Anglo Boere Oorlog (1899-1902)
The object of this project is to coordinate the various Boer War projects on GENi, & outline the events of the Anglo-Boer War.
- Geni profiles can be linked to this project but more accurately to the various projects for particular categories below
The Second Boer War was fought from 11 October 1899 until 31 May 1902 between the British Empire and the Afrikaans-speaking Boer inhabitants of the two independent Boer republics: the South African Republic (Transvaal Republic) and the Orange Free State. It ended with the annexation of the region under the British Empire, ultimately forming the Union of South Africa as part of the Commonwealth. The conflict is commonly referred to as the 'Boer War' but is also known as the 'South African War' outside South Africa, the 'Anglo-Boer War' among most South Africans, and in Afrikaans as the 'Anglo-Boereoorlog' or 'Tweede Vryheidsoorlog' or the 'Engelse Oorlog.'
- For more information & a Timeline, please scroll down.
ANGLO-BOER WAR PROJECT INDEX:
- Anglo Boer War (1899-1902) - Notable British Armed Forces British military leaders and notable participants
- Anglo Boer War (1899-1902) - British Armed Forces dedicated to the lower ranks of the British Armed Forces
- British Casualties
- New Zealand Soldiers
- Canadian Soldiers
- Boer Casualties
- Killed in Action
- Cape Rebels Captured & Executed During the War
- Boereverkenners/ Scouts
- League of Veterans
- Pretoria & van der Hoven's Drift
- Orange River & Orange River Main
- Aliwal North
- Wentworth Natal
- Jacobs Siding
- East London
- Vredefort Road
- Small & Odd Camps
ANGLO-BOER WAR HISTORY & TIMELINE
The origins of the war were complex, resulting from over a century of conflict between the Boers and the British Empire. During the Napoleonic Wars, a British expedition landed in the Cape Colony and defeated the defending Dutch forces at the Battle of Blaauwberg.After the wars, the British formally acquired the colony, and encouraged immigration by British settlers who were largely at odds with the Dutch settlers. Over subsequent decades, many Boers who were dissatisfied with aspects of the British administration elected to migrate away from British rule in what became known as the Great Trek. The migration was initially along the eastern coast towards Natal and then, after Natal was annexed in 1843, northwards towards the interior where two independent Boer republics (the Orange Free State, and the South African Republic - also called the Transvaal) were established. The British recognised the two Boer Republics in 1852 and 1854, but the annexation of the Transvaal in 1877 led to the First Boer War in 1880 and 1881. After British defeats, most heavily at the Battle of Majuba, Transvaal independence was restored subject to certain conditions, but relations were uneasy.
In 1871, diamonds had been discovered at Kimberley, prompting a diamond rush and a massive influx of foreigners to the borders of the Orange Free State. Then, gold was discovered in the South African Republic in 1886. Gold made the Transvaal the richest and potentially the most powerful nation in southern Africa, however the country had neither the manpower nor the industrial base to develop the resource on its own. As a result, the Transvaal reluctantly acquiesced to the immigration of fresh waves of uitlanders (foreigners), mainly from Britain, who came to the Boer region in search of employment and fortune. This resulted in the number of uitlanders in the Transvaal eventually exceeding the number of Boers, and precipitated confrontations between the old order and the new. British expansionist ideas (led notably by Cecil Rhodes) as well as disputes over uitlander political and economic rights resulted in the failed Jameson Raid of 1895. This raid led by (and named after) Dr Leander Starr Jameson, the Administrator in Southern Rhodesia of the Chartered Company, was intended to encourage an uprising of the uitlanders in Johannesburg. However Johannesburg failed to rise and Transvaal government forces surrounded the column and captured Jameson's men before they could reach Johannesburg.
As tensions escalated from local to national level, there were political manoeuvrings and lengthy negotiations to reach a compromise ostensibly over the issue of "uitlander rights" but ultimately over control of the gold mining industry and the British desire to incorporate the Transvaal and the Orange Free State in a federation under British control. Given the number of British uitlanders already resident in the Transvaal and the ongoing inflow, the Boers recognised that the franchise policy demanded by the British would inevitably result in the loss of independence of the South African Republic. The negotiations failed, and in September 1899 Joseph Chamberlain (the British Colonial Secretary) sent an ultimatum to the Boers, demanding full equality for those uitlanders resident in the Transvaal. President Kruger, seeing no other option than war, issued his own ultimatum, giving the British 48 hours to withdraw all their troops from the border of the Transvaal, failing which the Transvaal, allied with the Orange Free State, would declare war against the British. The rejection of the ultimatum followed and war was declared.
