We would like to honor the extraordinary heroes, National leaders, Generals, Scientists, Partisans, Diplomats, Civil Servants and the countless supremely brave Resistors -- all the individuals who helped eradicate the darkest period in history.
The eleven million victims of the Nazi regime included intelligentsia, artists, homosexuals, religious groups including six million Jews, the mentally and physically disabled, prisoners of war, gypsies, and races that were deemed inferior.
Whosoever saves a single life, saves an entire universe
(Mishnah, Sanhedrin 4:5)
Sheltering the Jews - Stories of Holocaust Rescuers - Mordecai Paldiel
The Heart has Reasons: Holocaust Rescuers and their Stories of Courage - Mark Klempner
Saving the Children- Bert Jan Flim
Their Stories of Courage - Mark Klempner
Rescuers; Portraits of Moral Courage in the Holocaust - Malka Drucker
Countries refusing to comply with Nazi demands of deporting Jews to Germany!
National Leaders & Generals
- Sir Winston Churchill Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
- Wilhelmina, Queen of the Netherlands key to Dutch Resistance.
- Franklin Delano Roosevelt 32nd President of the United States.
- Harry S. Truman 33rd President of the United States.
- HRH The Princess Alice of Greece & Denmark - sheltering Jewish refugees.
- HRH The King of Denmark & Iceland
- Georg Ferdinand Duckwitz - German diplomat in Denmark.
- Elizabeth of Bavaria Queen consort of the Belgians.
- General Dwight D. Eisenhower later 34th President of the United States.
- Field Marshal Lord Montgomery of Alamein
- Marshal Gregory Zhukov - Гео́ргий Жу́ков
- General Charles de Gaulle later President of France.
- General George C. Marshall Marshall Plan WWll.
Diplomats and Civil Servants
- Per Anger - Swedish Diplomat in Budapest, issue provisional passports to Jews.
- Wladyslaw Bartoszewski - Polish Zegota activist.
- Duke Roberto de Castro Brandao - Brazilian diplomat, issued diplomatic visas and passports to Jews in Marseilles, France.
- Folke Bernadotte Count of Wisborg - Swedish Diplomat. Negotiated release of 27,000 people, majority Jews, to hospitals in Sweden.
- Jacon (Jack) Bernardout - British diplomat to Dominican Republic.
- Hiram Bingham American Vice Consul in Marseille, France 1940-1941.
- Alberto Teixeira Branquinho - Hungarian Diplomat.
- Angel Sanz Briz (the Angel of Budapest) - Spanish Diplomat.
- Corl. José Castellanos Contreras Salvadoran General Consul in Geneva, 1942-1945. Saved at least 13,000 Central European Jews.
- Eduardo Propper de Callejon - Spanish Diplomat.
- Luis Martins de Souza Dantas - illegally issued Brazilian diplomatic visas to hundreds of French Jews.
- Carlos de Sampayo Garrido - Hungarian Diplomat.
- Heorg Ferdinand Duckwitz - German diplomatic attaché in Denmark, alerted Danish politician Hans Hedtoft, and enabled rescue of the Danish Jews.
- Frank Foley - British M16 agent undercover as passport officer in Berlin issued forged passports to Britain and the British Mandate of Palestine.
- Albert Goring- Berman businessman (and younger brother of leading Nazi Hermann Goring) who helped Jews and dissidents survive in Germany.
- Paul Grunginger- Swiss commander of police, provided falsely dated papers to over 3,000 refugees so that they could escape Austria after the Anschluss.
- Kiichiro Higuchi- Japanese lieutenant general who saved 20,000 Jewish refugees.
- Wilm Hosenfeld - German officer who helped pianist Wladyslaw Szpilman, a Polish Jew amongst many others.
- Lucas Karrer - Mayor of Zakynthos, Greece refused to hand over list of Jews.
- Prince Constantin Karadja - Romanian diplomat, saved over 51,000 Jews from deportation and extermination, as credited by Yad Vashem in 2005.
- Carl Lutz, (1895 – 1975) Swiss Vice-Consul in Budapest, Hungary from 1942 until the end of World War II. He is credited with saving over 62,000 Jews from deportation to Nazi Extermination camps during the Holocaust.
- Shyqyri Myrto - Albanian Muslim honoured for rescuing Jews, with Anti-Defamation League's Courage to Care Award.
- George Mandel-Mantello El Salvador's honorary consul in Geneva for Hungary, Romania and Czechoslovakia
- Aristides de Sousa Mendes do Amaral e Abranches, (1885 - 1954) Portuguese diplomat who ignored and defied the orders of his own government, and during World War II issued Portuguese visas free of charge, to over 30,000 refugees seeking to escape the Nazi terror, 12,000 of whom were Jews.
- Giovanni Palatucci - Chief of the Foreigner's Office, Fiume, Italy
- Giuseppe Maria Palatucci - Catholic Bishop of Campagna
- Giorgio Perlasca (1910 – 1992) Italian who posed as the Spanish consul-general to Hungary in the winter of 1944, and saved thousands of Jews from Nazi Germany and the Holocaust.
- Guiseppe Roncalli - future Pope John XXIII issued transit visas from the Apolostic Delegation in Istanbul, Turkey.
- Chiune Sugihara, 杉原 千畝 (1900 - 1986) Vice Consul for the Japanese Empire in Lithuania. During World War II, he helped several thousand Jews leave the country by issuing them transit visas to travel to Japan.
- Ho Feng Shan - Chinese Consul General to Austria, saved tens of thousands of Jews with fake diplomatic passes.
- Rafael Leonids Trujillo- Dominican Dictator, promised to receive 100,000 Jews into Dominican Republic in 1938 post the international conference in Evian. Dominican Republic was only nation accepting Jews after the conference.
- Selâhattin Ülkümen, (1914 – 2003) Turkish diplomat and consul in Rhodes during the Second World War, who assisted many local Jews to escape the Holocaust.
- Raoul Wallenberg Swedish Diplomat.
Spiritual Leaders and Scientists
- Leo Baeck German-Polish Rabbi, Scholar.
- Niels Bohr Nobel Laureate - The Manhattan Project.
- Dr. Dietrich Bonhoeffer Pastor, Theologian, Martyr.
- Bishop Chrysostomos- Zakynthos offered his name and that of the Mayor's to Germans.
- Archbiship Damaskinos - Archbishop of Athens during German Occupation. He quietly ordered chuches under his jurisdiction to fake Christian baptismal certificates to Jews fleeing the Nazis.
- Archbishop Johannes de Jong - later Cardinal of Utrecht, Netherlands. Together with Titus Brandsma O. Carm (Dachau 1942) a letter that called for all Catholics to assist persecuted Jews, and openly condemned the Nazi German deportation of our Jewish fellow citizens (From: Herderlijk Schriven, read from all pulpits Sunday 26 January 1942).
- Alfred Delp S.J. - Jesuit Priest, helped Jews escape to Switzerland while rector of St Georg Church in suburban Munich. Also involved with Kreisau Circle. Executed 2 February 1945 in Berlin.
- Rfino Niccacci - Franciscan friar and priest who sheltered Jewish refugees in Assisi, Italy from September 1943 - June 1944.
- Maximilian Kolbe - Polish Conventual Franciscan friar. In the friary Kolbe provided shelter to poeple from Greater Poland, including 2000 Jews. Active radio amateur, vilifying Nazi activities through his reports.
- Omelyan Kovch - Ukranian Greek Catholic Priest, deported to Treblinka camp for helping thousands of Jews. He was canonized by Pope John Paul 11.
- Bernard Lichtenberg - German Catholic priest at berlin's Cathedral. Sent to Dachau because he prayed for Jews at evening prayer.
- Harav Israel Meir Lau, Heroes of Israel
- Marcus Lazarus Melchior Chief Rabbi Denmark.
- J. Robert Oppenheimer The Manhattan Project of WWII
- Hugh O'Flaherty- Irish Catholic priest, saved 4,000 Allied soldiers and Jews. Known as the Scarlet Pimpernel of the Vatican. Retold in the movie 'The Scarlet and the Black'.
- John von Neumann The Manhattan Project of WWII
- Sister Sara Salkahazi - Hungarian Roman Catholic nun who sheltered approximately 100 Jews in Budapest and saved thousands of Hungarian Jews. Recognised by Yad Vashem as well as beatified.
- Martha Ingham Sharp
- Archbishop Stefan of Sofia - Bishop of Sofia and Exarch of Bulgaria, protested against deportation of approximately 50,000 Jews.
