 (See LUZ ¯T0002335; BETHEL ¯T0000554.)


Genesis35 Jacob Is Named Israel

9Then God appeared to Jacob again when he came from Paddan-aram, and He blessed him.
10God said to him,
        "Your name is Jacob;
        You shall no longer be called Jacob,
        But Israel shall be your name."
        Thus He called him Israel.
11God also said to him,
        "I am God Almighty;
        Be fruitful and multiply;
        A nation and a company of nations shall come from you,
        And kings shall come forth from you.
   12"The land which I gave to Abraham and Isaac,
        I will give it to you,
        And I will give the land to your descendants after you."

Genesis 35 The Sons of Israel Now there were twelve sons of Jacob--

23the sons of Leah: Reuben, Jacob's firstborn, then Simeon and Levi and Judah and Issachar and Zebulun;
24the sons of Rachel: Joseph and Benjamin;
25and the sons of Bilhah, Rachel's maid: Dan and Naphtali;
26and the sons of Zilpah, Leah's maid: Gad and Asher. These are the sons of Jacob who were born to him in Paddan-aram.

Jacob nació con una mano agarrada del talón de su hermano mellizo Esaú; por tal razón le llamaron Jacob. (Gén. 25:26). En hebreo, Jacob tiene un sonido parecido a “talón”, y también está relacionado con el verbo “suplantar” o “hacer trampa”. . . Ésto se hace evidente en el capítulo 27 de Génesis cuando Jacob se roba la bendición que le pertenecía a su hermano, ayudado por el subterfugio de su madre! . . . Isaac ya era muy viejo, y estaba ciego, cuando manda a llamar a Esaú y le pide que le traiga un animal del campo y que lo prepare para que él pueda comer y bendecirle. Pero Rebeca estaba oyendo, y cuando Esaú salió, ella le relata a Jacob lo que había oído y lo insta para que le lleve unos carneritos y ella misma preparárselos a su esposo; y, de esa manera, hacer que Jacob, su preferido, suplante a su hermano mayor y se lleve la bendición de su padre antes de que él muera. De esa forma, Jacob, ayudado por su madre, logra robarse la bendición que, por derecho, le pertenecía a Esaú. (Gén. 27:1-40). Y entonces huye del enojo de su hermano y se dirige a Harán a casa de Labán, hermano de su madre Rebeca. (Gén. 27:41-45). . .Dios, ahora, le hace la misma promesa que le hizo a su padre y abuelo. (Gén. 28:10-15). . . En casa de labán, después de haberle trabajado por 14 años, toma por esposas a sus dos hijas. (Gén. 29:16-28). . . Cuando la familia de Jacob llegó a Egipto huyendo de la hambruna de su tierra eran 66, sin contar las esposas de sus hijos, los hijos de José eran dos, que nacieron en Egipto. Así que a Egipto llegaron 70 personas de la familia de Jacob. (Gén. 46:26-27).


aka Israel (Yisrael, eponym af Israel), aka Jacob ben ISAAC den semit alias Yaqub; poss. identificeret med Horus, qv, tilranede trone fra sin tvillingebror Esau; poss. aka Yaqaru (King) i Ugarit, aka Jakob YISRA'EL

Poss. Jullus i Roms 9-oldefar.

HM George I s 97-oldefar.
HRE Ferdinand I s 93-oldefar. 

Osawatomie 'Browns 103-oldefar.


