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Bicentennial of the Second Battle of Carabobo (1821-2021)

Bicentenario de la Segunda Batalla de Carabobo (1821-2021)

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The Second Battle of Carabobo

After the Battle of Boyaca, the whole war effort came to a stand-still. Many wounded to attend-to, the Spanish in full retreat, the retaking of Cartagena during October 1820. The jungle, General Francisco Carmona y Lara, Procer, and Atlantic sea sorties near Cartagena, commanded by Illingworth, Cmdte. Gral. de la Marina John Illingworth Hunt and other brilliant naval officers in phase with the ground forces, as previously orchestrated by Bolivar´s plans.

The Spanish were on the retreat, having lost Nueva Granada (today Colombia), and Bolivar had already taken steps to coerce them on the south-east of the continent (the entangled jungles of Mompox and Casanare, the region of Popayan) and towards the south-west (Guayaquil and the high-Peru (today Bolivia)) into not being able to retreat in that direction. They were fish in a barrel, so to speak, and they knew their only chance to gain the upper-hand over the republicans was to overtake control of Venezuela, which was still swarming with their own troops. General Morales (H.M.R.) was stationed in Calabozo with the Spanish calvary, while General De La Torre (H.M.R), I Conde de Torrepando Miguel Luciano DE LA TORRE Y PANDO (1786 - 1853), I Conde de Torrepando Miguel Luciano de la Torre y Pando (now newly made Field Marshal) had most of the infantry at San Carlos, where he had established his General Headquarters since the Armistice and War Regularization Treaty in November 25th and 26th, 1820, in Santa Ana, Trujillo (Venezuela), which in the presence of General Morillo (H.M.R) Mariscal de Campo, Teniente General, I conde de Cartagena,​ I marqués de La Puerta, Pablo Morillo y Morillo, (H.M.R.) and Bolivar, Simón Bolívar, El Libertador y 3er. Presidente de Venezuela had been signed.

When the Maracaibo Province declared themselves independent on the very first few days of January 1821, the Spanish high command refuted the liberation of said territory, demanding that Bolivar exercise his power in returning this province to the now ousted Spanish authorities. Bolivar said he was helpless in doing such a thing, for how could he deny the admission of a fugitive royalist army soldier, if not of an entire population of would-be-converters? This infuriated the Spanish, and the hostilities re-adjourned on April 28th, officially. photos.geni.com/p13/da/66/46/2f/5344485f25bb18cd/batalla_de_carabobo_original.jpg

Elliptic Congress Ballroom Roof-Painting of the Battle of Carabobo (Detail) - by Martín Tovar y Tovar

During all of this time, Bolivar had effectively made the most of the temporary cease of hostilities, enforcing discipline on his troops even further, gallantly dressing them for the first time, in ten (10) long years of never-ending battle, and taking important legal steps to unite Colombia; (the Great Colombia: Peru, Colombia (Nueva Granada) and Venezuela) into one single newly-born, sovereign-nation. He had in mind many other problems to attend to. It seems that during the time he had been away from Angostura (today, Ciudad Bolivar, to the east of Venezuela), General Arismendi, General Juan Bautista Arismendi Subero and General Mariño Carige (1788-1854), https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Santiago_Mari%C3%B1o#:~:text=Santiago..., (two long-time power-thirsty republican generals that then bowed only to Bolivar´s authority) had been ¨boycotting¨ Bolivar´s efforts to organize the newly born Republic, and had tried to make themselves chiefs while the latter was away, overthrowing in the process poor Dr. Francisco Zea Diaz (1766-1822) Francisco Antonio Zea Diaz, who was a civil (citizen) (and Vice President) of the young Republic (a lawyer by profession). Bolivar had to go to Angostura and restore order personally.

Now, free from this task, he put on his uniform again and went to meet General Jose Antonio Paez, José Antonio de los Santos Páez Herrera, 4º Presidente de Venezuela (shown in the picture) in Achaguas, in the low – wet plains of Venezuela, and to organize with him the details of the magnificent scenario for the final Battle to come: Carabobo.

The great strategy of the Liberator was to keep the 15,000 enemy troops that were roaming around the whole of Venezuela divided. For this, he ordered General (s) Zaraza, General de Division Pedro Zaraza Manrique, Procer, Monagas José Tadeo Monagas Burgos, 9º Presidente de Venezuela and Bermudez José Francisco Bermúdez de Castro y Figuera de Cáceres in the East, to instigate Colonel Ramón Correa de Guevara y Vasconcelos, H.M.R., Coronel Ramón Correa de Guevara Vasconcelos, H. M. R. to break the Spanish resistance over the capital in the North, (Caracas), and make them helter –skelter panic in retreat towards the west, looking for the refuge of De La Torre´s and Morales´ greater forces. The plan worked, but only for a few days. Bermudez was able to draw the Spanish out of Caracas the first days of June 1821, but when they were reaching La Victoria, persecuting the rear-guard of Correa´s regiment, near the Aragua´s Valles del Tuy, they were met by heavy resistance, and had to fold back to the heights of Las Cocuizas, (Las Tejerias), finally withdrawing all the way to Antimano, at the old entrance to Caracas (on the west). It was by a direct order issued by General Soublette, General Carlos Valentín José de la Soledad Antonio del Sacramento Soublette y Xerez de Aristeguieta, 8º Presidente de Venezuela, that Bermudez Francisco José Antonio Bermúdez de Castro y Figuera de Cáceres had to fall back all the way to Guarenas, to the East of Caracas, and leave the capital ready for the taking, again, by the Spanish, who came with all the reinforcements Morales had provided (thus depleting his forces). It wasn´t until he was certain that Caracas was safe in royalist hands again, (this time leaving General Pereira H.M.R., in charge, and relieving Correa of his command), that war-mongering Morales left Caracas to return to Calabozo, to what was left of his troops. (Not certain if Colonel Salvador Gorrin Forte, H. M. R. , Coronel Salvador Josef Gorrín Forte, was part of the force that remained in Caracas, or whether he accompanied Morales at Carabobo). To the north-west, the Spanish, under the command of General Manuel Lorenzo, H.M.R. Manuel Lorenzo y Oterino, General de los Reales Ejercitos, Manuel LORENZO Y OTERINO, H. M. R., General de los Reales Ejercitos, (1777-1837), had been chased by General Reyes Vargas and General Cruz Carrillo from Barquisimeto into San Felipe, Lorenzo seeking refuge in De La Torre´s stronghold in Valencia. General José de la Cruz CARRILLO Y GÁMEZ TERÁN, Procer was deployed on decoy tactics near the city of Barquisimeto (Yaritagua), so that enemy Commander Juan Tello, H. M. R. could not reach the Carabobo mustering point with General De La Torre. Republican General Urdaneta had fallen ill in Carora, and had to relieve the command of his troops to General Jose Antonio Rangel (Dr.), Dr. José Antonio Rangel y Becerra, Coronel, and General Josef Justo María BRICEÑO OTÁLORA, General Josef Justo María Briceño Otálora who were coming from Maracaibo and Nueva Granada, respectively, to join their forces with Bolivar´s army. The ¨Maracaibo¨ Battalion was left in Barquisimeto, to back-up Cruz Carrillo´s forces General en Jefe José de la Cruz Carrillo y Gámez Terán, General, Procer, while the rest of General Urdaneta´s troops, General Rafael José Remigio Urdaneta Farias marched on rendezvousing in San Carlos, with the brunt of Bolivar´s forces.

Bolivar had established his general headquarters in Bocono (since the Treaty), north of Barinitas, to the mountains (or high-ground), but he soon began to squeeze the royalists, driving them east to San Carlos, while he freely marched his troops through Guanare and Araure , mustering into his contingents more and more people on the way. When De La Torre, I Conde de Torrepando Miguel Luciano de la Torre y Pando learnt that Bolivar was on the move, he immediately left San Carlos and took refuge in Valencia, thus making the Liberator´s march a straight unhindered move.

By this time, General Morillo had left for Spain (he had been seriously wounded by a spear one of the Farfan brothers threw at him at the Battle of Semen (1818), Comandante Juan Pablo FARFAN, Procer), to take care of his ailment. (By the way, he had been injured in the left-ingle, right on the inside of the upper front thigh !), and it was a very delicate matter he had to attend to, besides giving the full-parte to King Ferdinand VII, who was not pleased with the results of the war thus far.

So it was left to Miguel De La Torre, Field Marshall of H.M.R., to assume absolute command of all the Expeditionary Armada forces that were in Venezuela from December 1820 on.

Paez, José Antonio de los Santos Páez Herrera, 4º Presidente de Venezuela, on the other hand, was coming from the south (the low-plains of Venezuela), not only bringing his magnificent forces with him (2,500 troops-strong), but a whole contingent of reserve horses (2,000) and cattle (4,000). This was no easy task, as the horses were constantly drawing away from the marching men and herds of cattle, at an unprecedented pace, and it was a monumental task just going to fetch them every time they escaped during the month-long journey. Finally, on June 4th, Paez´s calvary reaches San Carlos, only 11 leagues ( 53 - 62 km ) from Valencia, and two-weeks later, on June 18th-21st, the infantry join them.

Bolivar himself had gone from Bocono, all the way back to Barinas to the south-west, on April 28th, the day the Armistice had been reciprocally lifted, accompanied by the ¨La Guardia¨ Battalion, and marched back through Ospino, Guanare and Araure, making the royalist fall back to Valencia, as stated earlier. He arrives at the San Carlos mustering point, on June 2nd.

At the fields of Taguanes, near the little town of Tinaquillo, next to San Carlos (Cojedes), the Liberator makes a final inspection of his glorious regiment on June 23rd, 1821, as the day draws to a close.

The enemy, well aware of the great concentration of troops amassing to the south-west of the battlefield, decides to close all exits to the latter, and leave a nearby hill, called Buenavista, unattended, to better concentrate their troops at the entrance to the three main gates into the field.

