The project lists the Presidents of the State of Israel and the heads of the three branches of power in Israel. Thus, it reflects the "Separation of Power", and lists the Heads of three branches of power of Israel: The legislative branch - The Knesset (Hebrew: כנסת) (list of the Speakers); The executive branch - The Government (Hebrew: ממשלה) (list of the Prime Ministers); The judiciary branch - represented by the Supreme Court (Hebrew: בית המשפט העליון) (list of the Chief Justices). Also included are the signatories of the Declaration of Independence (Hebrew: הכרזת העצמאות) (list of signatories).
- In the photo: Emblem of Israel. The Emblem of the State of Israel (Hebrew: סמל מדינת ישראל) shows a menorah surrounded by an olive branch on each side, and the writing "ישראל" (Hebrew for Israel) below it.
The image used on the emblem is based on a depiction of the menorah on the Arch of Titus (in Rome). The menorah was used in the ancient Temple in Jerusalem and has been a symbol of Judaism since ancient times. It symbolizes universal enlightenment. The emblem may also be based on the vision of the biblical prophet Zechariah, chapter 4, where he describes seeing a menorah flanked by two olive trees, one on each side. The olive branches symbolize peace.
Presidents of Israel.
The President of the State of Israel (Hebrew: נשיא המדינה, Nasi HaMedina, lit. President of the State; Arabic: رئيس الدولة) is the head of state of Israel. The position is largely an apolitical ceremonial figurehead role, with the real executive power lying in the hands of the Prime Minister. Presidents are elected by the Knesset, for a seven year term (from 1993), and are limited to a single term.
Presidents of Israel:
Head of the Zionist movement for many years, Weizmann was responsible for obtaining the Balfour Declaration and for founding the Weizmann Institute of Science. From May 17, 1948 until he became President, Weizmann was acting Chairman of the provisional government. Weizmann died in office and was temporarily succeeded by Knesset speaker Yosef Shprinzak.
Mapai politician, pioneer and ideologue Ben-Tzvi was a founder of the Labor Zionist movement. Ben-Tzvi died in office and was temporarily succeeded by Knesset speaker Kaddish Luz.
Mapai politician, author and poet Shazar was a veteran leader of the Zionist movement.
Katzir, a member of the Labor Alignment Party, was a distinguished scientist and helped to found Israel's Defense industries.
Navon, a member of the Labor Alignment Party, was a distinguished educator.
Labor Alignment Party candidate Herzog was formerly a prominent military leader and Israeli ambassador to the U.N.
Labor Party candidate Weizmann was among the founders of Israel Air Force and was a commander of the IAF. He resigned in the face of accusations of financial misconduct. Knesset speaker Avraham Burg took over as acting president.
Likud party candidate Katsav was mayor of a small town and a Likud MK. He served as Minister in several Likud led governments (1981-99) and was Deputy Prime Minister of Netanyahu (1996-9). He was dismissed from office in disgrace in 2007 following repeated accusations of sexual misconduct. Knesset Speaker Dalia Izik took over as acting president. Moshe Katzav stood trial and was convicted of two counts of rape on December 30, 2010. Sentenced to 7 yrs in prison.
Kadima Party and Labor party candidate Peres has a distinguished record of service for Israel the Labor Party. He played a key role in defense procurement for the new state of Israel, served in various political capacities including Prime Minister, and won the Nobel Peace Prize for the Oslo accords.
Rivlin is an Israeli lawyer and a Likud party politician. A Knesset member and a past government minister of communication. He served as the 14th Speaker of the Knesset.
Prime Ministers of the State of Israel.
The Prime Minister of Israel (Hebrew: ראש הממשלה, Rosh HaMemshala, lit. Head of the Government; Arabic: رئيس الحكومة) is the head of the Israeli government and the most powerful political figure in Israel. The prime minister is the country's chief executive. Following an election, the President nominates a member of the Knesset to become prime minister after consulting with Knesset party leaders. The nominee becomes prime minister after receiving a vote of confidence in the Knesset.