Wives / Partnere:       Leah (Lia) bint Laban   ,   Rachel bint Laban   ,   Zilpas, Tjenerinde   ,   Bilha, Tjenerinde 
 Børn:       Levi ibn JACOB   ,   Juda (Judas Juda) ibn JACOB   ,   (NN) ... (NN) Judas   ,   Joseph ben JACOB   ,   Dinah (Dina)   ,   Asher (Aser) ibn JACOB   ,   Gad ibn JACOB   ,   Naftali ibn JACOB   ,   Benjamin (Benoni) ibn JACOB   ,   Zebulum ibn JACOB   ,   Issakar ibn JACOB   ,   Simeon (Shim'on ) ibn JACOB   ,   Reuben (Ruben) ibn JACOB   ,   Dan ibn JACOB

--

Mulig Barn:       Barayah (bas JACOB?) 
 Alternativ Father of Mulig Barn:       Levi ibn JACOB

--- Fra http://fabpedigree.com/s032/f008888.htm


http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=royals&id=I60659

Israel or Jacob 1837-1690 B.C. Twin to Esau. m. Rachel m.(2) Keturah. 1 Chr. 1:34. Jacob or Israel (identified with Cronos and Saturn of Crete by Sanchoniatho, an ancient Phoneician author, who writes of "Kronos, whom the Phoenicians call Israel.' Kronos (Saturn) had a special son Jehurd (cf. Judah and Jupiter). "Baetylos, the Stone swallowed by Kronos, the sacred stone of Zeus," corresponds to "Bethel-El, the Stone carried by Israel." See "Ancient Fragments of Sanchoniatho, etc.," by L.P. Cory. Brit. Mus. 800 g. 10) quoted by Milner: The Royal House of Britain" pp. 12-13.


Nabi Ya'kub A.S. atau Israil. Kembar 'Isho. Menurunkan Bani Israil (Yahudi).
Jacob (later given the name Israel) is considered a patriarch of the Israelites. According to the Book of Genesis, Jacob (/ˈdʒeɪkəb/; Hebrew: יַעֲקֹב Standard Yaʿakov[1]) was the third Hebrew progenitor with whom God made a covenant.

In the Hebrew Bible, he is the son of Isaac and Rebekah, the grandson of Abraham, Sarah and of Bethuel, and the younger twin brother of Esau. Jacob had twelve sons and at least one daughter, by his two wives, Leah and Rachel, and by their handmaidens Bilhah and Zilpah. The children named in Genesis were Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Dan, Naphtali, Gad, Asher, Issachar, Zebulun, daughter Dinah, Joseph, and Benjamin.[2]

Before the birth of Benjamin, Jacob is renamed Israel by God (Genesis 32:28-29 and 35:10). Etymologically, it has been suggested that the name "Israel" comes from the Hebrew words לִשְׂרות (lisrot, "wrestle") and אֵל (El, "God").[3] Popular English translations typically reference the face off with God, ranging from active "wrestles with God" to passive "God contends",[4][5] but various other meanings have also been suggested. Some commentators say the name comes from the verb śārar ("to rule, be strong, have authority over"), thereby making the name mean "God rules" or "God judges";[6] or "the prince of God" (from the King James Version) or "El (God) fights/struggles".[7]

His original name Ya'akov is sometimes explained as having meant "holder of the heel" or "supplanter", because he was born holding his twin brother Esau's heel, and eventually supplanted Esau in obtaining their father Isaac's blessing. Other scholars speculate that the name is derived from a longer form such as יַעֲקֹבְאֵל (Ya'aqov'el) meaning "may God protect".

Jacob's Dream statue and display on the campus of Abilene Christian University. The artwork is based on Genesis 28:10-22 and graphically represents the scenes alluded to in the hymn "Nearer, My God, to Thee" and the spiritual "We Are Climbing Jacob's Ladder" as well as other musical works. As a result of a severe drought in Canaan, Jacob and his sons moved to Egypt at the time when his son Joseph was viceroy. After Jacob died there 17 years later, Joseph carried Jacob's remains to the land of Canaan, and gave him a stately burial in the same Cave of Machpelah as were buried Abraham, Sarah, Isaac, Rebekah, and Jacob's first wife, Leah.