To the south-west, the way to Tinaquillo, was heavily guarded by royalists blocking the tortuous path to the silver-platter-shaped ground on which the battle was to be fought, barely three (3) leagues shy from where the republican army was mustering. To the south east, the El Pao-way, or the way to Ciudad Bolivar (Angostura), was also heavily patrolled by royalist forces, making a huge - net on the bottom of the field. And to the north, the great portal and threshold to the majestic city of Valencia, was fully dominated by all the royalist army, including their camping ground to the north-east of the field, or the way to Caracas, the capital. General De La Torre judged the Buenavista Hill oblivious to the success of his advantage at occupying positions at all the entrances and exits to the battle ground.

It is the morning of June 24th. The vanguard of the republican regiment takes control of Cerro Buenavista, which the royalists had just abandoned. For the first time, from this hill, Bolivar takes a first glimpse at the vastness of the battle-ground, on which the well-disciplined royalist forces, formed in organized regiments, (or quadrats), had deployed on the field below.

He sees the banners of the enemy squadrons, the Barbastro, Hostalrich and Infante battalions occupying the left side of the field (viewed from his point of view, the south). The Burgos battalion had been placed behind these three regiments, in a triple-line of men reinforcing chain. The ¨Escuadron del General¨, guided by Teniente Coronel Jacinto Pereira, watching over the right-flank of the field. The cavalry, under the command of Morales, was placed well to the north-west of the field, behind the brook known as the Quebrada de Las Manzanas, at the back of the field, together with the fifth division, under the command of Coronel José María Herrera (H.M.R.), Coronel (H.M.R.) José María de Jesús Damiano de Herrera y Herrera, II conde de Fernandina (picked up from Araure by General De La Torre weeks earlier), lay near where the camps and living quarters of the royalist soldiers had been set up three-weeks before. The Regimiento de Caballería "Lanceros del Rey", under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Tomas de Renovales, Lieutenant Colonel Tomás Renovales de Goicolea, (H.M.R.), (who had masterminded the assassination attempt on Bolivar´s life at Rincon de Los Toros, near San Jose de Los Tiznados, Estado Guarico, Venezuela after the Battle of Semen (1818)), was part of the rearguard of the deployed Battalion Force, at the back of the battleground.

Battalion Valencey lay at the center of the field, guarding the South East entrance, as well, under the command of Teniente Coronel Andrés Riesco (H.M.R.). (Andrés Víctor RIESCO MARIÑO (1786-1821)). Joint Chiefs of Staff of the Spanish Army: General Francisco Tomas Morales, Chief of Staff Mayor General: Colonel Feliciano Montenegro Colon, Colonel Feliciano Ramón de la Merced de Montenegro y Colón, H.M.R., Field Aids (Aide d´Camps of Field Marshal De La Torre, Lieutenant - Colonel Antonio Van Halen, Juan Van Halen and Lieutenant Colonel Juan Pascual Churruca. Mayor Chief of Staff of General Morales: Colonel Juan Saint Just. Morales First Officer In Charge: Colonel Jaime Moreno, Infantry, Chief Officer (Valencey Battalion) Lieutenant Colonel Tomas Garcia, Teniente Coronel Tomás García, H.M.R., Second In Charge; Lieutenant Colonel Manuel Rebollo, Battalion Barbastro: First Officer in Charge: Colonel Juan Cini, Second In Command: Colonel Vicente Bauza, Battalion Burgos, First Officer Colonel Jose Manuel Zarzamendi, Battalion Hostalrich, First In Command: Colonel Francisco Illas, Francisco Illas; Second In Command: Colonel Jose Isturiz, Battalion Infante: Colonel Juan Nepomuceno Montero. Calvary: King´s Regiment (Regimiento del Rey, venezuelans), Lieutenant Colonel Tomas Renovales, Regimiento de Guias (venezuelans), Lieutenant Colonel Narciso Lopez, Regimiento de Husares, Colonel Juan Calderon, Four Separate Regiments (venezuelans): Colonels Juan Jose Cruces, Juan José Cruces Delgado, Jose Nicasio Alejo, Antonio Ramos, Antonio Martinez.

Other majors, colonels and lieutenant colonels who were there (Spanish side): Leon de Ortega, Leon de Iturbe, Colonel León de Iturbe Zaldua y Espinosa de los Montero, H.M.R., Francisco Capo y Coll, Capitán Francisco Capo y Coll, H.M.R., Antonio Gomez, Manuel Bauza, Jose Ignacio Casas, Jose Maria Hernandez Monagas, José María Hernández Monagas y Llanos, Coronel Realista Matias Escute, Coronel Matías Escuté, H.M.S., Colonel Francisco Oberto (killed), Coronel Francisco María Calixto de Jesús Oberto y Faría, H.M.S., Lieutenant - Coronel Marcelino Oraa, Marcelino Oraá; Jaime Prieto, Francisco Solano, Pedro de Rojas, Manuel Ferrero, Domingo Loyola, N. Morales, Faustino Navarro, Fausto Garces, Lino Lopez Quintana, Silvestre Llorente, Antonio Plaz, N. Arroyo, N. Yllaramendi.

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I

The Liberator ponders for long moments, what to do next. Because of the well-received advice from some of the laymen of this region, the ¨baquiano¨ Manuel Rivas, Manuel Rivas Valero, informs Bolivar of the secret passage known as ¨La Pica de la Mona¨, a treacherous path full of vegetation and high - flat grounds engulfing it, (since it followed the same path as a brook), but neglected by the over-confident, contemptuous royalists as a suicidal route, probably little, if at all known to them at that point (but luckily ignored). The only problem in accessing this route, was that the entrance to it lay directly where some of the royalist guards had set-up guard, to impede the access of the brunt of the republican army, whom they believed would enter the field through this south-west point. ( They didn´t know at this point, if the republicans would circle Buenavista at the south of the field, to enter through the way leading to El Pao, so their remaining forces were chopped -up piece meal around these two entrances ).

The Liberator orders Paez, José Antonio de los Santos Páez Herrera, 4º Presidente de Venezuela to take control of the access to the west gate to the field (kilometres upstream ahead, where the Pica began), and access through La Pica de la Mona, the secret passageway. Paez, in charge of the First Division, enters the Pica, accompanied by José Laurencio Silva Flores, General after overwhelming by surprise the enemy soldiers guarding the way to the main gate. They killed four on the spot, and took the rest prisoners, but didn´t let anyone from the scout team return, so as not to arouse any awareness to the enemy troops of their presence. Nonetheless, this made the royalists fall back from Buenavista Hill, terrified by the audaciousness of the skirmish (since the guards watching this high ground could see the short way guiding the entrance to the battlefield from the Tinaquillo route to the west). Meanwhile, Field Marshall Miguel De La Torre, (I Conde de Torrepando Miguel Luciano DE LA TORRE Y PANDO (1786-1853)), impatient at the imminent entrance of the impending republican army, confidently lay at the front of Battalion Valencey, smack-dab in the middle of the field, well protected by two heavy pieces of bronce-artillery directly behind him, aimed at the two south portals. Not conscious of Paez´s secret advance through a heavily vegetated forest on the left-side of the field (behind the main bulk of his right flank), he is unaware the battle has already began.

Battle of Carabobo (June 24th, 1821)

June 24th, early morning. Sabana de Taguanes, San Carlos. The Liberator passes yet another final inspection of his troops. Everyone is wearing their best outfits, the Hussars shining in their brand new red-uniforms. The calvary regiment of the first Rifles, now exhibiting their Boyaca banners in their colours caught high in the breeze, are longing for the moment they finally charge into the heat of battle. Thirst for Glory... thirst for immortality. They are only less than half-a-league from where the carnage will take place. It is a glorious day to give-up one's life for the fleeting and most noble cause of Freedom. General Simon Bolivar peaks over the Buenavista hill , only a short while back conquered from the Spaniards, to recognite the enemy positions.

They are fully displayed on the open fields of Carabobo, closing all major exits of the execution field, where the final battle will take place, where all the bets are placed in one final bid for immortality. Bolivar knows well the odds. He knows that the Spanish have the best positions. He knows that they have Valencia, the nearest city as a bastion and stronghold, under their control. Moreover, he has just learnt of Bermudez´s retreat, having left Caracas to the Spanish after a bloody battle near El Calvario, on the west outskirts of the capital. But the important thing was that the bulk of this Spanish force was now very far away, and so there was no imminent danger from them.

II

11 o'clock in the morning. What is now about to take place, has no precedents in the annals of military history.

photos.geni.com/p13/59/87/70/8c/5344485f25ba0f28/campo_de_carabobo_medium_original.jpg

Details of the Painting of the Battle of Carabobo, by Martín Tovar y Tovar

There, on that most glorious field of mighty memories, all the regiments of the Liberating Army marched for one last time in front of Bolivar, who from his inspired eloquence didn't miss an opportunity to pass down on every single one of those courageous souls, words of encouragement and self-esteem. In order to be present at that last fateful day in which Venezuela would seal its Independence, all the major players of glorious past-battles had attended to the gold-threaded invitation, after many years of fighting bloody battles for the freedom of Venezuela, of South America at large, there, on those few square kilometres, were the compilation of the most sacred of triumphs, of all the heroes that had made them possible.

All of the men were wearing their best military fatigues and gear, if only for the first time in this war... The sun beating down on their red uniforms... on their splendid shields, their naked pointy-spears and swords giving glittering lightening glows from the reflections of the sun.

There are three (contemporary to Paez) historians who describe the Battle of Carabobo in detail; they are: Juan Vicente Gonzalez, Eduardo Blanco and Rafael Maria Baralt. They all unanimously agree that Paez was the undisputed hero of this Battle.

Far from what the odds were on that day for him and his men, Providence shown a Divine protecting shield on his person, so that he may execute one of the greatest military-feats of all time in history.

