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Israeli Heads of State and State Authorities

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Profiles

  • Yosef Harish (1923 - 2013)
    Yosef Harish יוסף חריש‎ ‎ (15 September 1923 – 6 November 2013) was an Israeli jurist who served as the country's Attorney G...
  • Moshe Ben Zeev (1911 - 1995)
    Moshe Ben-Ze'ev - משה בן זאב ‎, (1911 – 1995) was an Israeli jurist who served as Attorney General between 1963 and 1968. Previou...
  • Yitzhak Tunik (1911 - 1989)
    Yitzhak Tunik State Comptroller and Ombudsman 1982 – 1987 Yitzhak Tunik was born in Russia in 1911 and came on Aliyah to Mandatory Palestine in 1934. He studied law in the School of Law set up...
  • Siegfried Moses (1887 - 1974)
    ויקיפדיה זיגפריד מוזס (1887 - 1974) היה ...

The project lists:

  • The signatories of the Declaration of Independence (מגילת העצמאות);
  • the Presidents of the State of Israel;
  • the heads of the three branches of power in Israel, thus, reflecting the "Separation of Power",
    • the legislative branch - The Knesset (כנסת) (list of the Speakers);
    • the executive branch - The Government (ממשלה) (list of the Prime Ministers);
    • the judiciary branch - represented by the Supreme Court (בית המשפט העליון) (list of the Chief Justices).

Also included are:

  • The Attorney Generals (היועץ המשפטי לממשלה) of Israel
  • The State Comptrollers and Ombudsmen (מבקר המדינה ונציב תלונות הציבור) of Israel

In the photo: Emblem of Israel. The Emblem of the State of Israel (Hebrew: סמל מדינת ישראל) shows a menorah surrounded by an olive branch on each side, and the writing "ישראל" (Hebrew for Israel) below it.

The image used on the emblem is based on a depiction of the menorah on the Arch of Titus (in Rome). The menorah was used in the ancient Temple in Jerusalem and has been a symbol of Judaism since ancient times. It symbolizes universal enlightenment. The emblem may also be based on the vision of the biblical prophet Zechariah, chapter 4, where he describes seeing a menorah flanked by two olive trees, one on each side. The olive branches symbolize peace.

Declaration of Independence

The Israeli Declaration of Independence (Hebrew: הכרזת העצמאות‎, Hakhrazat HaAtzma'ut or Hebrew: מגילת העצמאות‎ Megilat HaAtzma'ut), made on 14 May 1948 (5 Iyar 5708), the day before the British Mandate was due to expire, was the official announcement that the new Jewish state named the State of Israel had been formally established in parts of what was known as the British Mandate of Palestine and on land where, in antiquity, the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah had once been. The scroll, which is bound together in three parts, is generally kept in the country's National Archives, though it is currently on display at the Israel Museum.

List of Signatories of the Declaration of Independence (by the Hebrew alphabet):

Presidents of the State of Israel.

The President of the State of Israel (Hebrew: נשיא המדינה‎, Nasi HaMedina, lit. President of the State; Arabic: رئيس الدولة‎) is the head of state of Israel. The position is largely an apolitical ceremonial figurehead role, with the real executive power lying in the hands of the Prime Minister. Presidents are elected by the Knesset, for a seven year term (from 1993), and are limited to a single term.

Presidents of Israel:

  • 1. Dr. Chaim Weizmann 1949 – 1952 (died in office) דר' חיים ויצמן. Head of the Zionist movement for many years, Weizmann was responsible for obtaining the Balfour Declaration and for founding the Weizmann Institute of Science. From May 17, 1948 until he became President, Weizmann was acting Chairman of the provisional government. Weizmann died in office and was temporarily succeeded by Knesset speaker Yosef Shprinzak.
  • 2. Yitzhak Ben-Tzvi 1952 – 1963 (died in office) יצחק בן-צבי. Mapai politician, pioneer and ideologue Ben-Tzvi was a founder of the Labor Zionist movement. Ben-Tzvi died in office and was temporarily succeeded by Knesset speaker Kaddish Luz.
  • 3. Zalman Shazar 1963 – 1973 זלמן שז"ר. Mapai politician, author and poet Shazar was a veteran leader of the Zionist movement.
  • 4. Prof. Ephraim Katzir 1973 – 1978 פרופ. אפרים קציר . Katzir, a member of the Labor Alignment Party, was a distinguished scientist and helped to found Israel's Defense industries.
  • 5. Yitzhak Navon 1978 – 1983 יצחק נבון . Navon, a member of the Labor Alignment Party, was a distinguished educator.
  • 6. Chaim Herzog 1983 – 1993 חיים הרצוג . Labor Alignment Party candidate Herzog was formerly a prominent military leader and Israeli ambassador to the U.N.
  • 7. Ezer Weizmann 1993 – 2000 עזר ויצמן. Labor Party candidate Weizmann was among the founders of Israel Air Force and was a commander of the IAF. He resigned in the face of accusations of financial misconduct. Knesset speaker Avraham Burg took over as acting president.
  • 8. Moshe Katzav 2000 – 2007 משה קצב. Likud party candidate Katsav was mayor of a small town and a Likud MK. He served as Minister in several Likud led governments (1981-99) and was Deputy Prime Minister of Netanyahu (1996-9). He was dismissed from office in disgrace in 2007 following repeated accusations of sexual misconduct. Knesset Speaker Dalia Izik took over as acting president. Moshe Katzav stood trial and was convicted of two counts of rape on December 30, 2010. Sentenced to 7 yrs in prison.
  • 9. Shimon Peres 2007 – 2014 שמעון פרס. Kadima Party and Labor party candidate Peres has a distinguished record of service for Israel the Labor Party. He played a key role in defense procurement for the new state of Israel, served in various political capacities including Prime Minister, and won the Nobel Peace Prize for the Oslo accords.
  • 10. Reuven Rivlin 2014 – current ראובן ריבלין. Rivlin is an Israeli lawyer and a Likud party politician. A Knesset member and a past government minister of communication. He served as the 14th Speaker of the Knesset.