Jacob figures in a number of sacred scriptures, including the Hebrew Bible, the Talmud, the New Testament, the Qur'an, and Bahá'í scripture.[8]

Jacob's ladder[edit] Main article: Jacob's Ladder

Jacob's Ladder by William Blake (c. 1800, British Museum, London) Near Luz en route to Haran, Jacob experienced a vision of a ladder, or staircase, reaching into heaven with angels going up and down it, commonly referred to as "Jacob's ladder". He heard the voice of God, who repeated many of the blessings upon him, coming from the top of the ladder.

According to Rashi, the ladder signified the exiles that the Jewish people would suffer before the coming of the Jewish Messiah: the angels that represented the exiles of Babylonia, Persia, and Greece each climbed up a certain number of steps, paralleling the years of the exile, before they "fell down"; but the angel representing the last exile, that of Rome or Edom, kept climbing higher and higher into the clouds.[citation needed] Jacob feared that his descendants would never be free of Esau's domination, but God assured him that at the End of Days, Edom too would come falling down.

In the morning, Jacob awakened and continued on his way to Haran, after naming the place where he had spent the night "Bethel", "God's house".

Jacob's marriages[edit] Arriving in Haran, Jacob saw a well where shepherds were gathering their flocks to water them and met Laban's younger daughter, Rachel, Jacob's first cousin; she was working as a shepherdess. He loved her immediately, and after spending a month with his relatives, asked for her hand in marriage in return for working seven years for Laban. Laban agreed to the arrangement. These seven years seemed to Jacob "but a few days, for the love he had for her", but when they were complete and he asked for his wife, Laban deceived Jacob by switching Rachel's older sister, Leah, as the veiled bride.

Rachel and Jacob by William Dyce In the morning, when the truth became known, Laban justified his action, saying that in his country it was unheard of to give a younger daughter before the older. However, he agreed to give Rachel in marriage as well if Jacob would work another seven years. After the week of wedding celebrations with Leah, Jacob married Rachel, and he continued to work for Laban for another seven years.

Jacob loved Rachel more than Leah, and Leah felt hated. God opened Leah's womb and she gave birth to four sons rapidly: Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah. Rachel, however, remained barren. Following the example of Sarah, who gave her handmaid to Abraham after years of infertility, Rachel gave Jacob her handmaid, Bilhah, in marriage so that Rachel could raise children through her. Bilhah gave birth to Dan and Naphtali. Seeing that she had left off childbearing temporarily, Leah then gave her handmaid Zilpah to Jacob in marriage so that Leah could raise more children through her. Zilpah gave birth to Gad and Asher. (According to The Testaments of the Patriarchs, Testament of Naphtali, Chapter 1, lines 9-12, Bilhah and Zilpah were daughters of Rotheus and Euna, servants of Laban.)[citation needed] Afterwards, Leah became fertile again and gave birth to Issachar, Zebulun, and Dinah, Jacob's first and only daughter. God remembered Rachel, who gave birth to Joseph and Benjamin. If pregnancies of different marriages overlapped, the first twelve births (all the sons except Benjamin, and the daughter Dinah) could have occurred within seven years. That is one obvious, but not universally held, interpretation of Genesis 29:27-30:25.[13]

After Joseph was born, Jacob decided to return home to his parents. Laban was reluctant to release him, as God had blessed his flock on account of Jacob. Laban asked what he could pay Jacob. Jacob proposed that all the spotted, speckled, and brown goats and sheep of Laban's flock, at any given moment, would be his wages. Jacob placed peeled rods of poplar, hazel, and chestnut within the flocks' watering holes or troughs, an action he later attributes to a dream.

As time passed, Laban's sons noticed that Jacob was taking the better part of their flocks, and so Laban's friendly attitude towards Jacob began to change. God told Jacob that he should leave, which he and his wives and children did without informing Laban. Before they left, Rachel stole the teraphim, considered to be household idols, from Laban's house.