The republican army consisted of three (3) divisions: The First Division, under the command of General Jose Antonio Paez, his second in command: Colonel Miguel Antonio Vásquez, Coronel Miguel Antonio Vásquez, Batallón "Bravos de Apure" Battalion, under the leadership of Lieutenant Colonels Francisco Torres and Juan Jose Conde, Coronel Juan José Conde Osorio, Procer, the Albion Division (English Regiment, or Legion), whose leader was the brave Colonel Ferriar, Captain, Aide D' Camp Thomas Ilderton Ferriar, Procer, second in command Sergeant Mayor Guillermo Davy, Major William Davy, Procer, Captain N. Scot (killed in action), Lieutenant Alejandro Acheron (Surgeon), followed by 15 quadrats of ¨llaneros¨, 1,500 spearmen, all well groomed in the art of warfare after Mucuritas, La Mata de La Miel and Las Queseras del Medio. Amongst those whom the laurels of victory still shown with unflinching glitter were: Regimiento de Caballería "Guías de Apure", Teniente Coronel Facundo Mirabal, Colonel Facundo Mirabal, Procer, Regimiento de Caballería "Honor", under command of Lieutenant Colonel Cornelio Muñoz, General José Cornelio Muñoz Silva, Procer, Regimiento de Caballería "Muerte de Guasdualito", Coronel Juan Pablo Burgos, and Lieutenant Colonel Juan Gomez, Coronel Juan Maria Gomez, Procer, Regimiento De la Muerte, Coronel Miguel Borras (1.- Jose Miguel BORRAS CAZORLA ); Lanceros de Honor, Coronel JOSÉ FRANCISCO FARFAN, Procer, Regimento Cazadores Valientes, Tte Cnel Juan Antonio Gomez; Regimiento La Venganza, Sergent Mayor Luis Escalona; Escuadrón de Caballería "Húsares de Apure", led by Coronel Guillermo Iribarren, Guillermo Iribarren, General (de Brigada) Juan Guillermo Iribarren Chaquea, Procer, Reserve Battalion, under the leadership of Rafael Rosales, Escuadron de Caballeria Husares, Colonel Fernando Figueredo, Escuadron de Caballeria Dragones, Lieutenant Colonel Julian Mellado, Coronel del Ejercito Libertador Julian Mellado Lineros, Procer, General Jose Laurencio Silva, José Laurencio Silva Flores, General, Colonel Juan Angel Bravo Tte. Cnel. JUAN ÁNGEL BRAVO GARCÍA, Procer, Regimiento de Caballería "Cazadores Valientes de Apure", Teniente Coronel José María Angulo, Tte. Cnel. José María Angulo, Procer, Teniente Coronel Manuel Arraiz, Tte. Cnel. José Manuel Arráiz, Prócer de la Independencia, Capitans: Francisco Antonio Salazar, Juan Santiago Torres, Juan Bruno, Captain Juan Bruno Carril, Procer, Coronel Ignacio Melean, Colonel lgnacio Melean, Procer, Lieutenant Jose Maria Olivera, Lieutenant Nicolás Arias, Captain Joseph Nicolás Arias Contreras, Procer, Sergeant Thomas Green (d. 1876), Colonel Juan Escalona y Arguinzonis, General Juan Manuel de Escalona y Arguinzonis, Prócer and Lieutenant Pedro Camejo, this last one better known as Negro Primero. The War Commissionary for the First Division was private Rosario Obregon.

The Second Division was under the command of General Manuel Cedeño,General Manuel Cedeño, Procer, and his second in command: Colonel Judas Tadeo Piñango,General Judas Tadeo Joseph María Jesús Piñango Flores, Procer, and was composed of the Tiradores Battalion, under the command of the stoich General Jose Rafael Heras; Comandante Jose Rafael de las Heras, Procer, Lieutenant Colonel Julio Augusto de Reimbolt, Teniente Coronel Julio Augusto Reimbolt, Natural de Hanover, Alemania ; the Boyaca Battalion, under the command of Colonels Flegel (Ludwig Flegel Von Sitzenburg) and Smith Private User, the Vargas Battalion,at the orders of the brave Capitan Reyes ¨Patria¨, General Juan José Reyes Patria Escobar, (as Bolivar himself had baptized him on the Boyaca Bridge) ; Batallón "Vargas", Teniente Coronel Antonio Gravete , Regimiento de Caballería "Venganza de Mantecal", Coronel Juan Briceño, Jose Juan Briceño Ramos, the Liason Officer (Ayudante General) , Lieutenant Francisco de Paula Alcantara and the Escuadron Sagrado Battalion, whose men were under the command of the invicted Colonel Francisco Aramendi, General Francisco Aramendi, Procer, (who was worth a whole regiment all by himself !). Second Brigade of La Guardia, composed of Colonel Antonio Rangel, Chief of Staff Lieutenant Colonel Juan Jose Flores, Liaison Officer Lieutenant Colonel Felipe M. Martin (wounded), War Commissionary Officer, Lieutenant Juan Rocha.

Last, but not least, the Third Division, under the command of young Colonel Ambrosio Plaza, Coronel don Ambrosio DE LA PLAZA Y OBELMEJÍA, (1791-1821), Ambrosio Plaza , second in command: Brigadier Gral. Manuel Antonio Manrique Villegas, Coronel George WOODBERRY, Procer (1792-1833), Coronel George Woodberry, Procer in his Joint Chiefs of Staff. This division was composed of the Guardia Battalion of the Liberator, who was made up of Riffles Battalion, (recently battle-hardened in Cartagena and Santa Marta) and under the direct command of Colonel Manuel Manrique, Lieutenant Colonel Gregorio Maria Urueta; and under the leadership of General Arthur Sandes, Brigadier Gral. Arthur SANDES, Procer and Lieutenant Colonel Manuel Leon, (geni profile goes here), Colonel Ferdynand Sierakowsky, Colonel Ferdynand Sierakowsky, Procer as a capitain of this battalion; the Vencedores de Boyaca Battalion (three-campaigns-old and still going), baptized in the fires of August 7th, 1819, at Boyaca, under the orders of General Jose Ignacio Pulido, José Ignacio Pulido del Pumar and General Juan Uslar, General Johann von Uslar-Gleichen, Prócer; "Granaderos de Colombia Battalion", under Coronel Francisco de Paula Velez Carbonell, General de Brigada FRANCISCO DE PAULA VELEZ CARBONELL, Procer ´s command and Lieutenant Colonel Pedro Celis, the Anzoategui Battalion, commanded by Arguindegui, Coronel Jose Maria Arguindegui, Procer and second-in-command Mayor Manuel Cala; "Granaderos de la Guardia", Teniente Coronel Juan Pantaleón, Juan Pantaleón Contreras Mora and lastly, the calvary column lead by Colonel Juan Jose Rondon, Coronel Juan José Rondón Delgadillo, Procer the hero of Pantano de Vargas, Queseras del Medio and other multiple victories.

photos.geni.com/p13/4c/07/d0/d2/5344485f2a6377ff/bolivar_y_su_estado_mayor_original.jpg

Bolivar gives orders from the Buenavista Hill during the battle, his aide de camps https://www.geni.com/projects/Aides-De-Camps-and-Guard-of-Honor-of-the-Liberator-Sim%C3%B3n-Bol%C3%ADvar/56079 carrying them to the Generals in charge of each Division (Detail)

General Mariño was present on this historic occasion, as one of the Chiefs of Staff of Bolivar, together with Pedro Briceño Mendez, General Pedro Briceño y Méndez, prócer (Bolivar´s war secretary), Colonel Bartholome Salom , General Bartolomé Antonio de La Concepcion Salom Borjes, General en Jefe, (second-in-command of the whole Army), and young Coronel Belford Hinton Wilson, Aide D' Camp, Colonel Belford Hinton Wilson, Procer, trusted aid-d´camp of Bolivar. No doubt, General (then Capitan) Daniel Florencio O´Leary, General Daniel Florencio O'Leary Burke as well as General Diego Ibarra General Diego Ibarra y Rodríguez del Toro, (first aid d´camp of Bolivar) were at Bolivar´s rear flank, too, safe-guarding him. The other members of Bolivar´s Chief of Staff Entourage were: Assistant First Officer of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Colonel Antonio Jose Caro Fernandez, Antonio José Caro Fernández ; Colonel Juan Jose Conde, Commanders Ibanez brothers, Teniente Coronel Manuel José Gabino Ibáñez Arias, Teniente Coronel Manuel José Gabino Ibáñez Arias and Umaña, Coronel José Ignacio Umaña Barragán, Procer, Lieutenant León José Umaña Barragán, Procer the Flores brothers, Ramon, Cabo de 1ra Ramon FLORES, Procer, Paulino, Cabo de 1ra Paulino FLORES, Procer and Alejandro, Cabo de 1ra Alejandro FLORES, Procer (from Las Queseras, members of the elite Guardia del Libertador), Melean, Remigio Ramos, Julian Mellado-Lineros, Manuel Arraiz, Tte. Cnel. José Manuel Arráiz, Prócer de la Independencia, Dr. Jose Antonio Rangel, Dr. José Antonio Rangel y Becerra, Coronel , Miguel Zarraga, Celis, Cala and Sagarzazu, Alcantara, Narciso Gonell, General Narciso Gonell Martínez, Prócer, Manuel Figueredo, José Manuel Figueredo Mena, Domingo Hernandez, Major William Davy Major William Davy, Procer, Charles Minchin, General de División Carlos Diego Jolysne Mínchin, Procer irlandés, Wuer, Flinter, General George Henrique Flinter, natural de Irlanda, Meyer, Piñeres, (Gabriel Vicente Gutiérrez de Piñeres y Cárcamo), Briceño, Jose Juan Briceño Ramos, Acevedo Calderon, Ramón Acevedo Calderón, General, Procer, Juan Gomez (el viejo), Coronel Juan Maria Gomez, Procer, Jose Gomez, Tte. Cnel. Josef Antonio Gomez, Procer, Captain Juan Angel Bravo, Tte. Cnel. JUAN ÁNGEL BRAVO GARCÍA, Procer, Juan Francisco Carvajal y Heredia, Teniente (de Caballeria) Juan Francisco de Carvajal y Heredia, Procer, Colonel Manuel Manrique Villegas, Brigadier Gral. Manuel Antonio Manrique Villegas, Colonel Francisco Farfan, Coronel JOSÉ FRANCISCO FARFAN, Procer, General Lino de Clemente,General Lino Antonio Ramón de Jesús de Clemente y Palacios , General Jose Escolastico Andrade, General José Escolástico Andrade Pirela, Prócer de la Independencia, Captain Andres Maria Alvarez, Andrés María ÁLVAREZ Y ARMAS; Captain Celedonio Medina, Captain Ignacio Maria del Pumar, Captain Anacleto Clemente, Lieutenant Colonel Jose Francisco Jimenez, Lieutenant Ramon Montilla, Chaplain Presbitero Dr. Angel Maria Briceño, Chief Surgeon at the Battlefield, Dr. Richard Murphy,Surgeon, Colonel Richard Murphy y O´Leary, Procer, First Officer In Charge, Surgeon Juan Manuel Manzo, Medicine Storage Clerk of the Army, Dr. Raimundo Talavera, Second Officer in Charge of Auxiliary Reserves, Colonel Remigio Ramos, Coronel Remigio Ramos Diaz, Procer amongst others.