Prime Minister of the State of Israel.

The Prime Minister of Israel (Hebrew: ראש הממשלה‎, Rosh HaMemshala, lit. Head of the Government; Arabic: رئيس الحكومة‎) is the head of the Israeli government and the most powerful political figure in Israel. The prime minister is the country's chief executive. Following an election, the President nominates a member of the Knesset to become prime minister after consulting with Knesset party leaders. The nominee becomes prime minister after receiving a vote of confidence in the Knesset.

Selections of Photos of Israel Governments - מבחר תמונות של ממשלות ישראל

Prime Ministers of Israel:

Speaker of the Knesset - Israel Parliament.

The Knesset Speaker is elected by the plenum. The Speaker conducts the affairs of the Knesset, represents it externally, preserves its dignity, the decorum of its sittings and the observance of its Rules of Procedure. The Speaker, or one of his deputies, presides over the sittings of the plenum, conducts them, puts resolutions to the vote and determines the results of these votes. In the absence of the President of the State from the country, the Speaker acts in his place. The Speaker and Deputy Speakers together constitute the Knesset Presidium, which approves the tabling of private Members' bills and the urgency of Motions for the Agenda.

Speakers of the Knesset:

The Supreme Court of Israel.

The Supreme Court (Hebrew: בית המשפט העליון‎, Beit HaMishpat HaElyon, Arabic: المحكمة العليا‎) is at the head of the court system in the State of Israel. It is the highest judicial instance. The Supreme Court sits in Jerusalem. The area of its jurisdiction is the entire state. A ruling of the Supreme Court is binding upon every court, other than the Supreme Court itself. This is the principle of binding precedent (stare decisis) in Israel. The Supreme Court is an appellate court, as well as the High Court of Justice. At the present time there are 14 Supreme Court Justices. At the head of the Supreme Court and at the head of the judicial system as a whole stands the President of the Supreme Court. A judge's term ends at 70 years of age, resignation, death, upon appointment to another position that disqualifies him or her, or being removed from office.

Chief Justices of the Supreme Court:

The Attorney General of Israel.

The Attorney General of Israel (היועץ המשפטי לממשלה‎, lit. The Legal Advisor to the Government) stands at the head of the legal system of the executive branch and the head of the public legal establishment, in charge of protecting the rule of law and as such entrusted with protecting the public interest from possible harm by government authorities. It is an independent appointed position which is one of the most important and influential in the Israeli democracy, and a central institution in the framework of the Israeli legal system. Owing to the common law tradition of the domestic legal system, much of the position's duties are not codified in law and have been borne out of precedent and tradition over the years.

The Attorney General has four main duties: Head of the public prosecution system; Representative of the state in all legal proceedings; Chief legal council to the government; Representative of the public interest in any legal matte.

The Attorney Generals:

The State Comptroller and Ombudsman of Israel.

The State Comptroller of Israel (מבקר המדינה‎, مراقب الدولة‎) supervises and reviews the policies and operations of the government of the State of Israel. The incumbent is independent of the government and answers to the Knesset alone. The principal function of the state comptroller is to check on the legality, regularity, efficiency, economy, and ethical conduct of public institutions. By law, the State Comptroller in Israel also functions as Ombudsman ( נציב תלונות הציבור‎) to whom members of the public may send complaints about actions by governmental bodies that have caused them harm.

The State Comptrollers and Ombudsmen:

References: