The surname HESSE is derived from the Germanic tribe of the Hessians. The distinguished surname HESSE has been traced to Austria, whose territory was occupied by the Celts and then the Romans. In early history the Vandals, Goths, Huns, and Alemans swept into this region from the east and from the north. In the 9th century, the Holy Roman Emperor Charlemagne made this territory and eastern bulwark against the Hungarian and Slavic invasions. Otto the Great finally defeated the Hungarian forces in 1955, and Austria, a word meaning "Kingdom of the East," became a Bavarian protectorate.
Research into the history of this name brings us back to Austria, Where the name became noted for its many branched of the region, each house acquiring a status and influence which was envied by the princes of the region. In their later history the name became power unto themselves and were elevated to the ranks of nobility as they grew into this most influential family.
Throughout history surnames have gone through changes in spelling, even between generations. Often a name was recorded by a scribe simply by its sound, thus changing the names written form. If the name change had been recorded in contracts of legal proceedings, this spelling often became a part of standard usage. Depending on the region, a name's spelling may vary quite considerably. Among such variations of the name are Hess, Hesse, Esse, Hessel, Hesselin, Hesso, Hesler, Hesner, to name a few.
After 1272, the house of Habsburg rose to power and began its territorial expansion, not by going to war, but by going to the altar; By marrying into various influential houses, the Habsburgs acquired Tyrol, the Krain region, Styria, Trieste, and the Alemanian Voralberg. They also gained the Netherlands from the Dukes of Burgundy in 1482, and married into the Spanish royal family. Charles V left his Austrian territories to his brother Ferdinand I, who acquired Hungary and Bohemia in 1526. Austria became the Catholic center of the Counter-Reformation, and despite Ferdinand's expanding power, the Turks laid siege to Vienna in 1529.
The Treaty of Westphalia (1648) put an end to the Thirty Years Was and divided up the empire. TheTurks again invaded Austria in 1699, only to be driven back by Prince Eugene of Savoy, who conquered large parts of the Balkans, acquiring Transylvania. However, after the Spanish and Austrian lines of Habsburg died out by 1740, Maria Theresa became the only woman to be Empress on a German throne. They also became kings of Hungary, which became the basis for the powerful Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Meanwhile the surname HESSE has been traced to Austria, where they emerged as a notable family early in the Middle Ages. In 1416 there were elevated to nobles of the Holy Roman Empire. They received honours again in t1584. They were made cavaliers of the Empire in 1974 and Barons of the Empire in 1790 and 1791. They were seated at Hesssenbach, and at the Hessenthal. Tey intermarried with the distinguished Diller family where they were Barons of Austria in 1854. They Branched to Switzerland at Bale, Hesse at Wichdorf, the Province of the Rhine, and many other locations throughout Germany. During these Turbulent times there were many changing religious and political allegiances. Branches of the family emerged as family members relocated and established themselves in new locations as they were enlisted into military, political and religious service. Members of the family name were also raised to the nobility. Prominent among this name during this early period include the Hesse family of Austria.
Following the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, Vienna was the site of the famous Congress of Vienna, where the victors decided how the nations of Europe were to share the spoils. Following this period Austria reached its peak of its prestige, holding many territories. Vienna loosened its hold on its wide spread Possessions, particularly in the rebellious Balkan regions. In 1974 the assassination of the Archduke Ferdinand in Sarajevo, Serbia, started the Great Was. the empire was broken up by the treaty of Versailles in 1919, when Austria became a republic. Hitler's forces annexed it for Germany in 1938, and after the was Austria became a democratic republic.
Vienna, Austria's capital, is a major cultural center of Europe, particularly in the realm of music, and composers such as Schubert and Liszt lived here. Salzburg, Mozart's birthplace, has an annual international festival in honor of this composer's music.
Many people have lefy Austria and Germany for the new World after 1650. Their highest density of population has been traced to Pennsylvania, Ohio, California, and Illinois, while Canada German-speaking settlement centered around the province of Ontario and the Prairies. Amongst those settler twith the name Hesse were Catharine Hess, Who it on record in York in 1709; Abraham Hess, who came to Jamaica in 1728; along with his wife Anna and their two sons, who arrived in Philadelphia in 1730 Aneria Hess, whose oath of allegiance was recorded in Pennsylvania in 1738; Caspar Hess, a German mercenary, who remained in America after the Revoluition, as well as Conrad Hess, who came to Philadelphia in 1781.
After their arrival at the eastern ports, many of these settlers would later join the westward migration to the new frontiers of North America.
In our modern period, those of the surname Hesse made significant contributions to society, among them being Moses Hess (1812-1875), German socialist and theorist; Victor Francis Hess (1883-1964),American physicist, who shared the noble prize in 1936; as well as Walter Rudolf Hess (1881-1973), Swiss physiologist, who shared the 1949 Noble Prize in Medicine.