Other majors, colonels and lieutenant colonels who were there:

Jose Maria Angulo, Felipe Braun Colonel Otto Phillipp Braun, Procer, Eduardo Brandt (wounded), Carlo Luigi Castelli, General Carlo Luigi Castelli, Jose Ignacio Grau, Felix Jastran, Vicente Lecuna, Hermenegildo Mujica, Coronel del Ejercito Libertador Hermenegildo Múgica y Ramos, Procer, Jose de La Cruz Paredes, General José de la Cruz Paredes Angulo, Prócer de la Independencia, Vicente Peña, Jose Vicente Peña Puche, Procer, Fernando Perez, Juan A. Romero, Juan N. Santana, Coronel del Ejercito Libertador Juan José Nepomuceno Santana Egaña, Procer, Juan Terion, Ramon Valero (killed), James Whittle, Major General James Whittle, Procer, Enrique Weir, Natanias Whitan, Ramon Osorio, Francisco Olmedilla , Jr.

Lower ranking officers:

Ramon Acevedo, Fernando Antunes de Lossada, Jose Ramon Acosta, Jose Escolastico Andrade, Carlos G. Astshown (killed), Pantaleon Aponte, Juan Angel Bravo (fourteen (14) spears tore through his uniform, him remaining unscathed, to which the Liberator said that he deserved a Golden Armour), Rafael Briceño, Jose Emigdio Briceño, Joaquin Barriga, Manuel Blanco, Pedro Brion, Jose Maria Camacaro, Vicente Campero, N. Cuellar, Ramon Calderon, Julian Cabiades (killed), Aniceto Canales, Francisco Cardona, Jose Maria Cadenas, Francisco Dominguez, Isidoro Barriga, Valerio F. Barriga, Florencio Borrero, Felix Berroteran, Gregorio Blanco, Ramon Drandegui, Jorge Flinter, Martin Franco, Juan Ferriar, George Featherstonehaugh, George Featherstonehaugh, Pedro Manuel Figueredo, Juan Pablo Farfan, Narciso Gonell, Gabriel Guevara, Saturnino Garcia, Santiago Gonzalez Romero, Luis Gonzalez Romero, Guillermo Gill, Roberto Gordon, Toman Green, Domingo Gomez, Jose Maria Gonzalez, Antonio Naranjo, Remigio Negron, Juan Newesel, Juan Jose Ovalles, Walter O´Callagan, Miguel Perez, N. Philam, Antonio Pulgar, Samuel Paramon, Diego Parpasen, Jose Maria Pulido, Miller Hallowes, Ruperto Hand, Juan Hand, Domingo Hernandez, Jacobo Harrison, Juan Bautista Hutble (herido), Luciano Hurtado, Jose Hernandez, Joaquin Jerez, Jose Jervis, Otto Jonathan, Ramon Jaime, Jaime Patherson, Jose Maria Perozo, Vicente Piñeres, J.T. Portocarrero, Joaquin Pabon, Jose Maria Pirela, Mariano Posse, Jose Felix Rangel, Gabriel Rodriguez, Carlos Ramirez, Pedro Rojas, Nicasio Rodriguez (killed), Roberto Lee, Juan Laurigan, Laureano Lopez, Jose Lecuna, Simon Mendez, Pedro Mendoza, Miguel Monagas, Apolinar Moreno, Pedro Montesinos, Jose Milano (killed), Juan Jose Merida, Generoso Marquez, Rafael Rodriguez (killed), Valentin Reyes, Jose Felix Rangel, Alejandro Salazar, Guillermo Stwat, Gabriel Salom, Carlos Salias, Ramon Soto, David Steman, Oton Triton, Guillermo Talbot, Jorge Thuer, Rafael Mendoza, Vicente Martinez, Carlos Diego Minchin, General de División Carlos Diego Jolysne Mínchin, Procer irlandés (wounded), Santiago Mac Mannus, Juan D. Manzaneque, Luis Mogossi, Jorge Munro, Enrique Meyer, Agustin Urbina (killed), Tomas Underwood, Luis Villalobos, Carlos Webiter, Tomas Carlos Wright, General Charles Thomas Wright, Procer, Guillermo Smith Gorferey, William 'Guillermo' Smith Gorferey, Miguel Zarraga, Miguel Zagarzazu.

photos.geni.com/p13/38/cc/08/08/5344485f2a764c49/5927244613_c3faa5bb33_b_large.jpg photos.geni.com/p13/43/17/09/da/5344485f2a6377fc/salon-eliptico_original.jpg

Name of Masterpiece Painting: Batalla de Carabobo Artist: Martín Tovar y Tovar Tecnique used: Oil paint on Marouflage. Approximate measurements of the total ellipsoidal area: 490 m2 (5,274.32 ft2)

Six (6) leagues from Valencia, the Carabobo Field had been the scenario of past battles (1814), that were more of a daunting reminder of the precariousness of the terrain, rather than a comfort to the republicans now gambling to take-all-or-nothing on the red tapestry of Liberty.

All in all, give or take, General De La Torre had 5,500 troops, against the 6,500 men the republican army was composed of. The trouble was that there was no clear way for the Republican Army to get all of their troops into the plateau they were supposed to face-off at.

But where there´s a will… there´s a way. Paez had already began to make his way through the impenetrable Pica de La Mona. After about half-an-hour of cutting down heavy vegetation and walking through treacherous paths, they could see their way into the battlefield. Of course, by now De La Torre spotted them at once, and underestimating this as a diversionary maneuver, he stood his ground, ordering his men to do nothing. But when he realized the column of men entering through the left flank of the field was never-ending and in earnest, he immediately rotated the Barbastros and Hostalrich Battalions to open direct fire on the insurgents. This was like shooting wooden ducks at a fair -stall, as the Pica was so narrow, only one man could walk through it (at a time, in a row) without falling to the field below.

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Spectacular Charge of the First Division Few Moments after Entering the Battlefield, General Paez leading sabre in hand

Meanwhile, the Second and Third Divisions impatiently awaited orders from Bolivar to follow into the field, behind Paez´s forces. More than one (1) hour went by from the moment General Paez dived into the labyrinth seconded by his troops, until they finally heard the first shots being fired half-a-league away.

What followed next was brutal carnage. One by one, as the Spanish pistols were fired and reloaded again, and bayonets were recharged, Paez´s invincible Bravos de Apure began to cover the narrow path with their wounded and dead bodies. Finally, Paez manages to step into the field, and begins organizing the men that have thus far reached alive this point with him the battlefield, assembling a column ready to charge the enemy. When the royalists are busy re-charging their weapons, General Paez gives the charge order, and one furious avalanche of republican arms engulfs for the first time the overwhelmed enemy, who fires once again killing even more men in the process. Desperate, but with determination and courage, neither giving in, nor willing to give up, Paez again reorganizes the men he has by his side, far-and-few, but stoically holding his ground, not losing-face in the process. By this time, the first calvary men from the republican side managed to get into the fight, and charge directly at the point-blank range firing infantry of the royalists, from the combined three-enemy regiments; Burgos, Hostalrich and Barbastros.

Bodies everywhere, the ground dyed in red rivers of blood. The Bravos de Apure is in tatters: nothing seems to be able to reverse the terrible expected outcome of this irreversible loss. Suddenly, when all hope appears to have vanished, the British Legion (https://www.geni.com/projects/British-Legions-South-American-Wars-Portal/54226), (the Albion Regiment) enters in the field. Glorious is the demeneaur of these impassive men, who enter in the most absolute calmness and order, and dismounting from their horses, knee-on-the-ground, form in-line and stand-their-ground ready to fire. The fury of the Spaniards is indomitable. They fire scorchingly at the English, and at this instant, all of their wrath is directed at them. In the most amazing order, Ferriar gives the command to AIM. These heroes, forming now a human-wall protecting what was left of the Apure Regiment, take the brunt of the charges. Many fall before they can even hear Ferriar, Captain, Aide D' Camp Thomas Ilderton Ferriar, Procer give the order to FIRE ! … Now, confused and in disorder, wrecked in havok, the enemy starts to fall back, the infantry seeking refuge in the calvary well at a distance from them (under Morales´ command). The English load their weapons again, and fire a second and a third time… One by one, their Captains fall dead on the battlefield. First Ferriar (mortally wounded), then Davy takes over, Major William Davy, Procer, he too is succumbed by the rain of bullets, then another Capitan takes his place, and yet another, after the former has surrendered his life gloriously. In the meantime, Paez has managed to reorganize what little is left of his Bravos de Apure Battalion, and to the rescue of these brave anglosaxons, fires-up the dormant war-machine he has under his command. Little it is known, Paez suffered from epilepsy seizures, and many say that he lay in the field all of this time having a feat (just as he did at the battle of Banco Largo, years earlier (1816)), while people above him were taking the fight to hands, having run out of ammunition, and being so close to one another. So it is indeed a miracle that this Achilles should recover just on the turn-of-the-tide and order (what was left of) his Division to charge.* Now, the fight is beginning to get even, as General Heras, Comandante Jose Rafael de las Heras, Procer with his Tiradores Calvary charges into the heart of the battle, fire, dust, powder and blood drawing an indivisible curtain behind which a terrible atmosphere of death weighs heavily upon, like a Damocles´ sword, dangling upon the final fate of all of these men in this mortal show-down. The fight now is to the death, hand-to-hand, bayonet to bayonet, fist upon fist. Young Captain Minchin is now one of the last English men standing, after most of the Albion Battalion has been spent. He takes the standard that Lieutenant Ashdown was carrying, with the British Legion colours, and carries it forward with him. The Spanish are now confused, and in full retreat.