In a rage, Laban pursued Jacob for seven days. The night before he caught up to him, God appeared to Laban in a dream and warned him not to say anything good or bad to Jacob. When the two met, Laban played the part of the injured father-in-law, demanding his teraphim back. Knowing nothing about Rachel's theft, Jacob told Laban that whoever stole them should die and stood aside to let him search. When Laban reached Rachel's tent, she hid the teraphim by sitting on them and stating she could not get up because she was menstruating. Jacob and Laban then parted from each other with a pact to preserve the peace between them. Laban returned to his home and Jacob continued on his way.

Journey back to Canaan[edit]

Jacob Wrestling with the Angel by Eugène Delacroix. Main article: Jacob wrestling with the angel As Jacob neared the land of Canaan, he sent messengers ahead to his brother Esau. They returned with the news that Esau was coming to meet Jacob with an army of 400 men. With great apprehension, Jacob prepared for the worst. He engaged in earnest prayer to God, then sent on before him a tribute of flocks and herds to Esau, "a present to my lord Esau from thy servant Jacob".

Jacob then transported his family and flocks across the ford Jabbok by night, then recrossed back to send over his possessions, being left alone in communion with God. There, a mysterious being appeared ("man", Genesis 32:24, 28; or "God", Genesis 32:28, 30, Hosea 12:3, 5; or "angel", Hosea 12:4), and the two wrestled until daybreak. When the being saw that he did not overpower Jacob, he touched Jacob on the sinew of his thigh (the gid hanasheh, גיד הנשה), and, as a result, Jacob developed a limp (Genesis 32:31). Because of this, "to this day the people of Israel do not eat the sinew of the thigh that is on the hip socket" (Genesis 32:32). This incident is the source of the mitzvah of porging.[14]

Jacob then demanded a blessing, and the being declared in Genesis 32:28 that, from then on, Jacob would be called יִשְׂרָאֵל, Israel (Yisrael, meaning "one that struggled with the divine angel" (Josephus), "one who has prevailed with God" (Rashi), "a man seeing God" (Whiston), "he will rule as God" (Strong), or "a prince with God" (Morris), from Hebrew: שרה‎, "prevail", "have power as a prince").[15] While he is still called Jacob in later texts, his name Israel makes some consider him the eponymous ancestor of the Israelites.

Jacob asked the being's name, but he refused to answer. Afterwards, Jacob named the place Penuel (Penuwel, Peniyel, meaning "face of God"),[16] saying: "I have seen God face to face and lived."

Because the terminology is ambiguous ("el" in Yisrael) and inconsistent, and because this being refused to reveal his name, there are varying views as to whether he was a man, an angel, or God. Josephus uses only the terms "angel", "divine angel", and "angel of God", describing the struggle as no small victory. According to Rashi, the being was the guardian angel of Esau himself, sent to destroy Jacob before he could return to the land of Canaan. Trachtenberg theorized that the being refused to identify itself for fear that, if its secret name was known, it would be conjurable by incantations.[17] Literal Christian interpreters like Henry M. Morris say that the stranger was "God Himself and, therefore, Christ in His preincarnate state", citing Jacob's own evaluation and the name he assumed thereafter, "one who fights victoriously with God", and adding that God had appeared in the human form of the Angel of the Lord to eat a meal with Abraham in Genesis 18.[18] Geller wrote that, "in the context of the wrestling bout, the name implies that Jacob won this supremacy, linked to that of God's, by a kind of theomachy."[19]

In the morning, Jacob assembled his 4 wives and 11 sons, placing the maidservants and their children in front, Leah and her children next, and Rachel and Joseph in the rear. Some commentators cite this placement as proof that Jacob continued to favor Joseph over Leah's children, as presumably the rear position would have been safer from a frontal assault by Esau, which Jacob feared. Jacob himself took the foremost position. Esau's spirit of revenge, however, was apparently appeased by Jacob's bounteous gifts of camels, goats and flocks. Their reunion was an emotional one.