Prime Ministers of Israel:
- 1. David Ben-Gurion: 1948-1954 - דוד בן-גוריון
- 2. Moshe Sharett: 1954-1955 - משה שרת
- 3. David Ben-Gurion: 1955-1963 - דוד בן-גוריון
- 4. Levi Eshkol: 1963-1969 (died in office) - לוי אשכול
- 5. Golda Meir: 1969-1974 - גולדה מאיר
- 6. Yitzhak Rabin: 1974-1977 - יצחק רבין
- 7. Menachem Begin: 1977-1983 - מנחם בגין
- 8. Yizthak Shamir: 1983-1984 - יצחק שמיר
- 9. Shimon Peres: 1984-1986 - שמעון פרס
- 10. Yitzhak Shamir: 1986-1992 - יצחק שמיר
- 11. Yitzhak Rabin: 1992-1995 (murdered in office) - יצחק רבין
- 12. Shimon Peres: 1995-1996 - שמעון פרס
- 13. Benjamin Netanyahu: 1996-1999 - בנימין נתניהו
- 14. Ehud Barak: 1999-2001 - אהוד ברק
- 15. Ariel Sharon: 2001-2006 - אריאל שרון
- 16. Ehud Olmert: 2006-2009 - אהוד אולמרט
- 17. Benjamin Netanyahu: 2009- current - בנימין נתניהו
Speakers of the Knesset - Israel Parliament.
The Knesset Speaker is elected by the plenum. The Speaker conducts the affairs of the Knesset, represents it externally, preserves its dignity, the decorum of its sittings and the observance of its Rules of Procedure. The Speaker, or one of his deputies, presides over the sittings of the plenum, conducts them, puts resolutions to the vote and determines the results of these votes. In the absence of the President of the State from the country, the Speaker acts in his place. The Speaker and Deputy Speakers together constitute the Knesset Presidium, which approves the tabling of private Members' bills and the urgency of Motions for the Agenda.
Speakers of the Knesset:
- Yosef Shprintzak: 1949-1959 - יוסף שפרינצק
- Nhum Nir: 1959 - נחום ניר
- Kadish Luz: 1959-1969 - קדיש לוז
- Reuven Barkat: 1969-1972 - ראובן ברקת
- Yisrael Yeshayahu-Sharabi: 1972-1977 - ישראל ישעיהו-שרעבי
- Yitzhak Shamir: 1977-1980 - יצחק שמיר
- Yitzhak Berman: 1980-1981 - יצחק ברמן
- Menachem Savidor: 1981-1984 - מנחם סבידור
- Shlomo Hillel: 1984-1988 - שלמה הלל
- Dov Shilansky: 1988-1992 - דב שילנסקי
- Shevah Weiss: 1992-1996 - שבח וייס
- Dan Tichon: 1996-1999 - דן תיכון
- Avraham Burg: 1999-2003 - אברהם בורג
- Reuven Rivlin: 2003-2006 - ראובן ריבלין
- Dalia Itzik: 2006-2009 - דליה איציק
- Reuven Rivlin: 2009-2013 - ראובן ריבלין
- Yuli-Yoel Edelstein: 2013 - Current - יולי יואל אדלשטיין
Chief Justices of the Supreme Court of Israel.
The Supreme Court (Hebrew: בית המשפט העליון, Beit HaMishpat HaElyon, Arabic: المحكمة العليا) is at the head of the court system in the State of Israel. It is the highest judicial instance. The Supreme Court sits in Jerusalem. The area of its jurisdiction is the entire state. A ruling of the Supreme Court is binding upon every court, other than the Supreme Court itself. This is the principle of binding precedent (stare decisis) in Israel. The Supreme Court is an appellate court, as well as the High Court of Justice. At the present time there are 14 Supreme Court Justices. At the head of the Supreme Court and at the head of the judicial system as a whole stands the President of the Supreme Court. A judge's term ends at 70 years of age, resignation, death, upon appointment to another position that disqualifies him or her, or being removed from office.
Chief Justices of the Supreme Court:
- Moshe Smoira: 1948-1954 - משה זמורה b. 1888 Königsberg, Prussia, d. 1961 Jerusalem, Israel.
- Yitzhak, Olshan: 1954-1965 - יצחק אולשן b. 1895 Kovna, Lithuania; d. 1983 Jerusalem, Israel.
- Shimon Agranat: 1965-1976 - שמעון אגרנט b. 1906 Louisville, Kentucky, USA, d. 1992, Jerusalem, Israel.