  • It is interesting at this point to mention that General Paez, in his autobiography, mentions a Commander Antonio Martinez (H.M.R.), from Morales´ calvary, (geni profile goes here), who sees Paez having his epileptic feat in the heat of the Battle, and far from trying to kill him, gathers his horse and with the help of the patriot Lieutenant Alejandro Salazar, Sub Teniente Alejandro SALAZAR, Procer (a.k.a. Guadalupe), mounts him on top of his horse and tethers them both away to safety....!

All of this time, impervious to their luck, Morales, Francisco Tomas Morales Guerra has been standing with his calvary, to the north of the field, away from a stone´s (spears ! ) throw. He has not taken measures to support the Spanish infantry, who are now on the run, and scared as-hell.

Charging now with a front of 400 men abreast, two rows deep, Apure, Tiradores and the British Legion advance simultaneously, with their bayonets aimed at the Spanish battalions still making a stand. This charge, which is spectacular, make the whole royalist army step back for the first time in the battle, altering their positions. Still, they fire remorselessly on the re-organized republicans, but at the same time seeking refuge in their calvary.

At the same time this is happening, a group of calvary officers led by Captain Juan Angel Bravo, of the Paez´s lancers, and a squadron under the leadership of Colonel Cornelio Muñoz, draw into a deadly fight with the Carabineros of Ferdinand VII, and Dragones of the Union Battalion (H.M.R). Both sides at a stalemate, the fighting is fierce at this moment, as General De La Torre tries to outflank the republican charge on the left of the field. Out comes Colonel Miguel Antonio Vásquez, to the rescue, with a group of intrepid horsemen, to reverse this unexpected blow on the republican line. Holding its nose by a thread, the republican army manages to out-maneuver De La Torre´s strategy, and Vásquez´s (and Captain Juan Angel Bravo´s) efforts (along with those of thirty-four (34) other brave officials) are rewarded with a partial royalist submission of the Reina and Principe Battalion (H.M.R.), which are forced to retreat.

III

Suddenly, in the heat of the battle, a horse gallops towards General Paez with what seems a lifeless figure on top of it… It´s Negro Primero Teniente (de Caballeria) (Negro Primero) Pedro (José Eusebio) Camejo, Procer, (Camejo), who rides on top of the wounded animal, with an open gash on his chest. Paez is furious and shouts at Camejo; Are you afraid ?.. Aren´t there any more Spanish (out there) to kill ?!!!!??.. But Camejo only has enough energy to tell Paez… ¨My General, I´ve come to say good bye, because I am dead ¨. With these words, both horse and man fall dead to the ground.

At this moment, many men who had already been through the passage and had made it to the field, see Paez and run to join him. The Second and Third Divisions were already on their way through this intricate passage to the battleground.

Paez orders the men who have reached him, to charge forward, and the Dragones and Husares Battalions of H.M.R. fall back. With their inevitable defeat after this ferocious attack, the battle is decided in favor of the republicans. It was 12:30 pm, on that bloody June 24th.

On seeing this, Morales, Francisco Tomas Morales Guerra, and his calvary, without unsheathing a sword, or breaking a spear, turn around their horses and flee towards Valencia, in sheer fright. Legend tells that that night, as he made his way down to Puerto Cabello through Las Trincheras, it began to rain so hard, that he and De La Torre had to take shelter under a giant tree. After seven (7) years of a ¨terror war¨ on all souls that supported the patriots, well deserved were these lasting moments of anger and frustration (for Morales), and the guilt he must have felt at having been so atrociously cruel to those who opposed him. Just as a button of his cruelty, he had held siege and starved the people of Cartagena in the final months of 1815 (women and children included), and just a few months later, he would wip-lash in public a beautiful lady (Luisa Arrambide Roldan) in Maracaibo and ride her nude on a horse around the town for people to see her all humiliated, just for her (allegedly) being supportive of the republicans and of Bolivar.

IV

Finally, enter Cedeño, General Manuel Cedeño, Procer and Plaza, Ambrosio Plaza onto the battlefield, after overcoming the immense obstacle of dead and wounded bodies of beasts and men that lay like a wall there, obstructing the entrance.

Thirsty for Glory, knowing fully well that the brunt of the fighting has already taken place, these two men chase ghosts on the killing field. Both lose their lives, Cedeño, trying to bring to submission the Valencey Battalion, now in full (but ordered) retreat, under a Colonel Tomas Garcia (H.M.R.), Teniente Coronel Tomás García, H.M.R..

And Plaza, by charging directly, trying to subdue single handedly himself, at the Barbastro Battalion (H.M.R.), who quickly brought him down, moments before completely surrendering to the insurgent republicans.

De La Torre sees that the tables have turned, and he now, after watching Hostalrich being thrashed to pieces, and all the bulk of his infantry retreat in absolute horror, at the relentless charges of the republican army, decides to make for the run himself. Silva and Muñoz exterminate the remains of the once proud and mighty Burgos Battalion, and what is left of the Infante Battalion is instigated by General Uslar´s calvary, Granaderos Battallion. General Arthur Sandes, Brigadier Gral. Arthur SANDES, Procer in charge of the Riffles, persecutes the rear-guard of the dispersed remnants of enemy infantry, (who were guarding the south gate towards El Pao), and mercilessly probes them in, with their razor-sharp spears.

As a last stand, Field Marshall De La Torre ordered the Lanceros del Rey Battalion (H.M.R.), under the leadership of Lieutenant Colonel Tomás Renovales de Goicolea, (H.M.R.) to meet the advancing republican charge head -on. The squadron, composed mostly by llaneros from the Venezuelan low-plains, not only disobeyed the order, but ran helter-skelter seeking refuge from the swarm of enraged, unforgiving frontal assaulting republican troops.

Julian Mellado, Coronel del Ejercito Libertador Julian Mellado Lineros, Procer, was killed at Quebrada de Barrera, persecuting the rear-guard of the enemy, while Olivera (Lieutenant Jose Maria Olivera) died while trying to succumb the fleeting royalists near Tocuyito, towards the south-west (as narrated by Paez in his autobiography, with obvious great nostalgia for these tragic loses). General Lima de Abreu, José Inácio de Abreu e Lima, was one of the patriot superior officers wounded during the battle. More than twenty-one (21) british officers (from the Legions) were dead from the initial clash of arms at the start of the battle, and one hundred-and-thirty-two (132) subordinate officers and soldiers had been executed at point-blank range by the Spaniards upon forming the human wall that protected the Bravos de Apure during the three (3) consecutive charges endured by the Britons while the former re-grouped. All in all, the patriots lost around 300 men (wounded or killed), while the enemy´s casualties, dead, wounded and/or deserting or fleeting amounted to more than 2 superior officers, 120 medium-ranking officers and 2,786 raw soldiers. Barely 400 men escaped to Puerto Cabello.

V

Bolivar comes down from the hill, Buenavista, from where he has been giving orders and watching the whole battle. He goes straight to where Paez is and on that sacred battlefield bestows upon him the highest of all military honors; the highest rank of the armed forces; General In Chief of All Divisions. Paez was just 31 years (and 21 days) old, on being conferred such con-decoration (second only, if not equal to that of Bolivar himself), on this most glorious day.

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Bolivar and Paez enter Caracas victorious five (5) days later, 29/06/1821

The Final Battle –

Even though Carabobo was a victory for the patriots, the Spanish were far from totally being defeated. The remainder of their forces retreated to Puerto Cabello, (on the central - north - coast of Venezuela), and there they remained for two (2) more years (November 1823), until Paez finally drew them out by surprise.

I will explain a little bit more about this battle later on, because it was a clean move- no lives were lost (almost, with the exception of, perhaps one, purely by accident), and the Spanish surrendered peacefully and walked away (carrying their weapons and belongings) with honor and guarantees, after a generous capitulation, providing them with safe passage if they offered to leave peacefully (Venezuelan sovereign territory), or if they chose to stay, to become Americans and not hinder furthermore the cause of independence.

Bolivar, by this time was to the South, fighting the final battles for the independence of Peru, Bolivia and very far away from all the trouble that persisted in Venezuela.

VI

On this glorious occasion, today June 24th, 2021, I want to dedicate this page to all the students that during 2015 – 2018 tried hard to overthrow this Regime we live under right now. May one day, the soldier that lives in the barracks, (better than most of us starving out here, by the way), who is supposed to watch out for the welfare of the average Venezuelan who opposes this monstrous, immmoral, oppresive, indifferent, full of apathy, shrouded in violence, disguised Communist Regime we Venezuelans continue to endure, realize the great sacrifice these men that gave us our Freedom, made. And try to imagine what THEY would think of them, should they see what Venezuela has become two-hundred ( 200 ) years later, after having made the highest and most glorious of sacrifices AT THE ALTAR of Liberty and Independence.

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Arch of Triumph of Carabobo, Valencia, Venezuela (built to Commemorate the 100th Anniversary of the Battle, during the Administration of Juan Vicente Gomez, 1921)

It is a blessing the so called BOLIVARIAN GUARDS chose to name themselves just that, ¨BOLIVARIAN¨, because it clearly draws the line in our HISTORY between THEM and US, of what Venezuela was twenty-two (22) years ago, where it was headed, and what WE could and SHOULD have achieved by now, had they not destroyed the very fabric our nation (ITS CITIZENS).

May Justice and Truth always prevail. May all the offenders to our sacred heritage, one day be exposed and heavily reprimanded for their sacrilege and grotesque insult to our GENTILICIO (real national identity).

And I end by quoting Edmund Burke (1729-1797) (or John Stuart Mill (1806-1873), I don´t know for certain, more likely Burke than Mill, all things considered), who said;

The only thing necessary for the triumph of evil, is for good men to do nothing. Bad men need nothing more to compass their ends, than that good men should look on and do nothing. He is not a man who, without a protest, allows wrong to be committed in his name, and with the means which he helps to supply, because he will not trouble himself to use his mind (or what he has been entrusted with, the arms of a kidnapped nation, in this case) on the subject.

______________________________________________________________________________________

Ref:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Carabobo

https://culturizando.com/conoces-este-cuadro-batalla-de-carabobo_26/

https://books.google.co.ve/books?id=NFZKAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA103&lpg=PA103...

https://books.google.co.ve/books?id=NAXQ-tm23wUC&pg=PP22&lpg=PP22&d...