Peter Paul Rubens, The Reconciliation of Jacob and Esau, 1624. Esau offered to accompany them on their way back to Israel, but Jacob protested that his children were still young and tender (born 6 to 13 years prior in the narrative); Jacob suggested eventually catching up with Esau at Mount Seir. According to the Sages, this was a prophetic reference to the End of Days, when Jacob's descendants will come to Mount Seir, the home of Edom, to deliver judgment against Esau's descendants for persecuting them throughout the millennia (see Obadiah 1:21). Jacob actually diverted himself to Succoth and was not recorded as rejoining Esau until, at Machpelah, the two bury their father Isaac, who lived to 180 and was 60 years older than them.

Jacob then arrived in Shechem, where he bought a parcel of land, now identified as Joseph's Tomb. In Shechem, Jacob's daughter Dinah was kidnapped and raped by the ruler's son, who desired to marry the girl. Dinah's brothers, Simeon and Levi, agreed in Jacob's name to permit the marriage as long as all the men of Shechem first circumcised themselves, ostensibly to unite the children of Jacob in Abraham's covenant of familial harmony. On the third day after the circumcisions, when all the men of Shechem were still in pain, Simeon and Levi put them all to death by the sword and rescued their sister Dinah, and their brothers plundered the property, women, and children. Jacob condemned this act, saying: "You have brought trouble on me by making me a stench to the Canaanites and Perizzites, the people living in this land."[20] He later rebuked his two sons for their anger in his deathbed blessing (Genesis 49:5-7).

Jacob struggles with the angel. Gutenberg Bible, 1558. Jacob returned to Bethel, where he had another vision of blessing. Although the death of Rebecca, Jacob's mother, is not explicitly recorded in the Bible, Deborah, Rebecca's nurse, died and was buried at Bethel, at a place that Jacob calls Allon Bachuth (אלון בכות), "Oak of Weepings" (Genesis 35:8). According to the Midrash,[21] the plural form of the word "weeping" indicates the double sorrow that Rebecca also died at this time.

Jacob then made a further move while Rachel was pregnant; near Bethlehem, Rachel went into labor and died as she gave birth to her second son, Benjamin (Jacob's twelfth son). Jacob buried her and erected a monument over her grave. Rachel's Tomb, just outside Bethlehem, remains a popular site for pilgrimages and prayers to this day. Jacob then settled in Migdal Eder, where his firstborn, Reuben, slept with Rachel's servant Bilhah; Jacob's response was not given at the time, but he did condemn Reuben for it later, in his deathbed blessing. Jacob was finally reunited with his father Isaac in Mamre (outside Hebron).

When Isaac died at the age of 180, Jacob and Esau buried him in the Cave of the Patriarchs, which Abraham had purchased as a family burial plot. At this point in the biblical narrative, two genealogies of Esau's family appear under the headings "the generations of Esau". A conservative interpretation is that, at Isaac's burial, Jacob obtained the records of Esau, who had been married 80 years prior, and incorporated them into his own family records, and that Moses augmented and published them.[22]


Patriarch of Israel

  1. Israel (Jacob) , King of Goshen, Saturn Crete

Buriel in cave of Machpelah near Marnre in the field of Ephrom.

other sources say:

b: 1862/1891 bc - Haran, Padan-aram d: 1715/1744 bc - Rameses, Goshen, Egypt


Jacob, lately also called Israel, was the forefather of the Hebrew Israelites. he fathered 12 son and a daughter. his twelve sons was also called "The twelve tribe of Israel." Levi his son was the great grandfather of Moses. and Judah his son was the forefather of David.


According to the Book of Genesis, Jacob was the third Hebrew progenitor with whom God made a covenant. He is the son of Isaac and Rebecca, the grandson of Abraham, Sarah and Bethuel, the nephew of Ishmael, and the younger twin brother of Esau. more here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacob

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Patriarch Jacob's Timeline

-1892
-1892
Syria
-1827
-1827
Padan-aram
-1826
-1826
Padan-aram
-1822
-1822
Paddan-Aram
-1821
-1821
Padan-Aram, Canaan(Gen 46:24)
-1820
-1820
Padan-aram
-1819
-1819
Padan-aram