In all that follows, it is important to remember that there was no single Boer, Afrikaner or Black African experience. A sense of the complexity of the political situation can be gathered from the fact that more Afrikaans-speaking whites lived in the British Cape Colony than in the Transvaal and Orange Free State combined and, crucially, that the vast majority did not give active support to the Afrikaans-speaking whites fighting the British. Similarly, by the end of the war, there were some 5,000 'joiners' -- Boers who had begun fighting against the British, and ended fighting with them; this represented about 20% of all Boers under arms.
- Ten thousand British troops are sent to Natal, South Africa -- 8 September 1899.
- Boer President Kruger calls up the Boers (farmers and burghers) -- 27 September 1899.
- President Kruger's ultimatum -- 9 October 1899.
- War breaks out -- 11 October 1899.
- The sieges of Kimberley and Mafeking by Boer forces begin -- 14 October 1899.
- Battle of Talana -- 20 October 1899.
- Battle of Elandslaagte -- 21 October 1899.
- Battle of Reitfontein -- 24 October 1899.
- Battle of Modderspruit -- 30 October 1899.
- Town of Ladysmith put under seige by Boers -- 2 November 1899.
- Battles of Willow Grange (21 November 1899); Belmont (23 November 1899); Graspan (25 November 1899); Deerdepoort (26 November 1899), Modder River (28 November 1899); Stormberg (10 December 1899), Magersfontein (11 December), Colenso (15 December).
- Battle of Platrand (6 January 1900).
- Slingersfonein (16 January & 18 February)
- Battle of Spion Kop (24 January 1900).
- Battle of Vaal Krantz (5 February 1900).
- Hobkirk's Farm "Pink Hill" (12 February).
- Town of Kimberley relieved by British forces -- 15 February 1900).
- Battle of Paardeberg (18-27 February 1900).
- Boer General Cronje surrenders -- 27 February 1900).
- Town of Ladysmith relieved by British forces -- 28 February 1900).
- Battles of Poplar Grove (7 March 1900); Driefontein (10 March 1900).
- Bloemfontein captured by British forces -- 13 March 1900).
- Boer Commandant-General Joubert dies -- 27 March 1900).
- Battles of Sannah's Post (31 March 1900); Reddersburg ( 4 April 1900); Biggarsberg (14 May1900).
- Town of Mafeking relieved by British forces -- (17 May 1900).
- Orange Free State annexed by Britain -- (28 May 1900).
- Johannesburg captured by British forces -- 31 May 1900).
- Action at Lindley (31 May 1900).
- Pretoria captured by British forces -- 5 June 1900).
- Action at Roodewal (7 June 1900).
- Battle of Diamond Hill (11 June 1900).
- Occupation of Volksrust (12 June 1900).
- Actions at Zilikat's Nek (11 July 1900) and Koster River (22 July 1900).
- Boer Commandant-General Prinsloo surrenders -- 31 July 1900).
- Siege of Eland's River Post (4-16 August 1900).
- Battle of Bergendal (27 August 1900); capture of Lydenburg (6 September 1900).
- Boer President Kruger leaves by ship for Europe -- (19 October 1900).
- British forces annex Transvaal -- (1 September 1900).
- Action at Bothaville (6 November 1900).
- General Kitchener appointed Commander-in-Chief of British forces in South Africa (29 November 1900).
- Battle of Nooitgedacht (13 December 1900).
- Modderfontein Post captured by General Smuts--( 31 January 1901).
- British Cape Colony invaded -- (10 February 1901).
- Peace talk overtures begin at Middelburg (28 February 1901).
- Action at Brakpan (15 May 1901)
- Action at Wilmansrust involving 5th Victorian Mounted Rifles (12 June 1901).
- Battles of Blood River Poort (17 September 1901); Fort Itala (26 September 1901); Bakenlaagte (30 October 1901).
- Action at Tweefontein 25 December 1901).
- Action at Onverwacht (4 January 1902).
- Action at Tweebosch (7 March 1902).
- Cecil Rhodes, a central figure in European South African history, dies -- (26 March 1902).
- Ookiep put under seige (4 April 1902).
- Pretoria hosts peace delegations (12-18 April 1902).
- Zulu warriors attack Boers at Holkrans (6 May 1902).
- Peace talks at Vereeniging (15-18 May 1902)
- Armistice and treaty at Vereeniging (31 May 1902).
Links and other resources
- Women's Diaries in Wartime
- Military units against the Boer Republics
- Cape Commando Series of publications