In Memoriam of Dr. Private, great admirer of Gral. Jose Antonio Paez, and a first -son of San Fernando de Apure, Estado Apure Venezuela (forever rightful holder of the Key to The Historic City of San Fernando).

Project Created by P.L. Baldo on June 24th, 2021, 3:03 AM ARR

The Second Battle of Carabobo

https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Batalla_de_Carabobo_(1821)

After the Battle of Boyaca, the whole war effort came to a stand-still. Many wounded to attend-to, the Spanish in full retreat, the retaking of Cartagena during October 1820. The jungle, General Francisco Carmona y Lara, Procer, and Atlantic sea sorties near Cartagena, commanded by Illingworth, Cmdte. Gral. de la Marina John Illingworth Hunt and other brilliant naval officers in phase with the ground forces, as previously orchestrated by Bolivar´s plans.

The Spanish were on the retreat, having lost Nueva Granada (today Colombia), and Bolivar had already taken steps to coerce them on the south-east of the continent (the entangled jungles of Mompox and Casanare, the region of Popayan) and towards the south-west (Guayaquil and the high-Peru (today Bolivia)) into not being able to retreat in that direction. They´re fish in a barrel, so to speak, and they knew their only chance to gain the upper hand over the republicans was to overtake control of Venezuela, which was still swarming with their own troops. General Morales (H.M.R.) was stationed in Calabozo with the Spanish calvary, while General De La Torre (H.M.R) , I Conde de Torrepando Miguel Luciano DE LA TORRE Y PANDO (1786 - 1853), (now newly made Field Marshal) had most of the infantry at San Carlos, where he had established his General Headquarters since the Armistice and War Regularization Treaty in November 25th and 26th, 1820, in Santa Ana, Trujillo (Venezuela), which in the presence of General Morillo (H.M.R) Mariscal de Campo, Teniente General, I conde de Cartagena,​ I marqués de La Puerta, Pablo Morillo y Morillo, (H.M.R.) and Bolivar, Simón Bolívar, El Libertador y 3er. Presidente de Venezuela had been signed.

When the Maracaibo Province declared themselves independent on the very first few days of January 1821, the Spanish high command refuted the liberation of said territory, demanding that Bolivar exercise his power in returning this province to the now ousted Spanish authorities. Bolivar said he was helpless in doing such a thing, for how could he deny the admission of a fugitive royalist army soldier, if not of an entire population of would-be-converters? This infuriated the Spanish, and the hostilities re-adjourned on April 28th, officially.

During all of this time, Bolivar had effectively made the most of the temporary cease of hostilities, enforcing discipline on his troops even further, gallantly dressing them for the first time, in ten (10) long years of never-ending battle, and taking important legal steps to unite Colombia; (the Great Colombia: Peru, Colombia (Nueva Granada) and Venezuela) into one single newly-born, sovereign-nation. He had in mind many other problems to attend to. It seems that during the time he had been away from Angostura (today, Ciudad Bolivar, to the east of Venezuela), General Arismendi and General Mariño, (two long-time power-thirsty republican generals that then bowed only to Bolivar´s authority) had been ¨boycotting¨ Bolivar´s efforts to organize the newly born Republic, and had tried to make themselves chiefs while the latter was away, overthrowing in the process poor Dr. Francisco Zea Diaz (1766-1822) Francisco Antonio Zea Diaz, who was a civil (citizen) (and Vice President) of the young Republic (a lawyer by profession). Bolivar had to go to Angostura and restore order personally.

Now, free from this task, he put on his uniform again and went to meet General Jose Antonio Paez, José Antonio de los Santos Páez Herrera, 4º Presidente de Venezuela in Achaguas, in the low – wet plains of Venezuela, and to organize with him the details of the magnificent scenario for the final Battle to come: Carabobo.

The great strategy of the Liberator was to keep the 15,000 enemy troops that were roaming around the whole of Venezuela divided. For this he ordered General (s) Zaraza, Monagas (José Tadeo Monagas Burgos, 9º Presidente de Venezuela) and Bermudez (José Francisco Bermúdez de Castro y Figuera de Cáceres) in the East, to instigate Coronel Correa (H.M.R) to break the Spanish resistance over the capital in the North, (Caracas), and make them helter –skelter panic in retreat towards the west, looking for the refuge of De La Torre´s and Morales´ greater forces. The plan worked, but only for a few days. Bermudez was able to draw the Spanish out of Caracas the first days of June 1821, but when they were reaching La Victoria, persecuting the rear-guard of Correa´s regiment, near the Aragua´s Valles del Tuy, they were met by heavy resistance, and had to fold back to the heights of Las Cocuizas, (Las Tejerias), finally withdrawing all the way to Antimano, at the old entrance to Caracas (on the west). It was by a direct order issued by General Soublette, General Carlos Valentín José de la Soledad Antonio del Sacramento Soublette y Xerez de Aristeguieta, 8º Presidente de Venezuela, that Bermudez Francisco José Antonio Bermúdez de Castro y Figuera de Cáceres had to fall back all the way to Guarenas, to the East of Caracas, and leave the capital ready for the taking, again, by the Spanish, who came with all the reinforcements Morales had provided (thus depleting his forces). It wasn´t until he was certain that Caracas was safe in royalist hands again, (this time leaving General Pereira H.M.R., in charge, and relieving Correa of his command), that war-mongering Morales left Caracas to return to Calabozo, to what was left of his troops. To the north-west, the Spanish, under the command of General Manuel Lorenzo H.M.R. had been chased by General Reyes Vargas and General Cruz Carrillo from Barquisimeto into San Felipe, Lorenzo seeking refuge in De La Torre´s stronghold in Valencia. Republican General Urdaneta had fallen ill in Carora, and had to relieve the command of his troops to General Jose Antonio Rangel (Dr.), Dr. José Antonio Rangel y Becerra, Coronel, who were coming from Maracaibo to unite their forces with Bolivar´s army. The ¨Maracaibo¨ Battalion was left in Barquisimeto, to back-up Cruz Carrillo´s forces General en Jefe José de la Cruz Carrillo y Gámez Terán, General, Procer, while the rest of General Urdaneta´s troops, General Rafael José Remigio Urdaneta Farias marched on rendezvousing in San Carlos, with the brunt of Bolivar´s forces.

Bolivar had established his general headquarters in Bocono (since the Treaty), north of Barinitas, to the mountains (or high-ground), but he soon began to squeeze the royalists, driving them east to San Carlos, while he freely marched his troops through Guanare and Araure , mustering into his contingents more and more people on the way. When De La Torre learnt that Bolivar was on the move, he immediately left San Carlos and took refuge in Valencia, thus making the Liberator´s march a straight unhindered move.

By this time, General Morillo had left for Spain (you may remember from my last account of Pantano de Vargas, he had been badly wounded by a spear one of the Farfan brothers threw at him), to take care of his ailment. (By the way, he had been injured in the left-ingle, right on the inside of the upper front thigh !), and it was a very delicate matter he had to attend to, besides giving the full-parte to King Ferdinand VII, who was not pleased with the results of the war thus far).

So it was left to Miguel De La Torre, Field Marshall of H.M.R., to assume absolute command of all the Expeditionary Armada forces that were in Venezuela from December 1820 on.

Paez, José Antonio de los Santos Páez Herrera, 4º Presidente de Venezuela, on the other hand, was coming from the south (the low-plains of Venezuela), not only bringing his magnificent forces with him (2,500 troops-strong), but a whole contingent of reserve horses (2,000) and cattle (4,000). This was no easy task, as the horses were constantly drawing away from the marching men and herds of cattle, at an unprecedented pace, and it was a monumental task just going to fetch them every time they escaped during the month-long journey. Finally, on June 4th, Paez´s calvary reaches San Carlos, only 11 leagues ( 53 - 62 km ) from Valencia, and two-weeks later, on June 18th-21st, the infantry join them.

Bolivar himself had gone from Bocono, all the way back to Barinas to the south-west, on April 28th, the day the Armistice had been reciprocally lifted, accompanied by the ¨La Guardia¨ Battalion, and marched back through Ospino, Guanare and Araure, making the royalist fall back to Valencia, as stated earlier. He arrives at the San Carlos mustering point, on June 2nd.

At the fields of Taguanes, near the little town of Tinaquillo, next to San Carlos (Cojedes), the Liberator makes a final inspection of his glorious regiment on June 23rd, 1821, as the day draws to a close.

The enemy, well aware of the great concentration of troops amassing to the south-west of the battlefield, decides to close all exits to the latter, and leave a nearby hill, called Buenavista, unattended, to better concentrate their troops at the entrance to the three main gates into the field.

To the south-west, the way to Tinaquillo, was heavily guarded by royalists blocking the tortuous path to the silver-platter-shaped ground on which the battle was to be fought, barely three (3) leagues shy from where the republican army was mustering. To the south east, the El Pao-way, or the way to Ciudad Bolivar (Angostura), was also heavily patrolled by royalist forces, making a huge - net on the bottom of the field. And to the north, the great portal and threshold to the majestic city of Valencia, was fully dominated by all the royalist army, including their camping ground to the north-west of the field, or the way to Caracas, the capital. General De La Torre judged the Buenavista Hill oblivious to the success of his advantage at occupying positions at all the entrances and exits to the battle ground.

It is the morning of June 24th. The vanguard of the republican regiment takes control of Cerro Buenavista, which the royalists had just abandoned. For the first time, from this hill, Bolivar takes a first glimpse at the vastness of the battle-ground, on which the well-disciplined royalist forces, formed in organized regiments, (or quadrats), had deployed on the field below.

He sees the banners of the enemy squadrons, the Barbastro, Hostalrich and Infante battalions occupying the left side of the field (viewed from his point of view, the south). The Burgos battalion had been placed behind these three regiments, in a triple-line of men reinforcing chain. The cavalry, under the command of Morales, was placed well to the north-west of the field, behind the brook known as the Quebrada de Las Manzanas, well at the back of the field, near where the camps and living quarters of the royalist soldiers had been set up three weeks earlier.

Battalion Valencey lay at the center of the field, guarding the South East entrance, as well.