- Audrey Sheptytsky - Metropolitan Archbishop of the Ukranian Greek Catholic Church, harboured hundreds of Jews in his residence and in Greek Catholic monastries. He issued the pastoral letter, Thou Shalt not Kill to protest Nazi atrocities.
- Rav Yisroel Spira of Bluzhev, Spiritual Light of Bergen-Belsen.
- Pastor Andre and Magda Trocme - French Paster and his wife, led the Le Chambon-sur-Lignon village movement that saved between 3500 - 5000 Jews.
- Alan Turing Deciphered the German Enigma code.
- Elie Wiesel Nobel Laureate, Author, Survivor.
Partisans / Resistance Fighters
- Adolf Avraham Berman Polish Editor, Leader Underground Resistance
- Tuvia Bielski The Bielski Partisans' Commander.
- Members of the Belgian Resistance - held up a train to Auschwitz freeing 231 people.
- Dagobert Biermann Communist and German resistance fighter against National Socialism. Deported to Auschwitz concentration camp, where he was killed on August 2, 1943.
- Beneschek Sudenten German and Communist, hiding in Bialystok under a false identity. Employed Jews and Poles in his textile mill, making it possible for Jews to smuggle arms into the ghetto, provided them with false documents and money.
- Arnold Bruynje
- Mendel Borensztain - fought as partizan in battle with the Lita Groups and Polish Soldiers.
- Johan Hendrik Bruijnjé
- Genevieve de Gaulle Anthonioz Author
- Helena de Wit
- Gerta Hilton-Vrbova
- Lion Feuchtwanger Prominent Playwright, Nazis designated as the "Enemy of the state number one"
- Artur Frank
- Tamas Frank
- Jan Karski- Polish emissary of Armia Krajowa to Western Allies, and eye witness of the Holocaust.
- Necdet Kent - Turkish Consul General at Marseille, granted Turkish citizenship to hundreds of Jews. At one point he entered an Auschwitz-bound train at enormous personal risk to save 70 Jews to whom he had granted Turkish citizenship, from deportation.
- Dr. Bela Kiraly Military Historian
- Kudlatschek a Sudeten German, in charge of the motor pool of all the textile mills in Bialystok, providing transport in his own car for Jews travelling to partisan territory, and transporting arms back to the Jewish resistance organization in the ghetto from Grodno and other distant towns.
- Valdemar Langlet Swedish Publisher
- Signe Langlet
- Heinrich Graf von Lehndorff-Steinort Key member of the July 20 plot to assassinate Hitler]
- Yashe Yankel Mazovi Founding Member of Iskra Jewish Partisans]
- Aristides de Sousa Mendes- Portuguese diplomat in France, issued 30,000 visas to Jews and other minorities which cost him his career.
- Jaap Nunes-Vaz Dutch Journalist
- Niska Finnish Adventurer
- Erwin Planck German politician
- Witold Pilecki Member of the Polish Home Army
- Dimitar Peshev- Minister of Justice, World War 11, Bulgaria, impeded deportation of 50,000 Jews, which was stopped. Later charged with anti-Semitism and anti-Communism and sentenced to death, sentenc commented and served one year.
- Rudolf Vrba Rosenberg Mastermind of the Vrba-Wetzler Report]
- The Reverend Waitstill Hastings Sharp
- Cornelis Sieswerda Dutch Resistance
- Claus Philipp Maria Justinian Schenk, Graf von Stauffenberg Key member of the July 20 plot to assassinate Hitler]
- Hannah Szenes Paratrooper (behind Nazi conquered lines)
Heroic Individuals of Tremendous Moral Courage
Other heroic individuals
- Irena Berman
- Jacob Berman
- Hon. Randolph Churchill, Son of Prime Minister, Winston Churchill
- Holocaust Memoir of a Latvian Jew
- Imre Reshka Reich
- Josef Rosensaft
- Emilie Schindler
- Oskar Schindler, German industrialist Schindler's List Rescue Operation
- Alexander Franz Clemens Maria Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg
- Berthold Alfred Maria Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg
- Claus Philipp Maria Justinian Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg
- Afke Sipkema
- Rudolph Steckl
- Trijntje Sieswerda
- Klara Somogyiova
- Alexander Straubaum
- Marie and Emile Taquet- Belgium, sheltered Jewish boys in a residential school or home.
- Margarethe Ungar
- Grietje Pieters Visser
- William Weinberg
- Jacob Wijbenga