- Yoel (Julius) Sussman: 1976-1980 - יואל זוסמן b. 1910 Kraków, Poland, d. 1982, Jerusalem, Israel.
- Moshe Landau: 1980-1982 - משה לנדוי b. 1912, Danzig, Prussia (now Poland), d. 2011, Jerusalem, Israel.
- Yitzhak Kahan: 1982-1983 - יצחק כאהן b. 1913 Brody, Galicia, Austria-Hungary (now Ukraine), d. 1985, Jerusalem, Israel.
- Meir Shamgar: 1983-1995 - מאיר שמגר
- Aharon Barak: 1995-2006 - אהרון ברק
- Dorit Beinisch: 2006-2012 - דורית בייניש
- Asher Dan Grunis: 2012- (current) - אשר דן גרוניס
Declaration of Independence
The Israeli Declaration of Independence (Hebrew: הכרזת העצמאות, Hakhrazat HaAtzma'ut or Hebrew: מגילת העצמאות Megilat HaAtzma'ut), made on 14 May 1948 (5 Iyar 5708), the day before the British Mandate was due to expire, was the official announcement that the new Jewish state named the State of Israel had been formally established in parts of what was known as the British Mandate of Palestine and on land where, in antiquity, the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah had once been. The scroll, which is bound together in three parts, is generally kept in the country's National Archives, though it is currently on display at the Israel Museum.
List of Signatories (according to the Hebrew alphabet):
- David Ben Gurion - דוד בן גוריון
- Daniel Auster - דניאל אוסטר
- Mordekhai Bentov - מרדכי בנטוב
- Yitzhak Ben-Zvi - יצחק בן צבי
- Eliyahu Berlin - אליהו ברלין
- Fritz Bernstein - פריץ (פרץ) ברנשטיין
- Rabbi Wolf Gold - הרב זאב וולף גולד
- Meir Grabovsly - (מאיר גרבובסקי (ארגוב
- Yitzhak Gruenbaum - יצחק גרינבוים
- Dr. Avraham Granovski - (ד"ר אברהם גרנובסקי (גרנות
- Eliyahu Dobkin - אליהו דובקין
- Meir Wilner-Kobner - מאיר וילנר
- Zerach Warhaftig - זרח ורהפטיג
- Herzl Vardi - הרצל ורדי
- Rachel Cohen - רחל כהן
- Rabbi Kalman Kahana - הרב ד"ר קלמן כהנא
- Saadia Kobashi - סעדיה כובאשי
- Rabbi Yitzhak Meir Levin - הרב יצחק מאיר לוין
- Meir David Lewenstein - מאיר דוד לוינשטיין
- Zvi Luria - צבי לוריא
- Golda Myerson - גולדה מאירסון
- Nachum Nir - נחום ניר
- Zvi Segal - צבי סגל
- Rabbi Yehuda Leib HaCohen Fishman - הרב יהודה לייב הכהן מימון
- David Zvi Pinkas - דוד צבי פנקס
- Aharon Zisling - אהרון ציזלינג
- Moshe Kolodny-Kol - משה קולודני קול
- Eliezer Kaplan - אליעזר קפלן
- Avraham Katznelson - אברהם קצנלסון
- Pinhas Rosen (Felix Rosenblueth) - פנחס רוזן - פליקס רוזנבליט
- David Remez - דוד רמז
- Berl Repetur (Beryl Raptor) - ברל רפטור
- Mordechai Shattner - מרדכי שטנר
- Ben Zion Sternberg - בן-ציון שטרנברג
- Bechor Shitreet - בכור שיטרית
- Moshe Shapira - משה שפירא
- Moshe Shertok - משה שרתוק
- President of Israel - נשיא מדינת ישראל
- Presidents of the State of Israel - 1 - נשיאי מדינת ישראל
- Presidents of the State of Israel - 2 - נשיאי מדינת ישראל
- Prime Minister of Israel - ראש ממשלת ישראל
- Prime Ministers of the Governments of Israel - ראשי ממשלות ישראל
- Speaker of the Knesset - יושב ראש הכנסת
- Speakers of the Kneset - יושבי ראש הכנסת
- Supreme Court of Israel - בית המשפט העליון בישראל
- Chief Justices of the Supreme Court of Israel - נשיאי בית המשפט העליון בישראל
- The Signatories of the Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel - חותמי מגילת העצמאות