The Liberator ponders for long moments, what to do next. Because of the well-received advice from some of the laymen of this region, the ¨baquiano¨ Manuel Rivas, Manuel Rivas Valero, informs Bolivar of the secret passage known as ¨La Pica de la Mona¨, a treacherous path full of vegetation and high - flat grounds engulfing it, (since it followed the same path as a brook), but neglected by the over-confident, contemptuous royalists as a suicidal route, probably little, if at all known to them at that point (but luckily ignored). The only problem in accessing this route, was that the entrance to it lay directly where some of the royalist guards had set-up guard, to impede the access of the brunt of the republican army, whom they believed would enter the field through this south-west point. ( They didn´t know at this point, if the republicans would circle Buenavista at the south of the field, to enter through the way leading to El Pao, so their remaining forces were chopped -up piece meal around these two entrances ).

The Liberator orders Paez, José Antonio de los Santos Páez Herrera, 4º Presidente de Venezuela to take control of the access to the west gate to the field (kilometres upstream ahead, where the Pica began), and access through La Pica de la Mona, the secret passageway. Paez, in charge of the First Division, enters the Pica, after overwhelming by surprise the enemy soldiers (guarding the way to the main gate). General De La Torre, (I Conde de Torrepando Miguel Luciano DE LA TORRE Y PANDO (1786-1853)), impatient at the imminent entrance of the impending republican army, confidently lay at the front of Battalion Valencey, smack-dab in the middle of the field, well protected by two heavy pieces of bronce-artillery directly behind him, aimed at the two south portals. Not conscious of Paez´s secret advance through a heavily vegetated forest on the left-side of the field (behind the main bulk of his right flank), he is unaware the battle has already began.

Battle of Carabobo (June 24th, 1821)

June 24th, early morning. Sabana de Taguanes, San Carlos. The Liberator passes yet another final inspection of his troops. Everyone is wearing their best outfits, the Hussars shining in their brand new red-uniforms. The calvary regiment of the first Rifles, now exhibiting their Boyaca banners in their colours caught high in the breeze, are longing for the moment they finally charge into the heat of battle. Thirst for Glory... thirst for immortality. They are only less than half-a-league from where the carnage will take place. It is a glorious day to die. Simon Bolivar peaks over the Buenavista hill to recognite the enemy positions.

They are fully displayed on the open fields of Carabobo, closing all major exits of the execution field, where the final battle will take place, where all the bets are placed in one final bid for immortality. Bolivar knows well the odds. He knows that the Spanish have the best positions. He knows that they have Valencia, the nearest city as a bastion and stronghold, under their control. Moreover, he has just learnt of Bermudez´s retreat, having left Caracas to the Spanish after a bloody battle near El Calvario, on the west outskirts of the capital. But the important thing was that the bulk of this Spanish force was now very far away, and so there was no imminent danger from them.

I

11 o'clock in the morning. What is now about to take place, has no precedents in the annals of military history.

There, on that most glorious field of mighty memories, all the regiments of the Liberating Army marched for one last time in front of Bolivar, who from his inspired eloquence didn't miss an opportunity to pass down on every single one of those courageous souls, words of encouragement and self-esteem. In order to be present at that last fateful day in which Venezuela would seal its Independence, all the major players of glorious past-battles had attended to the gold-threaded invitation, after many years of fighting bloody battles for the freedom of Venezuela, of South America at large, there, on those few square kilometres, were the compilation of the most sacred of triumphs, of all the heroes that had made them possible.

All of the men were wearing their best military fatigues and gear, if only for the first time in this war... The sun beating down on their red uniforms... on their splendid shields, their naked pointy-spears and swords giving glittering lightening glows from the reflections of the sun.

There are three (contemporary to Paez) historians who describe the Battle of Carabobo in detail: they are Juan Vicente Gonzalez, Eduardo Blanco and Rafael Maria Baralt. They all unanimously agree that Paez was the undisputed hero of this Battle.

Far from what the odds were on that day for him and his men, Providence shown a Divine protecting shield on his person, so that he may execute one of the greatest military-feats of all time in history.

The republican army consisted of three (3) divisions: The First Division, under the command of General Jose Antonio Paez, his second in command: Colonel Genaro Vazquez, and his Bravos de Apure Battalion, under the leadership of Juan Torres, the Albion Division (English regiment, or Legion), whose leader was the brave Colonel Ferriar, ,Captain, Aide D' Camp Thomas Ilderton Ferriar, Procer, followed by 15 quadrats of ¨llaneros¨, 1,500 spearmen,all well groomed in the art of warfare after Mucuritas, La Mata de La Miel and Las Queseras del Medio. Amongst those whom the laurels of victory still shown with unflinching glitter were: Cornelio Munoz, General José Cornelio Muñoz Silva, Procer, Juan Gomez, Coronel Juan Maria Gomez, Procer, Guillermo Iribarren,General (de Brigada) Juan Guillermo Iribarren Chaquea, Procer , Figueredo, Julian Mellado, Coronel del Ejercito Libertador Julian Mellado Lineros, Procer, Jose Laurencio Silva, José Laurencio Silva Flores, General, Angel Bravo Tte. Cnel. JUAN ÁNGEL BRAVO GARCÍA, Procer, Lucas Carvajal, General Lucas Carvajal, Procer, Paredes,General José de la Cruz Paredes Angulo, Prócer de la Independencia and Lieutenant Pedro Camejo, this last one better known as Negro Primero.

The Second Division was under the command of General Manuel Cedeño,,General Manuel Cedeño, Procer, and his second in command: Colonel Judas Tadeo Piñango,,General Judas Tadeo Joseph María Jesús Piñango Flores, Procer, and was composed of the Tiradores Battalion, under the command of the stoich General Jose Rafael Heras,;Comandante Jose Rafael de las Heras, Procer, the Boyaca Battalion, under the command of Colonels Flegel and Smith, the Vargas Battalion, under the command of the brave Capitan Reyes ¨Patria¨,General Juan José Reyes Patria Escobar, (as Bolivar himself had baptized him on the Boyaca Bridge); and the Escuadron Sagrado Battalion, whose men were under the command of the invicted Colonel Francisco Aramendi, General Francisco Aramendi, Procer, (who was worth a whole regiment all by himself !).

Last, but not least, the Third Division, under the command of young Colonel Ambrosio Plaza, Coronel don Ambrosio DE LA PLAZA Y OBELMEJÍA, (1791-1821), second in command: Brigadier Gral. Manuel Antonio Manrique Villegas , Coronel George WOODBERRY, Procer (1792-1833) in his Joint Chiefs of Staff. This division was composed of the Guardia Battalion of the Liberator, who was made up of Riffles Battalion, (recently battle-hardened in Cartagena and Santa Marta) and under the direct command of General Arthur Sandes,Brigadier Gral. Arthur SANDES, Procer, the Granaderos Battalion (three-campaigns-old and still going), under the orders of General Juan Uslar,General Johann von Uslar-Gleichen, Prócer ; Anzoategui Battalion, commanded by Arguindegui,Coronel Jose Maria Arguindegui, Procer, Vencedor Battalion, baptized in the fires of August 7th, 1819, at Boyaca, under the orders of General Jose Ignacio Pulido, José Ignacio Pulido del Pumar, and lastly, the calvary column lead by Colonel Juan Jose Rondon, Coronel Juan José Rondón Delgadillo, Procer the hero of Pantano de Vargas, Queseras del Medio and other multiple victories.

General Mariño was present on this historic occasion, as one of the Chiefs of Staff of Bolivar, together with Pedro Briceño Mendez, General Pedro Briceño y Méndez, prócer (Bolivar´s war secretary), Colonel Bartholome Salom , General Bartolomé Antonio de La Concepcion Salom Borjes, General en Jefe, (second-in-command of the whole Army), and young Coronel Belford Hinton Wilson, Aide D' Camp, Colonel Belford Hinton Wilson, Procer, trusted aid-d´camp of Bolivar. No doubt, General (then Capitan) Daniel Florencio O´Leary,General Daniel Florencio O'Leary Burke as well as General Diego Ibarra General Diego Ibarra y Rodríguez del Toro, (first aid d´camp of Bolivar) were at Bolivar´s rear flank, too, safe-guarding him. The other members of Bolivar´s Chief of Staff Entourage were: Colonel Juan Jose Conde, Commanders Ibanez and Umaña, the Flores brothers (from Las Queseras, members of the elite Guardia del Libertador), Melian, Remigio Ramos, Julian Mellado, Arraiz,Tte. Cnel. José Manuel Arráiz, Prócer de la Independencia, Dr. Jose Antonio Rangel, Dr. José Antonio Rangel y Becerra, Coronel , Miguel Zarraga, Celis, Cala and Sagarzazu, Alcantara, Gonell, Figueredo, José Manuel Figueredo Mena, Domingo Hernandez, Davy Major William Davy, Procer, Charles Minchin, General de División Carlos Diego Jolysne Mínchin, Procer irlandés, Wuer, Flinter,General George Henrique Flinter, natural de Irlanda Meyer, Piñeres, (Gabriel Vicente Gutiérrez de Piñeres y Cárcamo), Jose Escolastico Andrade, Briceño, Calderon, Juan Gomez (el viejo) Coronel Juan Maria Gomez, Procer, Carvajal,(Captain, Aide D' Camp Thomas Ilderton Ferriar, Procer), Acevedo, Juan Angel Bravo,(Tte. Cnel. JUAN ÁNGEL BRAVO GARCÍA, Procer), Juan Francisco Carvajal y Heredia, Teniente (de Caballeria) Juan Francisco de Carvajal y Heredia, Procer among others.

Six (6) leagues from Valencia, the Carabobo Field had been the scenario of past battles (1814), that were more of a daunting reminder of the precariousness of the terrain, rather than a comfort to the republicans now gambling to take-all-or-nothing on the red tapestry of Liberty.

All in all, give or take, General De La Torre had 5,500 troops, against the 6,000 men the republican army was composed of. The trouble was that there was no clear way to get all of these troops into the plateau they were supposed to fight at.

But where there´s a will… there´s a way. Paez had already began to make his way through the impenetrable Pica de La Mona. After about half-an-hour of cutting down heavy vegetation and walking through treacherous paths, they could see their way into the battlefield. Of course, by now De La Torre spotted them at once, and underestimating this as a diversionary maneuver, he stood his ground, ordering his men to do nothing. But when he realized the column of men entering through the left flank of the field was never-ending and in earnest, he immediately rotated the Barbastros and Hostalrich Battalions to open direct fire on the insurgents. This was like shooting wooden ducks at a fair -stall, as the Pica was so narrow, only one man could walk through it (at a time, in a row) without falling to the field below.

Meanwhile, the Second and Third Divisions impatiently awaited orders from Bolivar to follow into the field, behind Paez´s forces. More than one (1) hour went by from the moment General Paez dived into the labyrinth seconded by his troops, until they finally heard the first shots being fired half-a-league away.

What followed next was brutal carnage. One by one, as the Spanish pistols were fired and reloaded again, and bayonets were recharged, Paez´s invincible Bravos de Apure began to cover the narrow path with their wounded and dead bodies. Finally, Paez manages to step into the field, and begins organizing the men that have thus far reached alive this point with him the battlefield, assembling a column ready to charge the enemy. When the royalists are busy re-charging their weapons, General Paez gives the charge order, and one furious avalanche of republican arms engulfs for the first time the overwhelmed enemy, who fires once again killing even more men in the process. Desperate, but with determination and courage, Paez again reorganizes the men he has by his side, far-and-few, but stoically holding his ground. By this time, the first calvary men from the republican side managed to get into the fight, and charge directly at the point-blank range firing infantry of the royalists, from the combined three-enemy regiments; Burgos, Hostalrich and Barbastros.
Bodies everywhere, the ground dyed in red rivers of blood. The Bravos de Apure is in tatters: nothing seems to be able to reverse the terrible expected outcome of this mortal loss. Suddenly, when all hope appears to have vanished, the British Legion ( https://www.geni.com/projects/British-Legions-South-American-Wars-Portal/54226), (the Albion Regiment) enters in the field. Glorious is the demeneaur of these impassive men, who enter in the most absolute calmness and order, and dismounting their horses, knee on the ground, form in-line ready to fire. The fury of the Spanish is indomitable. They fire scorchingly at the English, and all of their fury is directed at them. In the most amazing order, Ferriar gives the command to aim. These heroes, forming now a human-wall protecting what was left of the Apure Regiment, take the brunt of the charges. Many fall before they can even hear Ferriar give the order to FIRE ! … Now, confused and in disorder, the enemy starts to fall back, the infantry seeking refuge in the calvary well at a distance from them (under Morales´s command). The English load their weapons again, and fire a second and a third time… One by one, their Captains fall dead on the battlefield. First Ferriar (mortally wounded), then Davy takes over, he too is succumbed by the rain of bullets, then another Capitan takes his place, and yet another, after the former has surrendered his life gloriously. In the meantime, Paez has managed to reorganize what little is left of his Bravos de Apure Battalion, and to the rescue of these brave anglosaxons, fires-up the dormant war-machine he has under his command. Little it is known, Paez suffered from epilepsy, and many say that he lay in the field all of this time having a feat (just as he did at the battle of Banco Largo, years earlier (1816)), while people above him were taking the fight to hands, having run out of ammunition, and being so close to one another. So it is indeed a miracle that this Achilles should recover just on the turn-of-the-tide and order (what was left of) his Division to charge. Now, the fight is beginning to get even, as General Heras with his Tiradores calvary charges into the heart of the battle, fire, dust, powder and blood drawing an invisible curtain behind which a terrible atmosphere of death weighs heavily upon, like a Damocles´ sword, dangling on the final fate of all of these men. The fight now is to the death, hand-to-hand, bayonet to bayonet, fist upon fist. Young Captain Minchin is now one of the last English men standing, after most of the Albion Battalion has been spent. He takes the standard that Ashdown was carrying, with the British Legion colours, and carries it forward with him. The Spanish are now confused, and in full retreat.

All of this time, impervious to their luck, Morales, Francisco Tomas Morales Guerra has been standing with his calvary, to the north of the field, well away from a stone´s (spears ! ) throw. He has not taken measures to support the Spanish infantry, who are now on the run, and scared as hell.

Charging now with a front of 400 men abreast, two rows deep, Apure, Tiradores and the British Legion advance simultaneously, with their bayonets aimed at the Spanish battalions still making a stand. This charge, which is spectacular, make the whole royalist army step back for the first time in the battle, altering their positions. Still, they fire remorselessly on the re-organized republicans, but at the same time seeking refuge in their calvary.

At the same time this is happening, a group of calvary officers led by Captain Angel Bravo, of the Paez´s lancers, and a squadron under the leadership of Colonel Cornelio Munoz, draw into a deadly fight with the Carabineros of Ferdinand VII, and Dragones of the Union Battalion (H.M.R). Both sides at a stalemate, the fighting is fierce at this moment, as General De La Torre tries to outflank the republican charge on the left of the field. Out comes Colonel Genaro Vazquez, to the rescue, with a group of intrepid horsemen, to reverse this unexpected blow on the republican line. Holding its nose by a thread, the republican army manages to out-maneuver De La Torre´s strategy, and Vazquez´s efforts are rewarded with a partial royalist submission.

II

Suddenly, in the heat of the battle, a horse gallops towards General Paez with what seems a lifeless figure on top of it… It´s Negro Primero Teniente (de Caballeria) (Negro Primero) Pedro (José Eusebio) Camejo, Procer, (Camejo), who rides on top of the wounded animal, with an open gash on his chest. Paez is furious and shouts at Camejo; Are you afraid ?.. Aren´t there any more Spanish (out there) to kill ?.. But Camejo only has enough energy to tell Paez… ¨My General, I´ve come to say good bye, because I am dead ¨. With these words, both horse and man fall dead to the ground.

At this moment, many men who had already been through the passage and had made it to the field, see Paez and run to join him. The Second and Third Divisions were already on their way through this intricate passage to the battleground.

Paez orders the men who have reached him, to charge forward, and the Dragones and Husares Battalions of H.M.R. fall back. With their inevitable defeat after this ferocious attack, the battle is decided in favor of the republicans. It was 12:30 pm, on that bloody June 24th.

On seeing this, Morales, Francisco Tomas Morales Guerra, and his calvary, without unsheathing a sword, turn around their horses and flee towards Valencia, in sheer fright. Legend tells that that night, as he made his way down to Puerto Cabello through Las Trincheras, it began to rain so hard, that he and De La Torre had to take shelter under a giant tree. After 7 years of a ¨terror war¨ on all souls that supported the patriots, well deserved were these lasting moments of anger and frustration (for Morales), and the guilt he must have felt at having been so atrociously cruel to those who opposed him. Just as a button of his cruelty, he had held siege and starved the people of Cartagena in the final months of 1815 (women and children included), and just a few months earlier, he had lashed in public a beautiful lady (Luisa Arrambide Roldan) in Maracaibo and ridden her nude on a horse around the town for people to see her all humiliated, just for her (allegedly) being supportive of the republicans and of Bolivar.

III

Finally, enter Cedeño and Plaza onto the battlefield, after overcoming the immense obstacle of dead and wounded bodies of beasts and men that lay like a wall there, obstructing the entrance.

Thirsty for Glory, knowing fully well that the brunt of the fighting has already taken place, these two men chase ghosts on the killing field.
Both lose their lives, Cedeño, trying to bring to submission the Valencey Battalion, now in full (but ordered) retreat, under a Colonel Jose Garcia (H.M.R.).

And Plaza, by charging directly, trying to subdue single handedly himself, at the Barbastro Battalion (H.M.R.), who quickly brought him down, moments before completely surrendering to the insurgent republicans.

De La Torre sees that the tables have turned, and he now, after watching Hostalrich being thrashed to pieces, and all the bulk of his infantry retreat in absolute horror, at the relentless charges of the republican army, decides to make for the run himself. Silva and Munoz exterminate the remains of the once proud and mighty Burgos Battalion, and what is left of the Infante Battalion is instigated by General Uslar´s calvary, Granaderos Battallion.
General Arthur Sandes, in charge of the Riffles, persecutes the rear-guard of the dispersed enemy infantry, (who were guarding the south gate towards El Pao), and mercilessly probes them with their razor sharp spears.

IV

Bolivar comes down from the hill, Buenavista, from where he has been giving orders and watching the whole battle. He goes straight to where Paez is and on that sacred battlefield bestows upon him the highest of all military honors; the highest rank of the armed forces; General In Chief of All Divisions.

The Final Battle –

Even though Carabobo was a victory for the patriots, the Spanish were far from totally being defeated. The remainder of their forces retreated to Puerto Cabello, (on the central - north - coast of Venezuela), and there they remained for two more years (November 1823), until Paez finally drew them out by surprise.

I will explain a little bit more about this battle later on, because it was a clean move- no lives were lost (almost, perhaps one, by accident), and the Spanish surrendered peacefully and walked away (carrying their weapons and belongings) with honor and guarantees, after a generous capitulation, providing them with safe passage if they offered to leave peacefully (Venezuelan sovereign territory), or if they chose to stay, to become Americans and not hinder furthermore the cause of independence.

Bolivar, by this time was to the south, fighting the final battles for the independence of Peru, Bolivia and very far away from all the trouble that persisted in Venezuela.

V

On this glorious occasion, today June 24th, 2021, I want to dedicate this page to all the students that during 2015 – 2018 tried hard to overthrow this Regime we live under right now. May one day, the soldier that lives in the barracks, (better than most of us starving out here, by the way), who is supposed to watch out for the welfare of the average Venezuelan who opposes this monstrous Communist Regime we Venezuelans live under, realize the great sacrifice these men that gave us our Freedom, made. And try to imagine what THEY would think of them, should they see what Venezuela has become two-hundred ( 200 ) years later, after having made the highest and most glorious of sacrifices AT THE ALTAR of Liberty and Independence.

I am glad the SO CALLED BOLIVARIAN GUARDS chose to call themselves just that, ¨BOLIVARIAN¨, because it clearly draws the line in our HISTORY between THEM and US, of what Venezuela was twenty-two ( 22) years ago, where it was headed, and what WE could and SHOULD have achieved by now, had they not destroyed the very fabric our nation (ITS CITIZENS).

May Justice and Truth always prevail. May all the offenders to our sacred heritage, one day be exposed and heavily reprimanded for their sacrilege and grotesque insult to our GENTILICIO (real identity).